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This book deals with the design and integration of chemical processes, emphasizing the conceptual issues that are fundamental to the creation of the process. Chemical process design requires the selection of a series of processing steps and their integration to form a complete manufacturing system. The text emphasizes both the design and selection of the steps as individual operations and their integration. Also, the process will normally operate as part of an integrated manufacturing site consisting of a number of processes serviced by a common utility system. The design of utility systems has been dealt with in the text so that the interactions between processes and the utility system and interactions between different processes through the utility system can be exploited to maximize the performance of the site as a whole.

Chemical processing should form part of a sustainable industrial activity. For chemical processing, this means that processes should use raw materials as efficiently as is economic and practicable, both to prevent the production of waste that can be environmentally harmful and to preserve the reserves of raw materials as much as possible. Processes should use as little energy as economic and practicable, both to prevent the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels and to preserve reserves of fossil fuels. Water must also be consumed in sustainable quantities that do not cause deterioration in the quality of the water source and the long-term quantity of the reserves. Aqueous and atmospheric emissions must not be environmentally harmful, and solid waste to landfill must be avoided. Finally, all aspects of chemical processing must feature good health and safety practice.

It is important for the designer to understand the limitations of the methods used in chemical process design. The best way to understand the limitations is to understand the derivations of the equations used and the assumptions on which the equations are based. Where practical, the derivation of the design equations has been included in the text.

The book is intended to provide a practical guide to chemical process design and integration for undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemical engineering, practicing process designers and chemical engineers and applied chemists working in process development. Examples have been included throughout the text. Most of these examples do not require specialist software and can be performed on spreadsheet software. Finally, a number of exercises have been added at the end of each chapter to allow the reader to practice the calculation procedures.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471486817
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/25/2005
  • Edition description: Subsequent
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 712
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.08 (h) x 1.56 (d)

Meet the Author

Professor Robin Smith is Head of the Centre for Process Integration at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) in the United Kingdom. Before joining UMIST he had extensive industrial experience with Rohm & Haas in process investigation and process design, and with ICI in computer-aided design and process integration.. He was a member of the ICI Process Integration Team that pioneered the first industrial applications of process integration design methods.  Since joining UMIST he has acted extensively as a consultant in process integration projects.  He has published widely in the field of chemical process design and integration, and is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in the UK and a chartered engineer. In 1992 he was awarded the Hanson Medal of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in the UK for his work on clean process technology.

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Chemical Process Design and Integration

By Robin Smith

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-471-48681-7

Chapter One

The Nature of Chemical Process Design and Integration


Chemical products are essential to modern living standards. Almost all aspects of everyday life are supported by chemical products in one way or another. Yet, society tends to take these products for granted, even though a high quality of life fundamentally depends on them.

When considering the design of processes for the manufacture of chemical products, the market into which they are being sold fundamentally influences the objectives and priorities in the design. Chemical products can be divided into three broad classes:

1. Commodity or bulk chemicals: These are produced in large volumes and purchased on the basis of chemical composition, purity and price. Examples are sulfuric acid, nitrogen, oxygen, ethylene and chlorine.

2. Fine chemicals: These are produced in small volumes and purchased on the basis of chemical composition, purity and price. Examples are chloropropylene oxide (used for the manufacture of epoxy resins, ion-exchange resins and other products), dimethyl formamide (used, for example, as a solvent, reaction medium and intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals), n-butyric acid (used in beverages, flavorings, fragrances and other products) and barium titanate powder (used for the manufacture of electronic capacitors).

3. Specialty or effect or functional chemicals: These are purchased because of their effect (or function), rather than their chemical composition. Examples are pharmaceuticals, pesticides, dyestuffs, perfumes and flavorings.

Because commodity and fine chemicals tend to be purchased on the basis of their chemical composition alone, they are undifferentiated. For example, there is nothing to choose between 99.9% benzene made by one manufacturer and that made by another manufacturer, other than price and delivery issues. On the other hand, specialty chemicals tend to be purchased on the basis of their effect or function and are therefore differentiated. For example, competitive pharmaceutical products are differentiated according to the efficacy of the product, rather than chemical composition. An adhesive is purchased on the basis of its ability to stick things together, rather than its chemical composition and so on.

However, undifferentiated and differentiated should be thought of as relative terms rather than absolute terms for chemical products. In practice, chemicals do not tend to be completely undifferentiated or completely differentiated. Commodity and fine chemical products might have impurity specifications as well as purity specifications. Traces of impurities can, in some cases, give some differentiation between different manufacturers of commodity and fine chemicals. For example, 99.9% acrylic acid might be considered to be an undifferentiated product. However, traces of impurities, at concentrations of a few parts per million, can interfere with some of the reactions in which it is used and can have important implications for some of its uses. Such impurities might differ between different manufacturing processes. Not all specialty products are differentiated. For example, pharmaceutical products like aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) are undifferentiated. Different manufacturers can produce aspirin and there is nothing to choose between these products, other than the price and differentiation created through marketing of the product.

Scale of production also differs between the three classes of chemical products. Fine and specialty chemicals tend to be produced in volumes less than 1000 [t*y.sup.-1]. On the other hand, commodity chemicals tend to be produced in much larger volumes than this. However, the distinction is again not so clear. Polymers are differentiated products because they are purchased on the basis of their mechanical properties, but can be produced in quantities significantly higher than 1000 [t*y.sup.-1].

When a new chemical product is first developed, it can often be protected by a patent in the early years of commercial exploitation. For a product to be eligible to be patented, it must be novel, useful and unobvious. If patent protection can be obtained, this effectively gives the producer a monopoly for commercial exploitation of the product until the patent expires. Patent protection lasts for 20 years from the filing date of the patent. Once the patent expires, competitors can join in and manufacture the product. If competitors cannot wait until the patent expires, then alternative competing products must be developed.

Another way to protect a competitive edge for a new product is to protect it by secrecy. The formula for Coca-Cola has been kept a secret for over 100 years. Potentially, there is no time limit on such protection. However, for the protection through secrecy to be viable, competitors must not be able to reproduce the product from chemical analysis. This is likely to be the case only for certain classes of specialty and food products for which the properties of the product depend on both the chemical composition and the method of manufacture.

Figure 1.1 illustrates different product life cycles. The general trend is that when a new product is introduced into the market, the sales grow slowly until the market is established and then more rapidly once the market is established. If there is patent protection, then competitors will not be able to exploit the same product commercially until the patent expires, when competitors can produce the same product and take market share. It is expected that competitive products will cause sales to diminish later in the product life cycle until sales become so low that a company would be expected to withdraw from the market. In Figure 1.1, Product A appears to be a poor product that has a short life with low sales volume. It might be that it cannot compete well with other competitive products, and alternative products quickly force the company out of that business. However, a low sales volume is not the main criterion to withdraw from the market. It might be that a product with low volume finds a market niche and can be sold for a high value. On the other hand, if it were competing with other products with similar functions in the same market sector, which keeps both the sale price and volume low, then it would seem wise to withdraw from the market. Product B in Figure 1.1 appears to be a better product, showing a longer life cycle and higher sales volume. This has patent protection but sales decrease rapidly after patent protection is lost, leading to loss of market through competition. Product ITLITL in Figure 1.1 is a still better product. This shows high sales volume with the life of the product extended through reformulation of the product1. Finally, Product D in Figure 1.1 shows a product life cycle that is typical of commodity chemicals. Commodity chemicals tend not to exhibit the same kind of life cycles as fine and specialty chemicals. In the early years of the commercial exploitation, the sales volume grows rapidly to a high volume, but then does not decline and enters a mature period of slow growth, or, in some exceptional cases, slow decline. This is because commodity chemicals tend to have a diverse range of uses. Even though competition might take away some end uses, new end uses are introduced, leading to an extended life cycle.

The different classes of chemical products will have very different added value (the difference between the selling price of the product and the purchase cost of raw materials). Commodity chemicals tend to have low added value, whereas fine and specialty chemicals tend to have high added value. Commodity chemicals tend to be produced in large volumes with low added value, while fine and specialty chemicals tend to be produced in small volumes with high added value.

Because of this, when designing a process for a commodity chemical, it is usually important to keep operating costs as low as possible. The capital cost of the process will tend to be high relative to a process for fine or specialty chemicals because of the scale of production.

When designing a process for specialty chemicals, priority tends to be given to the product, rather than to the process. This is because the unique function of the product must be protected. The process is likely to be small scale and operating costs tend to be less important than with commodity chemical processes. The capital cost of the process will be low relative to commodity chemical processes because of the scale. The time to market the product is also likely to be important with specialty chemicals, especially if there is patent protection. If this is the case, then anything that shortens the time from basic research, through product testing, pilot plant studies, process design, construction of the plant to product manufacture will have an important influence on the overall project profitability.

All this means that the priorities in process design are likely to differ significantly, depending on whether a process is being designed for the manufacture of a commodity, fine or specialty chemical. In commodity chemicals, there is likely to be relatively little product innovation, but intensive process innovation. Also, equipment will be designed for a specific process step. On the other hand, the manufacture of fine and specialty chemicals might involve:

selling into a market with low volume,

short product life cycle,

a demand for a short time to market, and therefore, less time is available for process development, with product and process development proceeding simultaneously.

Because of this, the manufacture of fine and specialty chemicals is often carried out in multipurpose equipment, perhaps with different chemicals being manufactured in the same equipment at different times during the year. The life of the equipment might greatly exceed the life of the product.

The development of pharmaceutical products is such that high-quality products must be manufactured during the development of the process to allow safety and clinical studies to be carried out before full-scale production. Pharmaceutical production represents an extreme case of process design in which the regulatory framework controlling production makes it difficult to make process changes, even during the development stage. Even if significant improvements to processes for pharmaceuticals can be suggested, it might not be feasible to implement them, as such changes might prevent or delay the process from being licensed for production.


Before a process design can be started, the design problem must be formulated. Formulation of the design problem requires a product specification. If a well-defined chemical product is to be manufactured, then the specification of the productmight appear straightforward (e.g. a purify specification). However, if a specialty product is to be manufactured, it is the functional properties that are important, rather than the chemical properties, and this might require a product design stage in order to specify the product. The initial statement of the design problem is often ill defined. For example, the design team could be asked to expand the production capacity of an existing plant that produces a chemical that is a precursor to a polymer product, which is also produced by the company. This results from an increase in the demand for the polymer product and the plant producing the precursor currently being operated at its maximum capacity. The designer might well be given a specification for the expansion. For example, the marketing department might assess that the market could be expanded by 30% over a two-year period, which would justify a 30% expansion in the process for the precursor. However, the 30% projection can easily be wrong. The economic environment can change, leading to the projected increase being either too large or too small. It might also be possible to sell the polymer precursor in the market to other manufacturers of the polymer and justify an expansion even larger than 30%. If the polymer precursor can be sold in the marketplace, is the current purity specification of the company suitable for the marketplace? Perhaps the marketplace demands a higher purity than what is currently the company specification. Perhaps the current specification is acceptable, but if the specification could be improved, the product could be sold for a higher value and/or at a greater volume. An option might be to not expand the production of the polymer precursor to 30%, but instead to purchase it from the market. If it is purchased from the market, is it likely to be up to the company specifications, or will it need some purification before it is suitable for the company's polymer process? How reliable will the market source be? All these uncertainties are related more to market supply and demand issues than to specific process design issues.

Closer examination of the current process design might lead to the conclusion that the capacity can be expanded by 10% with a very modest capital investment. A further increase to 20% would require a significant capital investment, but an expansion to 30% would require an extremely large capital investment. This opens up further options. Should the plant be expanded by 10% and a market source identified for the balance? Should the plant be expanded to 20% similarly? If a real expansion in the market place is anticipated and expansion to 30% would be very expensive, why not be more aggressive and instead of expanding the existing process, build an entirely new process? If a new process is to be built, then what should be the process technology? New process technology might have been developed since the original plant was built that enables the same product to be manufactured at a much lower cost. If a new process is to be built, where should it be built? It might make more sense to build it in another country that would allow lower operating costs, and the product could be shipped back to be fed to the existing polymer process. At the same time, this might stimulate the development of new markets in other countries, in which case, what should be the capacity of the new plant?

From all of these options, the design team must formulate a number of plausible design options. Thus, from the initial ill-defined problem, the design team must create a series of very specific options and these should then be compared on the basis of a common set of assumptions regarding, for example, raw materials prices and product prices. Having specified an option, this gives the design team a well-defined problem to which the methods of engineering and economic analysis can be applied.

In examining a design option, the design team should start out by examining the problem at the highest level, in terms of its feasibility with the minimum of detail to ensure the design option is worth progressing. Is there a large difference between the value of the product and the cost of the raw materials? If the overall feasibility looks attractive, then more detail can be added, the option reevaluated, further detail added, and so on. Byproducts might play a particularly important role in the economics. It might be that the current process produces some byproducts that can be sold in small quantities to the market. But, as the process is expanded, there might be market constraints for the new scale of production. If the byproducts cannot be sold, how does this affect the economics?


Excerpted from Chemical Process Design and Integration by Robin Smith Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Nomenclature xvii

Chapter 1 The Nature of Chemical Process Design and Integration 1
1.1 Chemical Products 1
1.2 Formulation of the Design Problem 3
1.3 Chemical Process Design and Integration 4
1.4 The Hierarchy of Chemical Process Design and Integration 5
1.5 Continuous and Batch Processes 9
1.6 New Design and Retrofit 10
1.7 Approaches to Chemical Process Design and Integration 11
1.8 Process Control 13
1.9 The Nature of Chemical Process Design and Integration – Summary 14

Chapter 2 Process Economics 17
2.1 The Role of Process Economics 17
2.2 Capital Cost for New Design 17
2.3 Capital Cost for Retrofit 23
2.4 Annualized Capital Cost 24
2.5 Operating Cost 25
2.6 Simple Economic Criteria 28
2.7 Project Cash Flow and Economic Evaluation 29
2.8 Investment Criteria 30
2.9 Process Economics – Summary 31
2.10 Exercises 32

Chapter 3 Optimization 35
3.1 Objective Functions 35
3.2 Single-variable Optimization 37
3.3 Multivariable Optimization 38
3.4 Constrained Optimization 42
3.5 Linear Programming 43
3.6 Nonlinear Programming 45
3.7 Profile Optimization 46
3.8 Structural Optimization 48
3.9 Solution of Equations using Optimization 52
3.10 The Search for Global Optimality 53
3.11 Summary – Optimization 54
3.12 Exercises 54

Chapter 4 Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Equilibrium 57
4.1 Equations of State 57
4.2 Phase Equilibrium for Single Components 59
4.3 Fugacity and Phase Equilibrium 60
4.4 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium 60
4.5 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Based on Activity Coefficient Models 62
4.6 Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Based on Equations of State 64
4.7 Calculation of Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium 64
4.8 Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium 70
4.9 Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Activity Coefficient Models 71
4.10 Calculation of Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium 71
4.11 Calculation of Enthalpy 72
4.12 Calculation of Entropy 74
4.13 Phase Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Properties – Summary 74
4.14 Exercises 74

Chapter 5 Choice of Reactor I – Reactor Performance 77
5.1 Reaction Path 77
5.2 Types of Reaction Systems 78
5.3 Reactor Performance 81
5.4 Rate of Reaction 82
5.5 Idealized Reactor Models 83
5.6 Choice of Idealized Reactor Model 90
5.7 Choice of Reactor Performance 94
5.8 Choice of Reactor Performance – Summary 94
5.9 Exercises 95

Chapter 6 Choice of Reactor II - Reactor Conditions 97
6.1 Reaction Equilibrium 97
6.2 Reactor Temperature 100
6.3 Reactor Pressure 107
6.4 Reactor Phase 108
6.5 Reactor Concentration 109
6.6 Biochemical Reactions 114
6.7 Catalysts 114
6.8 Choice of Reactor Conditions – Summary 117
6.9 Exercises 118

Chapter 7 Choice of Reactor III – Reactor Configuration 121
7.1 Temperature Control 121
7.2 Catalyst Degradation 123
7.3 Gas–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid Reactors 124
7.4 Reactor Configuration 127
7.5 Reactor Configuration for Heterogeneous Solid-Catalyzed Reactions 133
7.6 Reactor Configuration from Optimization of a Superstructure 133
7.7 Choice of Reactor Configuration – Summary 139
7.8 Exercises 139

Chapter 8 Choice of Separator for Heterogeneous Mixtures 143
8.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Separation 143
8.2 Settling and Sedimentation 143
8.3 Inertial and Centrifugal Separation 147
8.4 Electrostatic Precipitation 149
8.5 Filtration 150
8.6 Scrubbing 151
8.7 Flotation 152
8.8 Drying 153
8.9 Separation of Heterogeneous Mixtures – Summary 154
8.10 Exercises 154

Chapter 9 Choice of Separator for Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures I – Distillation 157
9.1 Single-Stage Separation 157
9.2 Distillation 157
9.3 Binary Distillation 160
9.4 Total and Minimum Reflux Conditions for Multicomponent Mixtures 163
9.5 Finite Reflux Conditions for Multicomponent Mixtures 170
9.6 Choice of Operating Conditions 175
9.7 Limitations of Distillation 176
9.8 Separation of Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures by Distillation – Summary 177
9.9 Exercises 178

Chapter 10 Choice of Separator for Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures II – Other Methods 181
10.1 Absorption and Stripping 181
10.2 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 184
10.3 Adsorption 189
10.4 Membranes 193
10.5 Crystallization 203
10.6 Evaporation 206
10.7 Separation of Homogeneous Fluid Mixtures by Other Methods – Summary 208
10.8 Exercises 209

Chapter 11 Distillation Sequencing 211
11.1 Distillation Sequencing Using Simple Columns 211
11.2 Practical Constraints Restricting Options 211
11.3 Choice of Sequence for Simple Nonintegrated Distillation Columns 212
11.4 Distillation Sequencing Using Columns With More Than Two Products 217
11.5 Distillation Sequencing Using Thermal Coupling 220
11.6 Retrofit of Distillation Sequences 224
11.7 Crude Oil Distillation 225
11.8 Distillation Sequencing Using Optimization of a Superstructure 228
11.9 Distillation Sequencing – Summary 230
11.10 Exercises 231

Chapter 12 Distillation Sequencing for Azeotropic Distillation 235
12.1 Azeotropic Systems 235
12.2 Change in Pressure 235
12.3 Representation of Azeotropic Distillation 236
12.4 Distillation at Total Reflux Conditions 238
12.5 Distillation at Minimum Reflux Conditions 242
12.6 Distillation at Finite Reflux Conditions 243
12.7 Distillation Sequencing Using an Entrainer 246
12.8 Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation 251
12.9 Entrainer Selection 253
12.10 Trade-offs in Azeotropic Distillation 255
12.11 Multicomponent Systems 255
12.12 Membrane Separation 255
12.13 Distillation Sequencing for Azeotropic Distillation – Summary 256
12.14 Exercises 257

Chapter 13 Reaction, Separation and Recycle Systems for Continuous Processes 259
13.1 The Function of Process Recycles 259
13.2 Recycles with Purges 264
13.3 Pumping and Compression 267
13.4 Simulation of Recycles 276
13.5 The Process Yield 280
13.6 Optimization of Reactor Conversion 281
13.7 Optimization of Processes Involving a Purge 283
13.8 Hybrid Reaction and Separation 284
13.9 Feed, Product and Intermediate Storage 286
13.10 Reaction, Separation and Recycle Systems for Continuous Processes – Summary 288
13.11 Exercises 289

Chapter 14 Reaction, Separation and Recycle Systems for Batch Processes 291
14.1 Batch Processes 291
14.2 Batch Reactors 291
14.3 Batch Separation Processes 297
14.4 Gantt Charts 303
14.5 Production Schedules for Single Products 304
14.6 Production Schedules for Multiple Products 305
14.7 Equipment Cleaning and Material Transfer 306
14.8 Synthesis of Reaction and Separation Systems for Batch Processes 307
14.9 Optimization of Batch Processes 311
14.10 Storage in Batch Processes 312
14.11 Reaction and Separation Systems for Batch Processes – Summary 313
14.12 Exercises 313

Chapter 15 Heat Exchanger Networks I – Heat Transfer Equipment 317
15.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 317
15.2 Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Drops for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 319
15.3 Temperature Differences in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 324
15.4 Allocation of Fluids in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 329
15.5 Extended Surface Tubes 332
15.6 Retrofit of Heat Exchangers 333
15.7 Condensers 337
15.8 Reboilers and Vaporizers 342
15.9 Other Types of Heat Exchange Equipment 346
15.10 Fired Heaters 348
15.11 Heat Transfer Equipment – Summary 354
15.12 Exercises 354

Chapter 16 Heat Exchanger Networks II – Energy Targets 357
16.1 Composite Curves 357
16.2 The Heat Recovery Pinch 361
16.3 Threshold Problems 364
16.4 The Problem Table Algorithm 365
16.5 Nonglobal Minimum Temperature Differences 370
16.6 Process Constraints 370
16.7 Utility Selection 372
16.8 Furnaces 374
16.9 Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power Generation) 376
16.10 Integration Of Heat Pumps 381
16.11 Heat Exchanger Network Energy Targets – Summary 383
16.12 Exercises 383

Chapter 17 Heat Exchanger Networks III – Capital and Total Cost Targets 387
17.1 Number of Heat Exchange Units 387
17.2 Heat Exchange Area Targets 388
17.3 Number-of-shells Target 392
17.4 Capital Cost Targets 393
17.5 Total Cost Targets 395
17.6 Heat Exchanger Network and Utilities Capital and Total Costs – Summary 395
17.7 Exercises 396

Chapter 18 Heat Exchanger Networks IV – Network Design 399
18.1 The Pinch Design Method 399
18.2 Design for Threshold Problems 404
18.3 Stream Splitting 405
18.4 Design for Multiple Pinches 408
18.5 Remaining Problem Analysis 411
18.6 Network Optimization 413
18.7 The Superstructure Approach to Heat Exchanger Network Design 416
18.8 Retrofit of Heat Exchanger Networks 419
18.9 Addition of New Heat Transfer Area in Retrofit 424
18.10 Heat Exchanger Network Design – Summary 425
18.11 Exercises 425

Chapter 19 Heat Exchanger Networks V – Stream Data 429
19.1 Process Changes for Heat Integration 429
19.2 The Trade-Offs Between Process Changes, Utility Selection, Energy Cost and Capital Cost 429
19.3 Data Extraction 430
19.4 Heat Exchanger Network Stream Data – Summary 437
19.5 Exercises 437

Chapter 20 Heat Integration of Reactors 439
20.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics of Reactors 439
20.2 Appropriate Placement of Reactors 441
20.3 Use of the Grand Composite Curve for Heat Integration of Reactors 442
20.4 Evolving Reactor Design to Improve Heat Integration 443
20.5 Heat Integration of Reactors – Summary 444

Chapter 21 Heat Integration of Distillation Columns 445
21.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics of Distillation 445
21.2 The Appropriate Placement of Distillation 445
21.3 Use of the Grand Composite Curve for Heat Integration of Distillation 446
21.4 Evolving the Design of Simple Distillation Columns to Improve Heat Integration 447
21.5 Heat Pumping in Distillation 449
21.6 Capital Cost Considerations 449
21.7 Heat Integration Characteristics of Distillation Sequences 450
21.8 Heat-integrated Distillation Sequences Based on the Optimization of a Superstructure 454
21.9 Heat Integration of Distillation Columns – Summary 455
21.10 Exercises 456

Chapter 22 Heat Integration of Evaporators and Dryers 459
22.1 The Heat Integration Characteristics of Evaporators 459
22.2 Appropriate Placement of Evaporators 459
22.3 Evolving Evaporator Design to Improve Heat Integration 459
22.4 The Heat Integration Characteristics of Dryers 459
22.5 Evolving Dryer Design to Improve Heat Integration 460
22.6 Heat Integration of Evaporators and Dryers – Summary 461
22.7 Exercises 462

Chapter 23 Steam Systems and Cogeneration 465
23.1 Boiler Feedwater Treatment 466
23.2 Steam Boilers 468
23.3 Steam Turbines 471
23.4 Gas Turbines 477
23.5 Steam System Configuration 482
23.6 Steam and Power Balances 484
23.7 Site Composite Curves 487
23.8 Cogeneration Targets 490
23.9 Optimization of Steam Levels 493
23.10 Site Power-to-heat Ratio 496
23.11 Optimizing Steam Systems 498
23.12 Steam Costs 502
23.13 Choice of Driver 506
23.14 Steam Systems and Cogeneration – Summary 507
23.15 Exercises 508

Chapter 24 Cooling and Refrigeration Systems 513
24.1 Cooling Systems 513
24.2 Recirculating Cooling Water Systems 513
24.3 Targeting Minimum Cooling Water Flowrate 516
24.4 Design of Cooling Water Networks 518
24.5 Retrofit of Cooling Water Systems 524
24.6 Refrigeration Cycles 526
24.7 Process Expanders 530
24.8 Choice of Refrigerant for Compression Refrigeration 532
24.9 Targeting Refrigeration Power for Compression Refrigeration 535
24.10 Heat Integration of Compression Refrigeration Processes 539
24.11 Mixed Refrigerants for Compression Refrigeration 542
24.12 Absorption Refrigeration 544
24.13 Indirect Refrigeration 546
24.14 Cooling Water and Refrigeration Systems – Summary 546
24.15 Exercises 547

Chapter 25 Environmental Design for Atmospheric Emissions 551
25.1 Atmospheric Pollution 551
25.2 Sources of Atmospheric Pollution 552
25.3 Control of Solid Particulate Emissions to Atmosphere 553
25.4 Control of VOC Emissions to Atmosphere 554
25.5 Control of Sulfur Emissions 565
25.6 Control of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions 569
25.7 Control of Combustion Emissions 573
25.8 Atmospheric Dispersion 574
25.9 Environmental Design for Atmospheric Emissions – Summary 575
25.10 Exercises 576

Chapter 26 Water System Design 581
26.1 Aqueous Contamination 583
26.2 Primary Treatment Processes 585
26.3 Biological Treatment Processes 588
26.4 Tertiary Treatment Processes 591
26.5 Water Use 593
26.6 Targeting Maximum Water Reuse for Single Contaminants 594
26.7 Design for Maximum Water Reuse for Single Contaminants 596
26.8 Targeting and Design for Maximum Water Reuse Based on Optimization of a Superstructure 604
26.9 Process Changes for Reduced Water Consumption 606
26.10 Targeting Minimum Wastewater Treatment Flowrate for Single Contaminants 607
26.11 Design for Minimum Wastewater Treatment Flowrate for Single Contaminants 610
26.12 Regeneration of Wastewater 613
26.13 Targeting and Design for Effluent Treatment and Regeneration Based on Optimization of a Superstructure 616
26.14 Data Extraction 617
26.15 Water System Design – Summary 620
26.16 Exercises 620

Chapter 27 Inherent Safety 625
27.1 Fire 625
27.2 Explosion 626
27.3 Toxic Release 627
27.4 Intensification of Hazardous Materials 628
27.5 Attenuation of Hazardous Materials 630
27.6 Quantitative Measures of Inherent Safety 631
27.7 Inherent Safety – Summary 632
27.8 Exercises 632

Chapter 28 Clean Process Technology 635
28.1 Sources of Waste from Chemical Production 635
28.2 Clean Process Technology for Chemical Reactors 636
28.3 Clean Process Technology for Separation and Recycle Systems 637
28.4 Clean Process Technology for Process Operations 642
28.5 Clean Process Technology for Utility Systems 643
28.6 Trading off Clean Process Technology Options 644
28.7 Life Cycle Analysis 645
28.8 Clean Process Technology – Summary 646
28.9 Exercises 646

Chapter 29 Overall Strategy for Chemical Process Design and Integration 649
29.1 Objectives 649
29.2 The Hierarchy 649
29.3 The Final Design 651

Appendix A Annualization of Capital Cost 653

Appendix B Gas Compression 655
B.1 Reciprocating Compressors 655
B.2 Centrifugal Compressors 658
B.3 Staged Compression 659

Appendix C Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Drop in Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers 661
C.1 Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Correlations for the Tube-Side 661
C.2 Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Correlations for the Shell-Side 662

Appendix D The Maximum Thermal Effectiveness for 1–2 Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers 667

Appendix E Expression for the Minimum Number of 1–2 Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers for a Given Unit 669

Appendix F Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger Network Area Target 671

Appendix G Algorithm for the Heat Exchanger Network Number of Shells Target 673
G.1 Minimum Area Target for Networks of 1–2 Shells 674

Appendix H Algorithm for Heat Exchanger Network Capital Cost Targets 677

Index 679

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