Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications / Edition 3

Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications / Edition 3

by Daniel A. Crowl, Joseph F. Louvar
     
 

View All Available Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0131382268

ISBN-13: 9780131382268

Pub. Date: 06/03/2011

Publisher: Prentice Hall

The Leading Guide To Process Safety Now Extensively Updated For Today’s Processes And Systems

As chemical processes have grown more complex, so have the safety systems required to prevent accidents. Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition, offers students and practitioners a more fundamental understanding of safety and the

Overview

The Leading Guide To Process Safety Now Extensively Updated For Today’s Processes And Systems

As chemical processes have grown more complex, so have the safety systems required to prevent accidents. Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition, offers students and practitioners a more fundamental understanding of safety and the application required to safely design and manage today’s sophisticated processes.

The third edition continues the definitive standard of the previous editions. The content has been extensively updated to today’s techniques and procedures, and two new chapters have been added. A new chapter on chemical reactivity provides the information necessary to identify, characterize, control, and manage reactive chemical hazards. A new chapter on safety procedures and designs includes new content on safely management, and specific procedures including hot work permits, lock-tag-try, and vessel entry.

Subjects Include

  • Inherently safer design
  • Toxicology and industrial hygiene
  • Toxic release and dispersion models
  • Fires and explosions, and how to prevent them
  • Reliefs and relief sizing
  • Hazard identification
  • Risk assessment
  • Safe designs and procedures
  • Case histories

Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition, is an ideal reference for professionals. It can be used for both graduate and undergraduate instruction. This edition contains more than 480 end-of-chapter problems. A solutions manual is available for instructors.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131382268
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
06/03/2011
Series:
Prentice Hall International Series in the Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
752
Sales rank:
441,919
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.80(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xv

About the Authors xvii

On the Cover xviii

Nomenclature xix


Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1-1 Safety Programs 2

1-2 Engineering Ethics 4

1-3 Accident and Loss Statistics 4

1-4 Acceptable Risk 12

1-5 Public Perceptions 14

1-6 The Nature of the Accident Process 15

1-7 Inherent Safety 20

1-8 Seven Significant Disasters 23

Suggested Reading 31

Problems 32

Chapter 2: Toxicology 37

2-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms 38

2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms 41

2-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms 42

2-4 Toxicological Studies 43

2-5 Dose versus Response 44

2-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves 50

2-7 Relative Toxicity 56

2-8 Threshold Limit Values 56

2-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond 58

On-Line Resources 59

Suggested Reading 60

Problems 60

Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene 65

3-1 Government Regulations 66

3-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification 78

3-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation 84

3-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control 99

On-Line Resources 109

Suggested Reading 109

Problems 110

Chapter 4: Source Models 119

4-1 Introduction to Source Models 119

4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole 122

4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank 126

4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes 131

4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes 140

4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes 146

4-7 Flashing Liquids 163

4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling 169

4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases 170

4-10 Conservative Analysis 172

Suggested Reading 173

Problems 174

Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models 185

5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion 186

5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models 190

5-3 Dense Gas Dispersion 209

5-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas 219

5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria 225

5-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy 233

5-7 Release Mitigation 234

Suggested Reading 235

Problems 236

Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions 245

6-1 The Fire Triangle 245

6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions 247

6-3 Definitions 247

6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors 249

6-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting 260

6-6 Flammability Diagram 262

6-7 Ignition Energy 270

6-8 Autoignition 270

6-9 Auto-Oxidation 271

6-10 Adiabatic Compression 272

6-11 Ignition Sources 273

6-12 Sprays and Mists 274

6-13 Explosions 275

Suggested Reading 304

Problems 305

Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions 317

7-1 Inerting 318

7-2 Static Electricity 333

7-3 Controlling Static Electricity 356

7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments 363

7-5 Ventilation 367

7-6 Sprinkler Systems 370

7-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions 374

Suggested Reading 374

Problems 375

Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity 381

8-1 Background Understanding 382

8-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards 384

8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters 390

8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards 416

Suggested Reading 418

Problems 418

Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs 429

9-1 Relief Concepts 430

9-2 Definitions 432

9-3 Location of Reliefs 433

9-4 Relief Types and Characteristics 436

9-5 Relief Scenarios 443

9-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs 444

9-7 Relief Systems 444

Suggested Reading 452

Problems 453

Chapter 10: Relief Sizing 459

10-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service 460

10-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 466

10-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service 470

10-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 471

10-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief 472

10-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs 481

10-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions 481

10-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels 488

10-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids 492

Suggested Reading 496

Problems 497

Chapter 11: Hazards Identification 505

11-1 Process Hazards Checklists 508

11-2 Hazards Surveys 508

11-3 Hazards and Operability Studies 524

11-4 Safety Reviews 530

11-5 Other Methods 537

Suggested Reading 538

Problems 538

Chapter 12: Risk Assessment 549

12-1 Review of Probability Theory 550

12-2 Event Trees 564

12-3 Fault Trees 569

12-4 QRA and LOPA 577

Suggested Reading 588

Problems 588

Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs 597

13-1 Process Safety Hierarchy 598

13-2 Managing Safety 599

13-3 Best Practices 600

13-4 Procedures–Operating 600

13-5 Procedures–Permits 601

13-6 Procedures–Safety Reviews and Accident Investigations 603

13-7 Designs for Process Safety 604

13-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions 615

13-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions 615

13-10 Designs for Handling Dusts 616

Suggested Reading 617

Problems 618

Chapter 14: Case Histories 621

14-1 Static Electricity 622

14-2 Chemical Reactivity 626

14-3 System Designs 631

14-4 Procedures 637

14-5 Training 642

14-6 Conclusion 645

Suggested Reading 646

Problems 646

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 649

Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 653

Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams 659

Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures 659

Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service 664

Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4 669

Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 679

Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals 681

Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances 687

Index 695

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >