Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth / Edition 9

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Overview

Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth, Seventh Edition, focuses on clear descriptions of emotional and behavioral disorders and interpretation of research on the factors implicated in their development.

Features of the seventh edition:

  • Integrates child development literature and shows its relevance to children with disorders.
  • Addresses how emotional and behavioral development can be influenced for the better by educators.
  • Discusses the 1997 Amendments to IDEA, and provides information regarding functional behavioral assessments and IEPs.
  • New: in each chapter on a specific type of disorder, an actual interview with the student has been added, to help bring the student to life for the reader.
  • Covers behavior predictors of school success & failure, brain damage or dysfunction, biological factors.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A textbook for an introductory course in special education, and also usable in courses on the characteristics of mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students in cross-categorical special education. Combines the current understanding of development processes with suggestions on how teachers can influence children's behavior for the better. Weighted toward empirical data rather than humanist ideology. The 1993 edition was published by Macmillan; earlier editions back to 1977 were published by Merrill as . Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132275149
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 4/7/2008
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 7.80 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book, like its earlier editions, serves primarily as an introductory text in special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (those called "emotionally disturbed' in federal regulations). Because emotional and behavioral disorders are commonly observed in children and youth in all special education categories, the book will also be of value in courses dealing with the characteristics of mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students in cross-categorical special education. Students in school psychology, educational psychology, or abnormal child psychology may also find the book useful.

Several comments are necessary to clarify my intent in writing this book. First, developmental processes have been an important concern of mine in trying to understand the problem of emotional and behavioral disorders. I have tried to integrate the most relevant parts of the vast and scattered literature on child development and show their relevance to understanding the children and youth who have these disorders. In struggling with this task, I have attempted not only to summarize what is known about why disorders occur but also to suggest how emotional and behavioral development can be influenced for the better, particularly by educators. Second, in concentrating primarily on research and theory grounded in reliable empirical data, I have revealed my bias toward social learning principles. I believe that when we examine the literature with a willingness to be swayed by empirical evidence rather than devoting ourselves to humanistic ideology alone, then a social learning bias is understandable. Third, this bookis not, by any stretch of the imagination, a comprehensive treatment of the subject. An introductory book must leave much unsaid and many loose ends that need tying. Unquestionably, the easiest thing about writing this book was to let it fall short of saying everything, with the hope that readers will pursue the information in the works cited in the references.

I have tried to address the interests and concerns of teachers and of students preparing to become teachers. Consequently, I have described many interventions, particularly in the chapters in Part 4. However, I emphasize that the descriptions are cursory; this text does not provide the details of educational methods and behavioral interventions that are necessary for competent implementation by teachers. This is not a methods or how-to-do-it book.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Users of previous editions will notice significant updates and revisions in the seventh edition. I have updated citations and information on many topics, although I have retained many citations of earlier research because newer findings have not refuted them. Preface

As the seventh edition went to press, the newest version of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was IDEA 1997. This version is embedded in all discussions having to do with special education law. Thus, I have added information regarding functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral intervention plans. The IEPs included in Chapter 6 are examples taken from a book written with IDEA 1997 as a reference. Because I have offered more complete information on IEPs in Chapter 6, I have deleted the IEP excerpts formerly included in Chapters 11 through 17.

Many of the "Personal Reflections" in Part 4, "Facets of Disordered Behavior," are new, as are several in other sections of the book. In addition, I have added a new feature in each chapter in Part 4: an interview with the student about whom the teacher has written. These interviews bring the students to life in a way that is not possible through mere description. The names of the students in these interviews are fictitious, but the questions and responses are not. I have deleted the brief case studies and IEP excerpts in Chapters 11 through 17 of the previous edition to make way for the interviews, which I think readers will find more interesting and useful. The deleted case studies are now found in the instructor's manual.

Readers may also note that Chapter 14 was revised by Frederick J. Brigham. In 1999 Rick and I were appointed co-editors of Behavioral Disorders, the journal of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. He is a trusted friend and colleague with experience as a teacher of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders as well as a special education administrator.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The organization of this book differs noticeably from that of most other texts. The emphasis is on clear description of emotional and behavioral disorders and interpretation of research on the factors implicated in their development. Unlike other texts in this discipline, this book is not organized around theoretical models or psychiatric classifications but around basic concepts: the nature, extent, and history of the problem and conceptual approaches to it; assessment of the problem; major causal factors; the many facets of disordered emotions and behavior; and a personal statement about teaching pupils with these disorders. I hope this organization encourages students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers.

Part 1 introduces major concepts and historical antecedents of contemporary special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 1 begins with a series of vignettes to orient the reader to disorders and the ways in which they disturb others. The vignettes are followed by discussion of the problems in defining these disorders, especially for educational purposes. In Chapter 2, prevalence is discussed from a conceptual, problem-solving perspective rather than as an exercise in remembering facts and figures. Chapter 3 traces the development of the field—how it grew out of the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, and public education—and summarizes major current trends. Chapter 4 abstracts the major conceptual models that guide thinking about educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders and provides a sketch of the conceptual model underlying the orientation of the book.

Part 2 deals with procedures and problems in assessing emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 5 reviews not only the problems in screening student populations but also the difficulties encountered in classifying disorders. Chapter 6 takes up evaluation for eligibility and intervention, with attention to social validation and the IEP.

Part 3 examines the origins of disordered behavior, with attention to the implications of causal factors for special educators. Chapter 7 discusses biological factors, Chapter 8 the role of the family, Chapter 9 the influence of the school, and Chapter 10 cultural factors. Each chapter integrates current research findings that may help us understand why children and youth acquire emotional or behavioral disorders and what preventive actions might be taken.

Types of disorders are discussed in Part 4. The chapters are organized around major behavioral dimensions derived from factor analyses of behavioral ratings by teachers and parents. Although no categorical scheme produces unambiguous groupings of all disorders, the chapters are devoted to the behavioral dimensions emerging most consistently from empirical research. Each chapter emphasizes issues germane to special education, including definition, assessment, and intervention.

Part 5 contains only one chapter—my interpretation and application of all of the preceding material to teaching practices. This is a personal statement intended only to suggest some basic assumptions about teaching pupils who exhibit seriously troublesome behavior.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Any shortcomings of this book are my responsibility alone, but its worth has been enhanced substantially by others who have assisted me in a variety of ways. I thank the reviewers of the sixth edition, who offered advance suggestions for the seventh edition. The perceptive suggestions of Lisa Bloom, Western Carolina University; Marion S. Boss, the University of Toledo; Elizabeth Heins, Stetson University; Michael Kallan, Fort Hays State University; and Martha J. Meyer, Butler University, resulted in substantial improvements in my work. Many other users of the book, both students and instructors, have given me helpful feedback over the years; and I encourage those who are willing to share their comments on the book to write or call me with their suggestions. I am also grateful to the contributors of the "Personal Reflections" features for their willingness to share their knowledge and views on important questions. Kristin Lundgren helped me search and compile the current literature. Finally, I offer special thanks to Teresa Zutter for supplying several of the case studies at the ends of chapters and to Frederick J. Brigham, JeanneMarie Bantz, Jennifer Jakubecy, Patricia M. Crawford, and Michele M. Brigham for preparing the instructor's manual.

J. M. K.
Charlottesville, VA

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Table of Contents

PART 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS HISTORY

Chapter 1 Definition and Prevalence: The Nature and Extent of the Problem

Terminology

Developmental Norms Versus Sociocultural Expectations

Behavior Shaped By Its Social Context (Ecology)

Types of Disorders and Causes

Problems of Definition

Perspective in Definition

Prevalence

The Meaning of Prevalence and Incidence

Prevalence and Incidince Estimates: Why Should We Care?

Problems of Estimation

Reasonable Estimates of Prevalence

Trends in Prevalence Estimates and Percentage of Students Served by Special Education

Factors Affecting Prevalence and Placement for Services

Prevalence and Incidence of Specific Disorders

Chapter 2 The History of the Problem: Development of the Field and Current Issues

A Brief History of the Field

Current Issues

Legal Developments and Issues

Chapter 3 Conceptual Models: Approaches to the Problem

Traditional Exposition of Conceptual Models

Comparing and Choosing Models

Developing an Integrated Model: A Social-Cognitive Approach

Structures for Discussion

PART 2 ASSESSMENT

Chapter 4 Screening, Eligibility, and Classification

General Rules for Evaluation for Special Education

Evaluation for Eligibility

General Criteria for Acceptable Assessments

Screening

Prereferral Strategies and Response to Intervention

Classification

Necessity of Classification

Chapter 5 Evaluation for Instruction

Evaluation for Instruction and Other Interventions

Manifestation Determination

Functional Behavioral Assessment

Adaptations for Inclusion in General Education Assessments

Evaluation and Social Validation

Use of Evaluation Data in Writing Individualized Education Programs

PART 3 CAUSAL FACTORS

Chapter 6 Biological Factors

Appeal of Biological Factors as Causal Explanations

Genetics

Brain Damage or Dysfunction

Malnutrition, Allergies, and Other Health-Related Issues

Temperament

Implications for Educators

Chapter 7 Family Factors

Appeal of Family Factors as Causal Explanations

Family Definition and Structure

Family Interaction

Family Influences on School Success and Failure

External Pressures Affecting Families

Implications for Educators

Chapter 8 School Factors

Appeal of School Factors as Causal Explanations

Academic Achievement

Social Skills

Intelligence, Achievement, and Antisocial Behavior

School's Contribution to Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Implications for Educators

Chapter 9 Cultural Factors

Appeal of Cultural Factors as Causal Explanations

Conflicting Cultural Values and Standards

Multicultural Perspective

Problems in Evaluating the Effects of Cultural Factors

Implications for Educators

A Final Note on Causal Factors

PART 4 FACETS OF DISORDERED BEHAVIOR

Chapter 10 Attention and Activity Disorders

Definition and Prevalence

Causal Factors and Prevention

Assessment

Intervention and Education

Perspective on Intervention

Chapter 11 Conduct Disorder: Overt and Covert Aggression

Definition, Prevalence, and Classification

Aggression and Violence in Social Context

Causal Factors

Assessment

Intervention and Education

The Acting-OPut Behavior Cycle and Precorrection

Interventions Specific to Covert Antisocial Behavior

Chapter 12 Problem Behaviors of Adolescence: Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Early Sexual Activity

Problem Behaviors in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

Juvenile Delinquency

Substance Abuse

Early Sexual Activity and Teen Parenthood

Chapter 13 Anxiety and Related Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Eating Disorders

Elimination Disorders

Sexual Problems

Social Isolation and Ineptitude

Chapter 14 Depression and Suicidal Behavior

Depression

Suicidal Behavior

Chapter 15 Schizophrenia and Other Severe Disorders

Schizophrenia

Socialization Problems

Communication Disorders

Stereotypy (Abnormal Repetitive Movement)

PART 5 IMPLICATIONS: A BEGINNING POINT FOR INSTRUCTION

Chapter 16 A Personal Statement

Setting Expectations

Understanding Causal Factors and the Role of the Teacher

Defining and Measuring Behavior

Helping Students Experience Work, Play, Love, and Fun

Communicating Directly and Honestly

Modeling and Teaching Self-Control

Respecting and Valuing Cultural Differences

Refocusing on the Business of Education: Instruction

Thinking About Real People

Remembering the Past When Thinking About the Future

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Preface

PREFACE

This book, like its earlier editions, serves primarily as an introductory text in special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (those called "emotionally disturbed' in federal regulations). Because emotional and behavioral disorders are commonly observed in children and youth in all special education categories, the book will also be of value in courses dealing with the characteristics of mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students in cross-categorical special education. Students in school psychology, educational psychology, or abnormal child psychology may also find the book useful.

Several comments are necessary to clarify my intent in writing this book. First, developmental processes have been an important concern of mine in trying to understand the problem of emotional and behavioral disorders. I have tried to integrate the most relevant parts of the vast and scattered literature on child development and show their relevance to understanding the children and youth who have these disorders. In struggling with this task, I have attempted not only to summarize what is known about why disorders occur but also to suggest how emotional and behavioral development can be influenced for the better, particularly by educators. Second, in concentrating primarily on research and theory grounded in reliable empirical data, I have revealed my bias toward social learning principles. I believe that when we examine the literature with a willingness to be swayed by empirical evidence rather than devoting ourselves to humanistic ideology alone, then a social learning bias is understandable. Third, this book is not,by any stretch of the imagination, a comprehensive treatment of the subject. An introductory book must leave much unsaid and many loose ends that need tying. Unquestionably, the easiest thing about writing this book was to let it fall short of saying everything, with the hope that readers will pursue the information in the works cited in the references.

I have tried to address the interests and concerns of teachers and of students preparing to become teachers. Consequently, I have described many interventions, particularly in the chapters in Part 4. However, I emphasize that the descriptions are cursory; this text does not provide the details of educational methods and behavioral interventions that are necessary for competent implementation by teachers. This is not a methods or how-to-do-it book.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Users of previous editions will notice significant updates and revisions in the seventh edition. I have updated citations and information on many topics, although I have retained many citations of earlier research because newer findings have not refuted them. Preface

As the seventh edition went to press, the newest version of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was IDEA 1997. This version is embedded in all discussions having to do with special education law. Thus, I have added information regarding functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral intervention plans. The IEPs included in Chapter 6 are examples taken from a book written with IDEA 1997 as a reference. Because I have offered more complete information on IEPs in Chapter 6, I have deleted the IEP excerpts formerly included in Chapters 11 through 17.

Many of the "Personal Reflections" in Part 4, "Facets of Disordered Behavior," are new, as are several in other sections of the book. In addition, I have added a new feature in each chapter in Part 4: an interview with the student about whom the teacher has written. These interviews bring the students to life in a way that is not possible through mere description. The names of the students in these interviews are fictitious, but the questions and responses are not. I have deleted the brief case studies and IEP excerpts in Chapters 11 through 17 of the previous edition to make way for the interviews, which I think readers will find more interesting and useful. The deleted case studies are now found in the instructor's manual.

Readers may also note that Chapter 14 was revised by Frederick J. Brigham. In 1999 Rick and I were appointed co-editors of Behavioral Disorders, the journal of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. He is a trusted friend and colleague with experience as a teacher of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders as well as a special education administrator.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

The organization of this book differs noticeably from that of most other texts. The emphasis is on clear description of emotional and behavioral disorders and interpretation of research on the factors implicated in their development. Unlike other texts in this discipline, this book is not organized around theoretical models or psychiatric classifications but around basic concepts: the nature, extent, and history of the problem and conceptual approaches to it; assessment of the problem; major causal factors; the many facets of disordered emotions and behavior; and a personal statement about teaching pupils with these disorders. I hope this organization encourages students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers.

Part 1 introduces major concepts and historical antecedents of contemporary special education for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 1 begins with a series of vignettes to orient the reader to disorders and the ways in which they disturb others. The vignettes are followed by discussion of the problems in defining these disorders, especially for educational purposes. In Chapter 2, prevalence is discussed from a conceptual, problem-solving perspective rather than as an exercise in remembering facts and figures. Chapter 3 traces the development of the field—how it grew out of the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, and public education—and summarizes major current trends. Chapter 4 abstracts the major conceptual models that guide thinking about educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders and provides a sketch of the conceptual model underlying the orientation of the book.

Part 2 deals with procedures and problems in assessing emotional and behavioral disorders. Chapter 5 reviews not only the problems in screening student populations but also the difficulties encountered in classifying disorders. Chapter 6 takes up evaluation for eligibility and intervention, with attention to social validation and the IEP.

Part 3 examines the origins of disordered behavior, with attention to the implications of causal factors for special educators. Chapter 7 discusses biological factors, Chapter 8 the role of the family, Chapter 9 the influence of the school, and Chapter 10 cultural factors. Each chapter integrates current research findings that may help us understand why children and youth acquire emotional or behavioral disorders and what preventive actions might be taken.

Types of disorders are discussed in Part 4. The chapters are organized around major behavioral dimensions derived from factor analyses of behavioral ratings by teachers and parents. Although no categorical scheme produces unambiguous groupings of all disorders, the chapters are devoted to the behavioral dimensions emerging most consistently from empirical research. Each chapter emphasizes issues germane to special education, including definition, assessment, and intervention.

Part 5 contains only one chapter—my interpretation and application of all of the preceding material to teaching practices. This is a personal statement intended only to suggest some basic assumptions about teaching pupils who exhibit seriously troublesome behavior.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Any shortcomings of this book are my responsibility alone, but its worth has been enhanced substantially by others who have assisted me in a variety of ways. I thank the reviewers of the sixth edition, who offered advance suggestions for the seventh edition. The perceptive suggestions of Lisa Bloom, Western Carolina University; Marion S. Boss, the University of Toledo; Elizabeth Heins, Stetson University; Michael Kallan, Fort Hays State University; and Martha J. Meyer, Butler University, resulted in substantial improvements in my work. Many other users of the book, both students and instructors, have given me helpful feedback over the years; and I encourage those who are willing to share their comments on the book to write or call me with their suggestions. I am also grateful to the contributors of the "Personal Reflections" features for their willingness to share their knowledge and views on important questions. Kristin Lundgren helped me search and compile the current literature. Finally, I offer special thanks to Teresa Zutter for supplying several of the case studies at the ends of chapters and to Frederick J. Brigham, JeanneMarie Bantz, Jennifer Jakubecy, Patricia M. Crawford, and Michele M. Brigham for preparing the instructor's manual.

J. M. K.
Charlottesville, VA

Read More Show Less

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