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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications / Edition 3

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Overview

The Leading Guide To Process Safety Now Extensively Updated For Today’s Processes And Systems

As chemical processes have grown more complex, so have the safety systems required to prevent accidents. Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition, offers students and practitioners a more fundamental understanding of safety and the application required to safely design and manage today’s sophisticated processes.

The third edition continues the definitive standard of the previous editions. The content has been extensively updated to today’s techniques and procedures, and two new chapters have been added. A new chapter on chemical reactivity provides the information necessary to identify, characterize, control, and manage reactive chemical hazards. A new chapter on safety procedures and designs includes new content on safely management, and specific procedures including hot work permits, lock-tag-try, and vessel entry.

Subjects Include

  • Inherently safer design
  • Toxicology and industrial hygiene
  • Toxic release and dispersion models
  • Fires and explosions, and how to prevent them
  • Reliefs and relief sizing
  • Hazard identification
  • Risk assessment
  • Safe designs and procedures
  • Case histories

Chemical Process Safety, Third Edition, is an ideal reference for professionals. It can be used for both graduate and undergraduate instruction. This edition contains more than 480 end-of-chapter problems. A solutions manual is available for instructors.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A resource text including the principles, guidelines, and calculations necessary for the safe design and operation of chemical plants. Numerous worked-out examples and exercises illustrate the practical application of principles. The coverage includes: fires and explosions; vessel overpressure protection; hazards identification and risk assessment; source models; and dispersion modeling. For beginning and more advanced practicing engineers. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.com
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Daniel A. Crowl is Herbert H. Dow Professor for Chemical Process Safety at Michigan Tech. He serves on the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Safety and Chemical Engineering Education (SACHE) Committee, and is author/editor of several AIChE books on process safety. His awards include AIChE’s Bill Doyle Award; the ACS Chemical Health and Safety Award; the Walton/Miller award from AIChE’s Safety and Health Division; and the AIChE Board’s Gary Leach Award. He is a Fellow of AIChE, ACS Safety and Health Division , and CCPS.

Joseph F. Louvar is Research Professor at Wayne State University’s College of Engineering, where he teaches chemical process safety, risk assessment, and process design. He was recently the CCPS staff consultant for the Undergraduate Education Committee, commonly known as the Safety and Chemical Engineering Education Committee (AIChE’s SACHE) and has previously chaired this committee for over ten years. His books include Health and Environmental Risk Analysis: Fundamentals with Applications (Prentice Hall, 1997).

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

This second edition of Chemical Process Safety is designed to enhance the process of teaching and applying the fundamentals of chemical process safety. It is appropriate for an industrial reference, a senior-level undergraduate course, or a graduate course in chemical process safety. It can be used by anyone interested in improving chemical process safety, including chemical and mechanical engineers and chemists. More material is presented than can be accommodated in a 3-credit course, providing instructors with the opportunity to emphasize their topics of interest.

The primary objective of this textbook is to encapsulate the important technical fundamentals of chemical process safety. The emphasis on the fundamentals will help the student and practicing scientist to understand the concepts and apply them accordingly. This application requires a significant quantity of fundamental knowledge and technology.

The second edition has been rewritten to include new process safety technology and new references that have appeared since the first edition was published in 1990. It also includes our combined experiences of teaching process safety in both industry and academia during the past 10 years.

Significant modifications were made to the following topics: dispersion modeling, source modeling, flammability characterization, explosion venting, fundamentals of electrostatics, and case histories. This new edition also includes selected materials from the latest AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) books and is now an excellent introduction to the CCPS library.

This second edition also includes more problems (now 30 per chapter). A complete set ofproblem solutions is available to instructors using the book in their curriculum. These changes fulfill the requests of many professors who have used this textbook.

We continue to believe that a textbook on safety is possible only with both industrial and academic inputs. The industrial input ensures that the material is industrially relevant. The academic input ensures that the material is presented on a fundamental basis to help professors and students understand the concepts. Although the authors are (now) both from universities, one has over 30 years of relevant experience in industry (J. F. L.) and the other (D. A. C.) has accumulated significant industrial experience since the writing of the first edition.

Since the first edition was published, many universities have developed courses or course content in chemical process safety. This new emphasis on process safety is the result of the positive influences from industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Based on faculty feedback, this textbook is an excellent application of the fundamental topics that are taught in the first three years of the undergraduate education.

Although professors normally have little background in chemical process safety, they have found that the concepts in this text and the accompanying problems and solutions are easy to learn and teach. Professors have also found that industrial employees are enthusiastic and willing to give specific lectures on safety to enhance their courses.

This textbook is designed for a dedicated course in chemical process safety. However, we continue to believe that chemical process safety should be part of every undergraduate and graduate course in chemistry and chemical and mechanical engineering, just as it is a part of all the industrial experiences. This text is an excellent reference for these courses. This textbook can also be used as a reference for a design course.

Some will remark that our presentation is not complete or that some details are missing. The purpose of this book, however, is not to be complete but to provide a starting point for those who wish to learn about this important area. This book, for example, has a companion text titled Health and Environmental Risk Analysis that extends the topics relevant to risk analysis.

We hope that this textbook helps prevent chemical plant and university accidents and contributes to a much safer future.

Daniel A. Crowl and Joseph F. Louvar

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

About the Authors xvii

On the Cover xviii

Nomenclature xix


Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1-1 Safety Programs 2

1-2 Engineering Ethics 4

1-3 Accident and Loss Statistics 4

1-4 Acceptable Risk 12

1-5 Public Perceptions 14

1-6 The Nature of the Accident Process 15

1-7 Inherent Safety 20

1-8 Seven Significant Disasters 23

Suggested Reading 31

Problems 32

Chapter 2: Toxicology 37

2-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms 38

2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms 41

2-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms 42

2-4 Toxicological Studies 43

2-5 Dose versus Response 44

2-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves 50

2-7 Relative Toxicity 56

2-8 Threshold Limit Values 56

2-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond 58

On-Line Resources 59

Suggested Reading 60

Problems 60

Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene 65

3-1 Government Regulations 66

3-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification 78

3-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation 84

3-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control 99

On-Line Resources 109

Suggested Reading 109

Problems 110

Chapter 4: Source Models 119

4-1 Introduction to Source Models 119

4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole 122

4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank 126

4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes 131

4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes 140

4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes 146

4-7 Flashing Liquids 163

4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling 169

4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases 170

4-10 Conservative Analysis 172

Suggested Reading 173

Problems 174

Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models 185

5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion 186

5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models 190

5-3 Dense Gas Dispersion 209

5-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas 219

5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria 225

5-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy 233

5-7 Release Mitigation 234

Suggested Reading 235

Problems 236

Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions 245

6-1 The Fire Triangle 245

6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions 247

6-3 Definitions 247

6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors 249

6-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting 260

6-6 Flammability Diagram 262

6-7 Ignition Energy 270

6-8 Autoignition 270

6-9 Auto-Oxidation 271

6-10 Adiabatic Compression 272

6-11 Ignition Sources 273

6-12 Sprays and Mists 274

6-13 Explosions 275

Suggested Reading 304

Problems 305

Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions 317

7-1 Inerting 318

7-2 Static Electricity 333

7-3 Controlling Static Electricity 356

7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments 363

7-5 Ventilation 367

7-6 Sprinkler Systems 370

7-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions 374

Suggested Reading 374

Problems 375

Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity 381

8-1 Background Understanding 382

8-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards 384

8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters 390

8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards 416

Suggested Reading 418

Problems 418

Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs 429

9-1 Relief Concepts 430

9-2 Definitions 432

9-3 Location of Reliefs 433

9-4 Relief Types and Characteristics 436

9-5 Relief Scenarios 443

9-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs 444

9-7 Relief Systems 444

Suggested Reading 452

Problems 453

Chapter 10: Relief Sizing 459

10-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service 460

10-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 466

10-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service 470

10-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 471

10-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief 472

10-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs 481

10-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions 481

10-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels 488

10-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids 492

Suggested Reading 496

Problems 497

Chapter 11: Hazards Identification 505

11-1 Process Hazards Checklists 508

11-2 Hazards Surveys 508

11-3 Hazards and Operability Studies 524

11-4 Safety Reviews 530

11-5 Other Methods 537

Suggested Reading 538

Problems 538

Chapter 12: Risk Assessment 549

12-1 Review of Probability Theory 550

12-2 Event Trees 564

12-3 Fault Trees 569

12-4 QRA and LOPA 577

Suggested Reading 588

Problems 588

Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs 597

13-1 Process Safety Hierarchy 598

13-2 Managing Safety 599

13-3 Best Practices 600

13-4 Procedures–Operating 600

13-5 Procedures–Permits 601

13-6 Procedures–Safety Reviews and Accident Investigations 603

13-7 Designs for Process Safety 604

13-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions 615

13-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions 615

13-10 Designs for Handling Dusts 616

Suggested Reading 617

Problems 618

Chapter 14: Case Histories 621

14-1 Static Electricity 622

14-2 Chemical Reactivity 626

14-3 System Designs 631

14-4 Procedures 637

14-5 Training 642

14-6 Conclusion 645

Suggested Reading 646

Problems 646

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 649

Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 653

Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams 659

Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures 659

Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service 664

Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4 669

Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 679

Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals 681

Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances 687

Index 695

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Preface

Preface

This second edition of Chemical Process Safety is designed to enhance the process of teaching and applying the fundamentals of chemical process safety. It is appropriate for an industrial reference, a senior-level undergraduate course, or a graduate course in chemical process safety. It can be used by anyone interested in improving chemical process safety, including chemical and mechanical engineers and chemists. More material is presented than can be accommodated in a 3-credit course, providing instructors with the opportunity to emphasize their topics of interest.

The primary objective of this textbook is to encapsulate the important technical fundamentals of chemical process safety. The emphasis on the fundamentals will help the student and practicing scientist to understand the concepts and apply them accordingly. This application requires a significant quantity of fundamental knowledge and technology.

The second edition has been rewritten to include new process safety technology and new references that have appeared since the first edition was published in 1990. It also includes our combined experiences of teaching process safety in both industry and academia during the past 10 years.

Significant modifications were made to the following topics: dispersion modeling, source modeling, flammability characterization, explosion venting, fundamentals of electrostatics, and case histories. This new edition also includes selected materials from the latest AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) books and is now an excellent introduction to the CCPS library.

This second edition also includes more problems (now 30 per chapter). A complete setof problem solutions is available to instructors using the book in their curriculum. These changes fulfill the requests of many professors who have used this textbook.

We continue to believe that a textbook on safety is possible only with both industrial and academic inputs. The industrial input ensures that the material is industrially relevant. The academic input ensures that the material is presented on a fundamental basis to help professors and students understand the concepts. Although the authors are (now) both from universities, one has over 30 years of relevant experience in industry (J. F. L.) and the other (D. A. C.) has accumulated significant industrial experience since the writing of the first edition.

Since the first edition was published, many universities have developed courses or course content in chemical process safety. This new emphasis on process safety is the result of the positive influences from industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Based on faculty feedback, this textbook is an excellent application of the fundamental topics that are taught in the first three years of the undergraduate education.

Although professors normally have little background in chemical process safety, they have found that the concepts in this text and the accompanying problems and solutions are easy to learn and teach. Professors have also found that industrial employees are enthusiastic and willing to give specific lectures on safety to enhance their courses.

This textbook is designed for a dedicated course in chemical process safety. However, we continue to believe that chemical process safety should be part of every undergraduate and graduate course in chemistry and chemical and mechanical engineering, just as it is a part of all the industrial experiences. This text is an excellent reference for these courses. This textbook can also be used as a reference for a design course.

Some will remark that our presentation is not complete or that some details are missing. The purpose of this book, however, is not to be complete but to provide a starting point for those who wish to learn about this important area. This book, for example, has a companion text titled Health and Environmental Risk Analysis that extends the topics relevant to risk analysis.

We hope that this textbook helps prevent chemical plant and university accidents and contributes to a much safer future.

Daniel A. Crowl and Joseph F. Louvar

Read More Show Less

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