Charitable Knowledge: Hospital Pupils and Practitioners in Eighteenth-Century London / Edition 1

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Overview

Charitable Knowledge explores the interconnections between medical teaching, medical knowledge and medical authority in eighteenth-century London. The metropolis lacked a university until the nineteenth century, so the seven major voluntary hospitals were crucial sites for educating surgeons and visiting physicians. Lawrence explains how charity patients became teaching objects, and how hospitals became medical schools. She demonstrates that hospital practitioners gradually gained authority within an emerging medical community, transforming the old tripartite structure into a loosely unified group of de facto general practitioners dominated by hospital men.

The book contains no figures.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Robert L. Martensen, MD, PhD (University of Kansas Medical Center)
Description: Based on extensive research of hospital and medical society records in 18th century London, Susan Lawrence explains how charity patients became teaching objects and how hospitals became de facto medical schools. She demonstrates that hospital practitioners gradually gained authority through their clinical teaching, research, and social status in London's urban medical culture, thereby transforming the old tripartite division of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries into a loosely unified group of de facto general practitioners dominated by hospital men.
Purpose: A major purpose of the book is to show the crucial role of hospital-based practitioners in the transformation of the three traditional medical occupations — physician, surgeon, and apothecary — into the modern medical profession before the advent of organic chemistry, systematic microscopy, or anesthesia.
Audience: The book should interest students of medical philanthropy, medical education, hospitals, professionalization, and English social history.
Features: The notes, references, and index are first-rate. Of particular interest to historians are the numerous tables and graphs illustrating the composition of hospital staffs and medical publications in 18th century London.
Assessment: Written clearly and subtly, the book explores many shifting interactions among institutions, ideas, values, and careers. In doing so, it reveals the ways voluntary London hospitals shaped the identities of staff physicians and surgeons whose charitable work consolidated their elite status. For those who wish to know more about the formation of modern medical authority and its relationship to the formation of the modern teaching hospital and medical philanthropy, the book is a valuable resource.
Robert L. Martensen
Based on extensive research of hospital and medical society records in 18th century London, Susan Lawrence explains how charity patients became teaching objects and how hospitals became de facto medical schools. She demonstrates that hospital practitioners gradually gained authority through their clinical teaching, research, and social status in London's urban medical culture, thereby transforming the old tripartite division of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries into a loosely unified group of de facto general practitioners dominated by hospital men. A major purpose of the book is to show the crucial role of hospital-based practitioners in the transformation of the three traditional medical occupations—physician, surgeon, and apothecary—into the modern medical profession before the advent of organic chemistry, systematic microscopy, or anesthesia. The book should interest students of medical philanthropy, medical education, hospitals, professionalization, and English social history. The notes, references, and index are first-rate. Of particular interest to historians are the numerous tables and graphs illustrating the composition of hospital staffs and medical publications in 18th century London. Written clearly and subtly, the book explores many shifting interactions among institutions, ideas, values, and careers. In doing so, it reveals the ways voluntary London hospitals shaped the identities of staff physicians and surgeons whose charitable work consolidated their elite status. For those who wish to know more about the formation of modern medical authority and its relationship to the formation of the modern teaching hospital and medical philanthropy, the book is avaluable resource.

4 Stars! from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521363556
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/1996
  • Series: Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 407
  • Product dimensions: 5.98 (w) x 8.98 (h) x 1.22 (d)

Table of Contents

List of tables and figures
Preface
1 Introduction: Hospital medicine in eighteenth-century London 1
The setting 5
Transformations 12
Hospital medicine 19
2 The London hospitals: Virtue and value 33
Charity and the hospitals 36
Hospital practitioners 55
3 The Corporations, licensing, and reform, 1700-1815 74
The London corporations: Membership and licensing 76
Education at the halls and college 81
Education, war, and the colleges: Reform and responses, 1780-1815 91
4 Walking the wards: From apprentices to pupils 107
Apprentices and pupils, character and cash 110
On the wards: Increasing numbers, blurry boundaries 134
Learning on the wards 148
5 London lecturing: Public knowledge and private courses 162
Private and public: Business, knowledge, access, and authority 165
The London system: An overview 167
Entrepreneurs: Entertainment and expertise, 1700-1760 175
Bodies and businesses: Hospital lecturing, 1760-1820 188
6 Gentlemen scholars and clinical cases, 1700-1760 215
Public persona: Publishing 218
Publicity and polemics 222
Ancients and moderns 225
Gentlemanly knowledge: Nature, medicine, and the Royal Society 227
Clinical knowledge: Public and private 234
Hospital knowledge 241
7 London hospital men and a medical community, 1760-1815 250
Public platforms: Publishing and status 254
Gatherings of like-minded men 259
Diffusing useful knowledge 271
Observing practitioners and men of science 276
8 Hospital men make medical knowledge, 1760-1815 289
To observe - and "make the tryal" 293
Clinical territory: Whose case? Whose knowledge? 301
Men of science: The lures of experiment 310
Dangerous disputes 327
Conclusion 335
Appendix I: London hospital men, 1700-1815 343
Appendix II: London hospital pupils, 1725-1820 356
Appendix III: London medical lecturers, 1700-1820 361
Index 379
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