Changing the Game: Title IX, Gender, and College Athletics

Changing the Game: Title IX, Gender, and College Athletics

Changing the Game: Title IX, Gender, and College Athletics

Changing the Game: Title IX, Gender, and College Athletics


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Changing the Game is set at a fictional university in the mid-1990s. A debate over the role of athletics quickly expands to encompass demands that women's sports and athletes receive more resources and opportunities. The result is a firestorm of controversy on and off campus. Drawing on congressional testimonies from the Title IX hearings, players advance their views in student government meetings, talk radio shows, town meetings, and impromptu rallies. As students wrestle with questions of gender parity and the place of athletics in higher education, they learn about the implementation—and implications—of legal change in the United States.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781469672311
Publisher: The University of North Carolina Press
Publication date: 07/01/2022
Series: Reacting to the PastT
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: eBook
Pages: 180
Sales rank: 640,807
File size: 4 MB

About the Author

Kelly McFall is professor of history at Newman University. Abigail Perkiss is associate professor of history at Kean University.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Introduction 2

Brief Overview of the Game 3

Prologue 4

How to React 7

Game Setup 7

Game Play 8

Game Requirements 9

Skill Development 10

Part 2 Historical Background 12

Chronology 13

Sports, Gender, and Equality: The Origins of Title IX 14

The Emergence of Modern Sports in Europe 15

The Development of Sports in the United States 16

Regulation and the NCAA 18

The Fight for Inclusion 21

The Passage of Title IX 23

Implementing Title IX: A Fight for Control 24

Distributive Justice: Toward a Theory of Compliance 25

How Does a University Work? 28

Budgets and Fund-Raising 29

University Athletics 30

The Role of Faculty 32

Part 3 The Game 34

Major Issues for Debate and Learning Objectives 35

Rules and Procedures 38

Objectives and Victory Conditions 38

The Setting: What Do We Know about UNEU? 39

Game Play 41

Other Locations for Action: The Bar, the Quad, and the Kiosk 42

Demonstrations and Other Kinds of Protests 44

Personal Influence Points (PIPs) 45

The University Budget and How It Constrains Your Choices 49

Reporters and Newspapers 51

Basic Outline of the Game 51

Outline of Assignments and Duties 58

Written Assignments 58

Class Participation 58

Outside Research 58

Counterfactuals 59

Part 4 Factions and Independents 60

Part 5 Core Texts 66

U.S. Congress, Title IX, 1972 67

Office of Civil Rights, Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test, 1996 67

All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, Rules of Conduct, 1943-1954 78

Heather Ross Miller, Half-Court Basketball: Power and Sex, 1992 80

Betty Friedan, National Organization for Women's Statement of Purpose, 1966 86

Bil Gilbert and Nancy Williamson, Sport Is Unfair to Women, 1973 91

Brenda Feigen, Give Women a Sporting Chance, 1973 105

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics, 1979 111

R. Vivian Acosta and Linda Carpenter, Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study: Thirty-Seven Year Update, 2014 113

Jessica Gavora, How Women Beat Men at College Sports, 1995 119

U.S. Congress, Hearing on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 122


Appendix A Fact Sheet: UNEU and Newtown, Massachusetts 159

Appendix B Abbreviations 161

Selected Bibliography 163

Notes 165

Credits 169

Acknowledgments 170

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