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Chemical Reference Materials: Setting the Standards for Ocean Science
     

Chemical Reference Materials: Setting the Standards for Ocean Science

by Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science
 

ISBN-10: 0309085004

ISBN-13: 9780309085007

Pub. Date: 10/03/2002

Publisher: National Academies Press

The accuracy of chemical oceanographic measurements depends on calibration against reference materials to ensure comparability over time and among laboratories. Several key parameters lack reference materials for measurements in seawater, particles in the water column, and sediments. Without reference materials it is difficult to produce the reliable data sets or

Overview

The accuracy of chemical oceanographic measurements depends on calibration against reference materials to ensure comparability over time and among laboratories. Several key parameters lack reference materials for measurements in seawater, particles in the water column, and sediments. Without reference materials it is difficult to produce the reliable data sets or long-term baseline studies that are essential to verify global change and oceanic stability. Chemical Reference Materials : Setting the Standards for Ocean Science identifies the most urgently required chemical reference materials based on key themes for oceanographic research and provides suggestions as to how they can be developed within realistic cost constraints.

Chemical analyses of seawater are uniquely difficult given the poorly known speciation and the low concentration of many of the analytes of interest. Analyses of suspended and sedimentary marine particulate materials present their own distinct challenges, primarily due to potential interference by predominant mineral phases of different types. Of all the analytical methods applied to marine waters and particles, at present only a small fraction can be systematically evaluated via comparison to reference materials that represent the appropriate natural concentrations and matrices.

Specifically, the committee was charged with the following tasks:

- compile from available sources a list of important oceanographic research questions that may benefit from chemical reference standards;

- create a comprehensive list of reference materials currently available for oceanographic studies;

- identify and prioritize the reference materials needed to study the identified research questions;

- determine for each priority analyte whether reference materials and/or analytic methods should be standardized; and

- identify the most appropriate approaches for the development and future production of reference materials for ocean sciences.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309085007
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
10/03/2002
Pages:
144
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....................1
1 INTRODUCTION....................7
Background to the Study....................7
Benefits of Chemical Reference Materials to Ocean Science....................11
Report Structure....................14
2 IMPROVING CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA....................17
Matrix Dependence of Reference Materials....................17
How Reference Materials Work....................18
Limitations of Reference Materials....................20
Benefits of Reference Materials....................22
3 SEAWATER....................29
Nutrients....................29
Trace Metals....................33
Radionuclides....................37
Carbon Isotopes in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC)....................41
Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)....................43
Dissolved Gases....................46
4 CHEMICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES....................47
Rationale for Sediment and Particulate Matter Analysis....................47
Influence of Matrix Composition on Chemical Determinations....................57
Reference Materials Currently Available for the Analysis of Sediment and Particulate Samples....................66
Recommended Reference Materials....................72
Potential Long-Term Needs for Additional Reference Materials....................75
5 PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS....................77
Introduction....................77
Requirements of Reference Materials....................78
Reference Material and Certified Reference Material Production....................78
MethodsEmployed to Characterize Reference Materials and Certified Reference Materials....................81
Preparation of Recommended New Reference Materials and Certified Reference Materials for Ocean Science....................82
Costs of Producing and Distributing Reference Materials and Certified Reference Materials....................85
A Strategy for the Production of New Reference Materials for the Ocean Sciences....................86
Education....................87
6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................89
Recommendations for Reference Materials for Ocean Science....................90
Recommendations for Community Participation....................95
Statement of Top Priorities....................96
REFERENCES CITED....................99
APPENDIXES A COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES....................111
B WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS....................115
C GLOSSARY....................116
D ACRONYM LIST AND CHEMICAL TERMINOLOGY....................122
E REFERENCE MATERIALS LISTED WITHIN THIS REPORT....................126

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