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Chemical Reactions and Processes under Flow Conditions

Overview

Chemical Reactions and Processes under Flow Conditions gives an insight into flow continuous processes, outlining the basic concepts and explaining the terminology of, and systems approach to, process design dealing with both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and mini-or micro-reactors. The book contains case studies, extensive bibliographies and each chapter is fully referenced to enable the reader to grasp the contents and to go on to more detailed texts on specific ...

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Overview

Chemical Reactions and Processes under Flow Conditions gives an insight into flow continuous processes, outlining the basic concepts and explaining the terminology of, and systems approach to, process design dealing with both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and mini-or micro-reactors. The book contains case studies, extensive bibliographies and each chapter is fully referenced to enable the reader to grasp the contents and to go on to more detailed texts on specific subjects if desired.

The book is written by both organic chemists and engineers giving a multidisciplinary vision of the new tools and methodologies in this field. It is essential reading for organic chemists (in industry or academia) working alongside chemical engineers or who want to undertake chemical engineering projects. It will also be of interest for chemical engineers to see how basic engineering concepts are applied in modem organic chemistry.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781847559715
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, The
  • Publication date: 1/28/2014
  • Series: RSC Green Chemistry Series
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Pages: 204

Meet the Author

Santiago V Luis is Professor of organic chemistry at the University Jaume I, Castellon, Spain. Eduardo Garcia-Verdugo is a Research Associate in the Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Department at the University Jaume I, Castellon, Spain. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry and materials science from the University Jaume I, Castellon, Spain. In 2000, Dr Garcia-Verdugo received a post-doctoral Marie Curie Fellowship from the EU commission whilst working at the Clean Technology Group at Nottingham University. In 2004, he was elected for the prestigious Ramón y Cajal research program from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (MEC). He is also co-author of 41 publications in peer-reviewed, high impact, international chemistry journals and has given 20 communications and 7 lectures in international conferences and Symposia.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Engineering Factors for Efficient Flow Processes in Chemical Industries Alexei A. Lapkin Pawel K. Plucinski 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Heterogeneous Catalytic Flow Processes in the Petrochemical Industry: A Brief Overview 5

1.2.1 Gas-solid and Liquid-solid Catalytic and Non-catalytic Continuous Processes 5

1.2.2 Two-phase Gas-liquid Continuous Industrial Reactors 6

1.2.3 Three-phase Catalytic Reactors 9

1.3 Scale-up of Conventional Continuous Reactors 16

1.4 Process Intensification: An Overview 18

1.4.1 Process-intensifying Equipment 19

1.4.2 Process-intensifying Methods 21

1.4.3 Multifunctional Reactors 21

1.4.4 Membrane Reactors 23

1.4.5 Spinning Disk Reactor 23

1.5 Engineering of Multifunctional, Micro- and Compact Reactors 24

1.5.1 tPhysics of Flow in Microchannels 24

1.5.2 Principles of Multiphase Contacting in Micro-and Compact Reactors 26

1.5.3 Heterogeneous Catalyst Design for Micro- and Compact Reactors 28

1.5.4 Fabrication of Micro- and Compact Reactors 30

1.6 Scale-up of Micro- and Compact Reactors 32

1.6.1 Blockage of Microreactors 33

1.6.2 Flow Distribution in Multiple Parallel Channels 34

1.7 Concluding Remarks 35

1.8 Symbols/Nomenclature 36

References 37

Chapter 2 Flow Processes Using Polymer-supported Reagents, Scavengers and Catalysts Eduardo García-Verdugo Santiago V. Luis 44

2.1 Introduction 44

2.2 Flow Processes with Use of Bead-type Resins 50

2.2.1 Use of Gel-type Beads 50

2.2.2 Use of Macroporous Beads 55

2.3 Flow Processes with Use of Polymeric Monoliths 58

2.3.1 General Remarks 58

2.3.2 Monolithic Reagents and Scavengers 59

2.3.3 Monolithic Non-chiral Catalysts 62

2.3.4Monolithic Chiral Catalysts 64

2.4 Functionalised Polymers and Potential for Industrial Applications under Flow Conditions 70

2.4.1 Scaling-up with Polymer-supported Systems 70

2.4.2 Use of Ion Exchange Resins as Catalysts for Flow Processes 70

Ongoing Developments and Future Prospective 72

2.5.1 Multistage Flow Synthesis with Use of Coupled Columns Packed with Different Functionalised Polymers 72

2.5.2 Flow Processes Involving Functionalised Polymers and Microwave Irradiation 74

2.5.3 Flow Processes Involving Functionalised Polymers and Supercritical Fluids 76

2.5.4 Polymer-supported Biocatalysts under Flow Conditions 77

2.5.5 Miscellaneous Approaches 77

References 79

Chapter 3 Zeolites and Related Materials for Developing Continuous Flow Systems Maria J. Sabater Fernando Rey Jesús Lázaro 86

3.1 Introduction 86

3.2 Zeolites and Zeotypes: Outstanding Inorganic Materials for Heterogeneous Processes in Chemistry 87

3.3 Current Industrial Applications of Zeolites and Related Materials 90

3.3.1 Zeolites in Refining and Petrochemical Processes 90

3.3.2 Current Applications in the Fine Chemicals Industry 103

3.4 From Laboratory-scale to Production: Petrochemicals and Fine Chemicals 111

3.5 Future and Industrial Perspectives 113

References 113

Chapter 4 Microfluidic Devices for Organic Processes Paola Laurino Arjan Odedra Xiao Yin Mak Tomas Gustafsson Karolin Geyer Peter H. Seeberger 118

4.1 Microreactors and Microfluidic Devices: Concepts and Definitions 118

4.2 Main Advantages of Microfluidic Devices 119

4.3 Scale-up of Microflow Reactions 120

4.4 Liquid-Liquid Reactions 122

4.4.1 Photochemical Reactions 122

4.4.2 Heterocycle Synthesis 124

4.4.3 Synthesis of Bio-oligomers 126

4.4.4 Multistep Reactions 127

4.4.5 Free Radical Reactions 129

4.4.6 Reactions Involving Hazardous Materials and Unstable Intermediates 130

4.4.7 Biphasic Liquid-Liquid Reactions 134

4.5 Liquid-Gas Reactions 136

4.5.1 Oxidation with Ozone 136

4.5.2 Singlet Oxygen Oxidation 136

4.5.3 Fluorination 137

4.5.4 Chlorination 138

4.5.5 Cross-coupling Reactions 138

4.6 Liquid-Gas-Solid Reactions 140

4.6.1 Hydrogenation 140

4.6.2 Reductive Amination 141

4.6.3 Aminocarbonylation 141

4.6.4 Alcohol Oxidation 143

4.7 Solid Supports and Monolith-bound Reagents in Continuous Flow 144

4.7.1 Solid-supported Reagents 144

4.7.2 Solid-supported Catalysts 150

4.8 Industrial Uses and Perspectives 153

References 157

Chapter 5 Flow Processes in Non-Conventional Media Tânia Quintats David J. Cole-Hamilton 163

5.1 The Need for Alternative Solvents in Flow Catalysis 163

5.1.1 Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Catalysis 163

5.2 Continuous Flow Processing using Homogeneous Catalysis 165

5.3 The Use of Solvents 167

5.3.1 Traditional Solvents vs. Non-conventional Solvents 168

5.4 Ionic Liquids 168

5.4.1 The concept of Ionic Liquids 168

5.4.2 Continuous Flow Catalysis using Ionic Liquids 170

5.5 Supercritical Fluids 179

5.5.1 Supercritical Fluids for Product Separation in Homogeneous Catalysis 181

5.5.2 Recycling CO2 188

5.6 Final Remarks 190

References 191

Subject Index 196

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