Characterization of Composite Materials

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Characterization of Composite Materials covers modern surface analytical techniques applied specifically to composite materials. Centering on spectroscopic characterization of composites and polymer-matrix composites, this book covers techniques established as useful for composite studies along with promising new techniques such as STM/AFM and special Raman spectroscopy. Each chapter will cover a specific technique and will provide basic background information, theories of the technique, and application examples, including futuristic state-of-the-art applications.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781606501917
  • Publisher: Momentum Press
  • Publication date: 12/1/2009
  • Pages: 277
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series x

Preface to Series xi

Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Composite Materials xii

Preface xiii

Acronyms xiv

Contributors xv

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Fundamental Principles: XPS and ESCA 2

1.3 Applications of XPS/ESCA to Composites 9

Fibers 10

Polymer Matrix Materials 13

Composites 14

Failure Modes 19

1.4 Summary 23

Raman Spectroscopy

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Normal Raman Scattering 27

2.3 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering 28

2.4 Polymer-Metal Composites 29

Adsorption of Polymer to Metal 29

Adhesive-Adherent Interactions 33

2.5 Polymer-Polymer Composites 38

Polymer-Polymer Interdiffusion 38

Surface Segregation in Polymer Blends 39

2.6 Fiber-Polymer Composites 39

Stress Transfer at Interfaces 39

Surface Structure of Carbon Materials 41

2.7 Summary 41

NMR Imaging of Composites

3.1 Introduction 44

Basis of NMR Imaging 45

Relaxation Parameters in NMR Imaging 46

Pulse Sequences for Generating Contrast in Imaging 47

Resolution in NMR Imaging 48

Utility of NMRI 49

Image Processing 49

3.2 Advanced Imaging Techniques 50

Chemical Shift Imaging 50

3.3 NMRI of Solids 52

Design Limitations of High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Composites 52

Interfacial Bond Quality and Defect Characteristics of Composites 53

NMR Imaging as a Composite Inspection Technique: Detection of Internal Voids 54

Detection of Nonuniform Dispersion of Filler 55

Aging of Composites 56

MRI as an Environmental Monitoring Technique 58

Adsorption of Liquids in Polymers 58

1H Imaging of Solids 58

13C Imaging of Solids 60

3.4 Conclusions 61

NMR Studies of Isotope-Enriched Species at Interfaces

4.1 Introduction 64

4.2 Practical NMR Considerations 65

4.3 Surface Modifiers 67

4.4 Conclusions 77

Inverse Gas Chromatography

5.1 Introduction 80

5.2 Characterizing Solid Surfaces 81

5.3 Inverse Gas Chromatography 81

IGC Versus Traditional Adsorption Methods 82

The Gas Chromatographic Adsorption Process 83

Chromatographic Peaks and the Adsorption Isotherm 85

Experimental Equipment 87

5.4 Applications of IGC 89

Infinite Dilution IGC on Studies on Cellulose Materials 89

Adsorption Isotherm Studies on Cellulose Materials 90

Acid-Base Surface Properties of Materials 93

Thermodynamic Interaction Parameters for Polymer-Polymer and Polymer-Solute Systems 95

Presence of Contaminants on Fiber Surfaces 97

Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures using IGC 98

5.5 Future Applications 99

Site Energy Distributions on Heterogeneous Solid Surfaces 99

Characterizing Organic Adsorbates on Particulate Surfaces 100

In Situ Column Reaction Studies 101

Dielectric Spectroscopy

6.1 Dielectric Spectroscopy of Composite Media 105

Dielectric Relaxation in Solids 105

Dielectric Properties of Heterogeneous Media 111

6.2 Dielectric Spectra of Composites: Examples 115

Nonpolymeric Composites 115

Polymeric Composites 117

6.3 Conclusion 123

Imaging and Characterization of Materials by the new Scanning Probe Techniques (STM/AFM)

7.1 Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) 129

7.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 131

Introduction 131

Spectroscopy 134

7.3 Atomic Force Microscopy 136

Introduction 136

Dynamic Force Microscopy 138

7.4 Surface Modifications with STM/AFM 139

7.5 Related Scanning Techniques 140

Related Tunneling Techniques 140

Related Nontunneling Techniques 143

7.6 Applications to Polymer Composite Materials 143

7.7 The Future of SPM 144

Elastic and Viscoelastic Behavior of Composites

8.1 Viscoelastic Properties 148

8.2 Isotropic Multiphase Materials 152

8.3 Nonisotropic Multiphase Materials 173

8.4 Summary 178

Infrared Spectroscopy for Composites

9.1 Introduction 184

Introduction to Spectroscopy 184

Spectrometers 186

9.2 Transmission Spectroscopy 193

Introduction 193

Lambert-Beer's Law 193

Another Derivation of Lambert-Beer's Law 195

Reference Spectrum 196

Spectral Subtraction 197

Application Example 197

9.3 Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (ATR) 201

Total Reflection 201

Attenuated Total Reflection 202

Penetration Depth 205

Depth Profiles 208

Geometry of IRE 214

Application Example 214

9.4 Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (RAS) 217

Introduction 217

TO Modes, LO Modes, and Surface Modes 217

Reflection and Absorption at Two Interfaces 220

Polarization Modulation RAS 222

Application Example 224

9.5 Grazing Angle Metal Overlayer ATR Spectroscopy 227

Introduction 227

Application Example 229

9.6 Reflection Spectroscopy 231

Introduction 231

External Reflection 231

Normal Incidence Specular Reflection 232

9.7 Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) 235

Introduction 235

Diffuse Reflectance 236

DRIFT Attachment 236

Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum 236

Kubelka-Munk Theory 237

Problems 239

Solutions to the Problems 239

General Flow to Perform DRIFT 239

Application Example 241

9.8 Emission Spectroscopy 242

Introduction 242

Blackbody 243

Data Analysis 243

Quantification 244

Application Example 245

9.9 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) 246

Introduction 246

Modulation Frequency 248

Heat Transfer 249

Optical Absorption Length and Thermal Diffusion Length 249

Depth Profiles 250

Quantification 251

Application Example 252

9.10 Infrared Microspectroscopy 254

Introduction 254

Spatial Resolution 255

Reflection Mode 257

Mapping 258

Application Example 258

9.11 Appendix 258

Relationship between Optical Constants and Dielectric Constants 258

Spectral Simulation 261

Anisotropic Sample 261

About the Complex Representation 264

Symbols 265

Index 273

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