Chaucer

( 1 )

Overview

In the first in a new series of brief biographies, bestselling author Peter Ackroyd brilliantly evokes the medieval world of England and provides an incomparable introduction to the great poet's works.

Geoffrey Chaucer, who died in 1400, lived a surprisingly eventful life. He served with the Duke of Clarence and with Edward III, and in 1359 was taken prisoner in France and ransomed. Through his wife, Philippa, he gained the patronage of John of Gaunt, which helped him carve out ...

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Overview

In the first in a new series of brief biographies, bestselling author Peter Ackroyd brilliantly evokes the medieval world of England and provides an incomparable introduction to the great poet's works.

Geoffrey Chaucer, who died in 1400, lived a surprisingly eventful life. He served with the Duke of Clarence and with Edward III, and in 1359 was taken prisoner in France and ransomed. Through his wife, Philippa, he gained the patronage of John of Gaunt, which helped him carve out a career at Court. His posts included Controller of Customs at the Port of London, Knight of the Shire for Kent, and King's Forester. He went on numerous adventurous diplomatic missions to France and Italy. Yet he was also indicted for rape, sued for debt, and captured in battle.

He began to write in the 1360s, and is now known as the father of English poetry. His Troilus and Criseyde is the first example of modern English literature, and his masterpiece, The Canterbury Tales, the forerunner of the English novel, dominated the last part of his life.

In his lively style, Peter Ackroyd, one of the most acclaimed biographers and novelists writing today, brings us an eye-opening portrait, rich in drama and colorful historical detail, of a prolific, multifaceted genius.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Listeners can feel the rhythm pulsing in Chaucer's words." —-AudioFile
Publishers Weekly
Series of brief bios are old hat by now, but perhaps only the prolific novelist/historian Ackroyd would singlehandedly undertake an entire series-on English cultural figures-himself. This slim volume is not so much an account of the life of Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?-1400) as a consideration of his role in shaping England's national identity. The poet is hailed as the "progenitor of a national style," and deft literary analysis explicates Chaucer's innovations while acknowledging the influence of other poets. (Readers will also be glad to know that an appendix provides modern translations of Chaucer's extensively quoted Middle English.) Ackroyd doesn't ignore the biographical side of the story; much is made of Chaucer's position in the royal court, which provided the financial means to live comfortably while writing his verse-and indirectly introduced him to the work of Boccaccio, one of his most significant influences. Early vivid passages discuss how Chaucer's descriptions of medieval London can still resonate with modern readers, linking the poet to the "eternal vision" that has been a central theme in nearly all of Ackroyd's work. Thus the work can serve as an effective introduction to its author as well as its subject-and this series may be more approachable for many readers than Ackroyd's weighty histories London and Albion. 21 b&w illus. (Jan.) Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
The first in a new series, Ackroyd Brief Lives, offers a fascinating portrait of the man who has been called the father of English poetry. Ackroyd (The Origins of the English Imagination, 2003, etc.) vividly depicts 14th-century London and the busy life of Geoffrey Chaucer. The poet, Ackroyd makes clear, was not an ivory-tower figure but a man of the world: a courtier entrusted by successive kings with diplomatic missions abroad and a civil servant who supervised royal building projects and oversaw the collection of taxes on wool and leather in the Port of London. Though brief, the biography is filled with details bringing Chaucer's world and work to life. We see the younger man being educated in the royal court, rising in the diplomatic service, absorbing the culture of France and Italy, and acquiring a reputation as a courtly poet. Records are scanty, but Ackroyd cites evidence of his various financial dealings and legal entanglements, including an indictment for rape as well as lawsuit over debt. Given the many gaps in the records, speculations are inevitable, and when discussing specific events, Ackroyd relies on hedges like "might have," "could have," "it has been argued that," and "we can possibly imagine." The core of the book, however, concerns Chaucer's work as a poet, and here Ackroyd is on firmer ground. He quotes frequently from the poems-The House of Fame, The Parliament of Fowls, Troilus and Criseyde, The Legend of Good Women, and, of course, The Canterbury Tales-explaining allusions, discussing style, illustrating the influences of French and Italian poets, especially Boccaccio, and pointing out Chaucer's skill at manipulating the English language. You get a clear sense ofEnglish as an evolving language, and, for those puzzled by Chaucer's version of it, Ackroyd includes an appendix with modern translations of all the quoted material. A splendid introduction to a pivotal figure in the history of English literature. (21 b&w illustrations)Agent: Giles Gordon/Curtis Brown Scotland
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781400151608
  • Publisher: Tantor Media, Inc.
  • Publication date: 9/28/2005
  • Series: Ackroyd's Brief Lives (Audio) Series
  • Format: MP3 on CD
  • Edition description: Unabridged, 1 MP3, 5 hours
  • Product dimensions: 5.36 (w) x 7.48 (h) x 0.56 (d)

Meet the Author

Peter Ackroyd is the author of Thames; London: The Biography; Albion: The Origins of the English Imagination several successful novels; and the Ackroyd's Brief Lives series.

Simon Vance has recorded over four hundred audiobooks and has earned over twenty AudioFile Earphones Awards, including for his narration of Scaramouche by Rafael Sabatini. He is also the recipient of five coveted Audie Awards, including one for The King's Speech by Mark Logue and Peter Conradi, and he was named an AudioFile Best Voice of 2009.

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Read an Excerpt

Chaucer


By Peter Ackroyd

Random House

Peter Ackroyd
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0385507976


Chapter One

Chapter One


The Londoner


Chaucer grew up, and found his true place, in what he called "our citee." He was born, in the phrase of Oscar Wilde, into the purple of London commerce. He did not need to rise through his own individual effort because his position in urban society was comfortable and assured.

His paternal grandparents had come from Ipswich to London, part of that steady influx into the city from the Midlands and East Anglia; London had become the vortex for mercantile activity. His grandfather, Robert le Chaucer, was a mercer who like his grandson eventually entered the king's service; there was a strong affinity between trade and the court. He was also known as Robert Malyn, the surname meaning "astute." That was another characteristic he bequeathed to his famous scion. The derivation of "Chaucer" is more uncertain. It may come from chauffecire, to seal with hot wax in the manner of a clerk, but it is more likely to derive from chaussier or shoemaker and hosier. But this in itself has little to do with Chaucer's family--Robert le Chaucer acquired his name from his quondam master, a mercer named John le Chaucer who was killed in the course of a brawl.

The poet's father, John Chaucer, was a successful and influential vintner, or wine merchant, who also entered royal service; he was part of Edward III's abortiveexpedition against Scotland in 1327, and eventually became deputy butler to the king's household. In his early youth he was kidnapped by some agents for his aunt and forcibly removed to Ipswich, to take part in a marriage advantageous to that lady, but the aunt was sued and despatched to the Marshalsea prison. It is a bizarre episode but serves only to confirm the sporadic lawlessness and violence of fourteenth-century life. Chaucer's maternal grandfather, John de Copton, was murdered in 1313 close to his house in Aldgate. The city records reveal that murder, abduction and rape were commonplace; at a later date, as we shall see, Chaucer himself was accused of rape. Agnes de Copton, Chaucer's mother, was a notable addition to the Chaucer family; she was an heiress, owner of many tenements and of acres in Stepney; in addition she was niece and ward of the Keeper of the Royal Mint.

Geoffrey Chaucer first saw the light, therefore, in a wealthy and influential household. The date of his birth is not certainly known but all the available evidence suggests some time between 1341 and 1343. There is some evidence of a sister, named Katherine, but no contemporaneous record of siblings has been found. He was born in an upper chamber of the family house in Thames Street, which ran parallel to the river in the ward of Vintry, which of course was the district of the wine merchants. The house itself was commodious and well proportioned; in the records it is described as stretching from the river in the south to the stream called the Walbrook in the north, into which all the household refuse was dumped. Anyone who understands the topography of London will realise that this was indeed a large house, which must have possessed a sizeable garden stretching down to the Walbrook at the back. It contained cellars in which the barrels of wine were stored after being unloaded from the wharves a few yards away. On the ground floor, above the cellars and looking out upon the street, was a chamber which acted as his father's business premises; behind it there would have been a hall, in which the more formal aspects of familial life were conducted. There would have been upper chambers, a kitchen and larder, a privy and perhaps garret rooms.

The neighbourhood itself reflected the solidity and prosperity of the house. It encompassed the dwellings of other rich vintners, some of them with their own courtyards, but it was not necessarily a fashionable area. It was a place of work and commerce. There were several lanes and alleys leading down from Thames Street to the riverside and, in particular, to Three Cranes Wharf where the wines of Gascony were unloaded. A little to the west was Queenhithe to which fish and salt, fuel and corn, were brought in a variety of ships. Chaucer would have known intimately these clamorous thoroughfares--Simpson's Lane, Spittle Lane, Brikels Lane, Brode Lane most suitable for the passage of the carts, and Three Cranes Lane known in his childhood as Painted Tavern Lane. A few hundred yards away stood the Steelyard, the defended quarters where the German merchants lived and worked; a colony of Genoese merchants was also situated by the riverside, and it has been suggested that Chaucer's knowledge of Italian sprang from such early contacts. Certainly he came to maturity in a cosmopolitan city.

So we can imagine him standing in one of the principal thoroughfares of London, Cheapside, which he knew all of his life. He was the poet of sunrise rather than of sunset, which is as much to say that he was medieval rather than modern, and at dawn in Cheapside the whole city would awake around him. The bell rang at the church of St. Thomas of Acon, at the corner of Ironmonger Lane, on the hour before sunrise; then the wickets beside the great gates of the city were opened, and through the darkness trailed in the petty traders, the chapmen, the hucksters with baskets of gooseberries or apples, the journeymen, the labourers and the servants who lived outside the walls in the crowded and malodorous suburbs which were the city's shadow. At dawn the bells in the churches rang to proclaim the ending of the curfew, but already the majority of working citizens were awake and washed. There was a proverbial refrain:


Rise at five, dine at nine,
Sup at five, and bed at nine,
Will make a man live to ninety and nine.


Cheapside was a wide thoroughfare, but also a crowded and noisy one. There were terraces of tall timber houses, rising three storeys, with their gables turned to the street; they projected over the road, and were painted in vivid colours with their framework outlined in intricate patterning. They were built upon stone foundations but were completed with timber framing as well as wattle-and-daub. There may also have been smaller dwellings, of two storeys, and perhaps even a tenement made up of single rooms further divided by partitions for poor families. Certainly these "decaying" houses, as they were known, would have been visible along the lanes and alleys which ran off the main street. Yet Cheapside was known for its shops and its stalls of merchandise. At one end, a few yards past Old Jewry and by St. Mary Woolchurch, stood the Stocks market with its fish and flesh; sited a few yards apart from it were the quarters of the poulterers. At the other end of Cheapside, close to Paternoster Row and the cathedral church of St. Paul, was a large covered market in which tradesmen would sell their wares out of boxes or chests.

But the street was largely comprised of individual shops and sheds packed closely together, one for every ten feet (three metres) of road-space. Each trade had its own area so that, for example, the goldsmiths were situated between Friday Street and Bread Street; within the dim interiors Chaucer would have seen on display the spoons and phials, the rings and necklaces, the crucifixes of silver gilt and paternosters of amber or coral. Friday Street itself was named after the fish market which assembled there on that day, while Bread Street was known for its bakers and its cook-shops where ten eggs or a roast lark could be purchased for a penny and a hen baked in a pasty bought for fivepence. Just past the goldsmiths, between Friday Street and Bow Church, stood the shops of the mercers with their silks and fabrics, while opposite haberdashers sold hats and laces, boots and pen-cases. Other shops sold toys and drugs, spices and small-ware. In Paternoster Row, leading off Cheapside, were the stationers and booksellers with their psalters and calendars, doctrinals and books of physic. The signs of the different trades were suspended on poles, and there were drawings on the wooden walls of the shops as a symbol of what lay within. Most of these ground-floor shops were protected by an overhanging storey, or penthouse, where the shopkeeper and his family would live in one or two rooms. If a house boasted a small cellar or undercroft it would be utilised for storage or for trade, with ale one of the most easily available commodities.

Among the one-storey sheds and the two-storey dwellings, with whitewashed walls and thatched roofs, would be vacant plots and gardens. Down the smaller streets were shops and cottages, fences and barrels, with chickens and ducks, goats and pigs, roaming among them. Most of the pavements would have needed repair, and there were piles of refuse or manure on the streets waiting for the "raker" or "fermour" to remove them. The air was filled with the smell of burning wood and of sea-coal, of cess pits and butchers' waste.

At sunrise the great gates of the city were opened, and the long bakers' wagons from Mile End would bear their precious burden into the streets of the city; simnel bread was best, and cocket the worst. Horses and carts of every description would also begin their journey through the narrow streets among the porters and water-carriers and merchants. In a city continually expanding, there was building work everywhere. In the latter half of the fourteenth century the population of London has been variously estimated between forty thousand and fifty thousand but, whatever the density, the square mile within the walls was sufficiently noisy and active. The population of London was characteristically compared to a swarm of bees, busily engaged but when threatened dangerous and deadly. Yet the greetings upon the street, at any dawn, would have seemed beneficent enough. "God save you . . . God give you grace . . . God's speed . . . Good day, a clear day." Mixed with these greetings the cries of the street-sellers would already be added to the clamour and shouting which accompanied the start of each day. "Twelve herrings for a penny! Hot pies! Good pigs and geese! Ribs of beef and many a pie!" The blind would stand on street corners with their white willow wands and sing such popular songs as "Jay tout perdu mon temps et mon labour," which Chaucer mentions, and "My love has fared inland." Chaucer would have thoroughly absorbed the language of the streets, that rich polyglot mixture of Latin patois, Anglo-Norman phraseology and English demotic; it emerges in Chaucer's consistent hyperbole, so much a feature of London speech, but also in the stray phrases which are embedded in his aureate verse--"Come of, man . . . lat se now . . . namoore of this . . . what sey ye . . . take hede now . . . Jakke fool!" At night, and in moments of relative quiet, the sound of the river would clearly be heard.

An apt symbol for the Catholic culture of fourteenth-century London might be found in the fact that there were ninety-nine churches, and ninety-five inns, within the walls. (The hermitages and oratories have not been included, but neither have the ubiquitous ale-cellars.) In future generations the piety of Londoners was recognised all over Europe, and there is no reason to suppose that the faith of the fourteenth century was any less intense. The celebration of the Mass was at the centre of London worship; the bells pealed out at that blessed moment when the bread is turned into the body of Christ and becomes the eucharist; at that moment, divine life entered and renewed urban time. It was a culture of ceremony and ritual, of hierarchy and display, modelled upon sacred typology and the liturgical year. It is not surprising, therefore, that the poetry of Chaucer is suffused with religious practice and religious personages. The Canterbury Tales is of course itself set within the context of a pilgrimage, and hardly one of those tales is not concerned directly or indirectly with "hooly chirches good." In that compendium of late medieval narratives there are saints' tales and pietistic texts. The urban parades and religious processions upon London's streets, as well as the stridently colourful dress of the citizens, also testify to a culture of spectacle and display. It is a culture in which the ideal and the real interpenetrate one another, so that the most vivid or naturalistic detail within Chaucer's poetry can be suffused with a sense of the sacred. In the mystery plays, which Chaucer would have witnessed, the events of biblical history are interrupted by farce and obscenity; in "The Miller's Tale" of The Canterbury Tales, a domestic version of Noah and his ark becomes the occasion for "fart," "piss" and a "naked ers." In a civilisation where death and disease were so pressing, and so close to hand, why should there be any conception of "good taste"?

There is a description of London in the twelfth century, written by William Fitzstephen, which furnishes the context for the development of the city in Chaucer's lifetime. He describes the meadows and springs which lay just beyond the city's bounds; even in the fourteenth century the sentinels of the city walls and gates looked out over fields, and bells were rung to call in agricultural labourers at curfew time. He mentions the "smooth field," where horses were raced and purchased, which by Chaucer's time was known as Smythfelde; it had become the site of a market and a fair, as well as the spot where malefactors were hanged by a clump of elm-trees. It was already a city of violent contrasts. Fitzstephen describes the ancient governance of London with its wards, and sheriffs, and courts. Chaucer himself would have grown up within the network of these obligations which stretched back, in the medieval phrase, "beyond the memory of man."

His poetry is often conceived to be of springtime rather than of autumn, as if he believed himself to come from a freshly minted civilisation; yet London was deemed to be more ancient than Rome. Fitzstephen's account concludes with a description of the sports and games of the city. He mentions the dramatised versions of saints' legends, played out upon the streets, in the same paragraph as he alludes to the cock-fights organised by schoolboys at Shrovetide. He describes football and horse-racing, ice-skating and archery, as well as bull-baiting and boar-baiting by savage dogs. In the context of these violent delights, he might have mentioned the sporadic but intense violence of Londoners themselves; the city records are filled with reports of riots and murderous affrays, with which Chaucer himself became all too familiar. Fitzstephen adds that the "only inconveniencies of London are, the immoderate drinking of foolish persons, and the frequency of fires." Since this is a complaint repeated down the centuries, even perhaps into our own time, then we may safely conclude that the city itself has certain unchanging characteristics. When we read Chaucer's poetry, then, it may speak to us directly.<<br>
Continues...


Excerpted from Chaucer by Peter Ackroyd Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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First Chapter

Brief Lives 1: Chaucer


By Peter Ackroyd

Random House

Peter Ackroyd
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0701169850


Chapter One

Chapter One

The Londoner

Chaucer grew up, and found his true place, in what he called 'our citee'. He was born, in the phrase of Oscar Wilde, into the purple of London commerce. He did not need to rise through his own individual effort because his position in urban society was comfortable and assured.

His paternal grandparents had come from Ipswich to London, part of that steady influx into the city from the Midlands and East Anglia; London had become the vortex for mercantile activity. His grandfather, Robert le Chaucer, was a mercer who like his grandson eventually entered the king's service; there was a strong affinity between trade and the court. He was also known as Robert Malyn, the surname meaning 'astute'. That was another characteristic he bequeathed to his famous scion. The derivation of 'Chaucer' is more uncertain. It may come from chauffecire, to seal with hot wax in the manner of a clerk, but it is more likely to derive from chaussier or shoemaker and hosier. But this in itself has little to do with Chaucer's family - Robert le Chaucer acquired his name from his quondam master, a mercer named John le Chaucer who was killed in the course of a brawl.

The poet's father, John Chaucer, was a successful and influential vintner, or wine merchant, who also entered royal service; he was part of Edward III's abortive expedition against Scotland in 1327, and eventually became deputy butler to the king's household. In his early youth he was kidnapped by some agents for his aunt and forcibly removed to Ipswich, to take part in a marriage advantageous to that lady, but the aunt was sued and despatched to the Marshalsea prison. It is a bizarre episode but serves only to confirm the sporadic lawlessness and violence of fourteenthcentury life. Chaucer's maternal grandfather, John de Copton, was murdered in 1313 close to his house in Aldgate. The city records reveal that murder, abduction and rape were commonplace; at a later date, as we shall see, Chaucer himself was accused of rape. Agnes de Copton, Chaucer's mother, was a notable addition to the Chaucer family; she was an heiress, owner of many tenements and of acres in Stepney; in addition she was niece and ward of the Keeper of the Royal Mint.

Geoffrey Chaucer first saw the light, therefore, in a wealthy and influential household. The date of his birth is not certainly known but all the available evidence suggests some time between 1341 and 1343. There is some evidence of a sister, named Katherine, but no contemporaneous record of siblings has been found. He was born in an upper chamber of the family house in Thames Street, which ran parallel to the river in the ward of Vintry, which of course was the district of the wine merchants. The house itself was commodious and well proportioned; in the records it is described as stretching from the river in the south to the stream called the Walbrook in the north, into which all the household refuse was dumped. Anyone who understands the topography of London will realise that this was indeed a large house, which must have possessed a sizeable garden stretching down to the Walbrook at the back. It contained cellars in which the barrels of wine were stored after being unloaded from the wharves a few yards away. On the ground floor, above the cellars and looking out upon the street, was a chamber which acted as his father's business premises; behind it there would have been a hall, in which the more formal aspects of familial life were conducted. There would have been upper chambers, a kitchen and larder, a privy and perhaps garret rooms.

The neighbourhood itself reflected the solidity and prosperity of the house. It encompassed the dwellings of other rich vintners, some of them with their own courtyards, but it was not necessarily a fashionable area. It was a place of work and commerce. There were several lanes and alleys leading down from Thames Street to the riverside and, in particular, to Three Cranes Wharf where the wines of Gascony were unloaded. A little to the west was Queenhithe to which fish and salt, fuel and corn, were brought in a variety of ships. Chaucer would have known intimately these clamorous thoroughfares - Simpson's Lane, Spittle Lane, Brikels Lane, Brode Lane most suitable for the passage of the carts, and Three Cranes Lane known in his childhood as Painted Tavern Lane. A few hundred yards away stood the Steelyard, the defended quarters where the German merchants lived and worked; a colony of Genoese merchants was also situated by the riverside, and it has been suggested that Chaucer's knowledge of Italian sprang from such early contacts. Certainly he came to maturity in a cosmopolitan city.

So we can imagine him standing in one of the principal thoroughfares of London, Cheapside, which he knew all of his life. He was the poet of sunrise rather than of sunset, which is as much to say that he was medieval rather than modern, and at dawn in Cheapside the whole city would awake around him. The bell rang at the church of St Thomas of Acon, at the corner of Ironmonger Lane, on the hour before sunrise; then the wickets beside the great gates of the city were opened, and through the darkness trailed in the petty traders, the chapmen, the hucksters with baskets of gooseberries or apples, the journeymen, the labourers and the servants who lived outside the walls in the crowded and malodorous suburbs which were the city's shadow. At dawn the bells in the churches rang to proclaim the ending of the curfew, but already the majority of working citizens were awake and washed. There was a proverbial refrain:

Rise at five, dine at nine,
Sup at five, and bed at nine,
Will make a man live to ninety and nine.

Cheapside was a wide thoroughfare, but also a crowded and noisy one. There were terraces of tall timber houses, rising three storeys, with their gables turned to the street; they projected over the road, and were painted in vivid colours with their framework outlined in intricate patterning. They were built upon stone foundations but were completed with timber framing as well as wattle-and-daub. There may also have been smaller dwellings, of two storeys, and perhaps even a tenement made up of single rooms further divided by partitions for poor families. Certainly these 'decaying' houses, as they were known, would have been visible along the lanes and alleys which ran off the main street. Yet Cheapside was known for its shops and its stalls of merchandise. At one end, a few yards past Old Jewry and by St Mary Woolchurch, stood the Stocks market with its fish and flesh; sited a few yards apart from it were the quarters of the poulterers. At the other end of Cheapside, close to Paternoster Row and the cathedral church of St Paul, was a large covered market in which tradesmen would sell their wares out of boxes or chests.

But the street was largely comprised of individual shops and sheds packed closely together, one for every ten feet (three metres) of road-space. Each trade had its own area so that, for example, the goldsmiths were situated between Friday Street and Bread Street; within the dim interiors Chaucer would have seen on display the spoons and phials, the rings and necklaces, the crucifixes of silver gilt and paternosters of amber or coral. Friday Street itself was named after the fish market which assembled there on that day, while Bread Street was known for its bakers and its cook-shops where ten eggs or a roast lark could be purchased for a penny and a hen baked in a pasty bought for fivepence. Just past the goldsmiths, between Friday Street and Bow Church, stood the shops of the mercers with their silks and fabrics, while opposite haberdashers sold hats and laces, boots and pen-cases. Other shops sold toys and drugs, spices and small-ware. In Paternoster Row, leading off Cheapside, were the stationers and booksellers with their psalters and calendars, doctrinals and books of physic. The signs of the different trades were suspended on poles, and there were drawings on the wooden walls of the shops as a symbol of what lay within. Most of these ground-floor shops were protected by an overhanging storey, or penthouse, where the shopkeeper and his family would live in one or two rooms. If a house boasted a small cellar or undercroft it would be utilised for storage or for trade, with ale one of the most easily available commodities.

Among the one-storey sheds and the two-storey dwellings, with whitewashed walls and thatched roofs, would be vacant plots and gardens. Down the smaller streets were shops and cottages, fences and barrels, with chickens and ducks, goats and pigs, roaming among them. Most of the pavements would have needed repair, and there were piles of refuse or manure on the streets waiting for the 'raker' or 'fermour' to remove them. The air was filled with the smell of burning wood and of sea-coal, of cess pits and butchers' waste.

At sunrise the great gates of the city were opened, and the long bakers' wagons from Mile End would bear their precious burden into the streets of the city; simnel bread was best, and cocket the worst. Horses and carts of every description would also begin their journey through the narrow streets among the porters and water-carriers and merchants. In a city continually expanding, there was building work everywhere. In the latter half of the fourteenth century the population of London has been variously estimated between forty thousand and fifty thousand but, whatever the density, the square mile within the walls was sufficiently noisy and active. The population of London was characteristically compared to a swarm of bees, busily engaged but when threatened dangerous and deadly. Yet the greetings upon the street, at any dawn, would have seemed beneficent enough. 'God save you . . . God give you grace . . . God's speed . . . Good day, a clear day.' Mixed with these greetings the cries of the streetsellers would already be added to the clamour and shouting which accompanied the start of each day. 'Twelve herrings for a penny! Hot pies! Good pigs and geese! Ribs of beef and many a pie!' The blind would stand on street corners with their white willow wands and sing such popular songs as 'Jay tout perdu mon temps et mon labour', which Chaucer mentions, and 'My love has fared inland'. Chaucer would have thoroughly absorbed the language of the streets, that rich polyglot mixture of Latin patois, Anglo-Norman phraseology and English demotic; it emerges in Chaucer's consistent hyperbole, so much a feature of London speech, but also in the stray phrases which are embedded in his aureate verse - 'Come of, man . . . lat se now . . . namoore of this . . . what sey ye . . . take hede now . . . Jakke fool!' At night, and in moments of relative quiet, the sound of the river would clearly be heard.

An apt symbol for the Catholic culture of fourteenthcentury London might be found in the fact that there were ninety-nine churches, and ninety-five inns, within the walls. (The hermitages and oratories have not been included, but neither have the ubiquitous ale-cellars.) In future generations the piety of Londoners was recognised all over Europe, and there is no reason to suppose that the faith of the fourteenth century was any less intense. The celebration of the Mass was at the centre of London worship; the bells pealed out at that blessed moment when the bread is turned into the body of Christ and becomes the eucharist; at that moment, divine life entered and renewed urban time. It was a culture of ceremony and ritual, of hierarchy and display, modelled upon sacred typology and the liturgical year. It is not surprising, therefore, that the poetry of Chaucer is suffused with religious practice and religious personages. The Canterbury Tales is of course itself set within the context of a pilgrimage, and hardly one of those tales is not concerned directly or indirectly with 'hooly chirches good'. In that compendium of late medieval narratives there are saints' tales and pietistic texts. The urban parades and religious processions upon London's streets, as well as the stridently colourful dress of the citizens, also testify to a culture of spectacle and display. It is a culture in which the ideal and the real interpenetrate one another, so that the most vivid or naturalistic detail within Chaucer's poetry can be suffused with a sense of the sacred. In the mystery plays, which Chaucer would have witnessed, the events of biblical history are interrupted by farce and obscenity; in 'The Miller's Tale' of The Canterbury Tales, a domestic version of Noah and his ark becomes the occasion for 'fart', 'piss' and a 'naked ers'. In a civilisation where death and disease were so pressing, and so close to hand, why should there be any conception of 'good taste'?

There is a description of London in the twelfth century, written by William Fitzstephen, which furnishes the context for the development of the city in Chaucer's lifetime. He describes the meadows and springs which lay just beyond the city's bounds; even in the fourteenth century the sentinels of the city walls and gates looked out over fields, and bells were rung to call in agricultural labourers at curfew time. He mentions the 'smooth field', where horses were raced and purchased, which by Chaucer's time was known as Smythfelde; it had become the site of a market and a fair, as well as the spot where malefactors were hanged by a clump of elm-trees. It was already a city of violent contrasts. Fitzstephen describes the ancient governance of London with its wards, and sheriffs, and courts. Chaucer himself would have grown up within the network of these obligations which stretched back, in the medieval phrase, 'beyond the memory of man'.

His poetry is often conceived to be of springtime rather than of autumn, as if he believed himself to come from a freshly minted civilisation; yet London was deemed to be more ancient than Rome. Fitzstephen's account concludes with a description of the sports and games of the city. He mentions the dramatised versions of saints' legends, played out upon the streets, in the same paragraph as he alludes to the cock-fights organised by schoolboys at Shrovetide. He describes football and horse-racing, ice-skating and archery, as well as bull-baiting and boar-baiting by savage dogs. In the context of these violent delights, he might have mentioned the sporadic but intense violence of Londoners themselves; the city records are filled with reports of riots and murderous affrays, with which Chaucer himself became all too familiar. Fitzstephen adds that the 'only inconveniencies of London are, the immoderate drinking of foolish persons, and the frequency of fires'. Since this is a complaint repeated down the centuries, even perhaps into our own time, then we may safely conclude that the city itself has certain unchanging characteristics. When we read Chaucer's poetry, then, it may speak to us directly.

From the circumstances of the fourteenth century an eternal London vision can emerge.

Continues...


Excerpted from Brief Lives 1: Chaucer by Peter Ackroyd Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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