Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides: Laboratory Techniques and Methodology / Edition 1by Jukka Lehto, Xiaolin Hou
Pub. Date: 02/02/2011
Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.
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- Product dimensions:
- 6.80(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.00(d)
Table of ContentsPreface.
1 Radionuclides and their Radiometric Measurement.
1.2 Modes of Radioactive Decay.
1.3 Detection and Measurement of Radiation.
2 Special Features of the Chemistry of Radionuclides and their Separation.
2.1 Small Quantities.
2.3 Use of Carriers.
2.4 Utilization of Radiation in the Determination of Radionuclides.
2.5 Consideration of Elapsed Time.
2.6 Changes in the System Caused by Radiation and Decay.
2.7 The Need for Radiochemical Separations.
3 Factors Affecting Chemical Forms of Radionuclides in Aqueous Solutions.
3.1 Solution pH.
3.2 Redox Potential.
3.3 Dissolved Gases.
3.4 Ligands Forming Complexes with Metals.
3.5 Humic Substances.
3.6 Colloidal Particles.
3.7 Source and Generation of Radionuclides.
3.8 Appendix: Reagents Used to Adjust Oxidation States of Radionuclides.
4 Separation Methods.
4.2 Solubility Product.
4.3 Ion Exchange.
4.4 Solvent Extraction.
4.5 Extraction Chromatography.
5 Yield Determinations and Counting Source Preparation.
5.1 The Determination of Chemical Yield in Radiochemical Analyses.
5.2 Preparation of Sources for Activity Counting.
5.3 Essentials in Chemical Yield Determination and in Counting Source Preparation.
6 Radiochemistry of the Alkali Metals.
6.1 Most Important Radionuclides of the Alkali Metals.
6.2 Chemical Properties of the Alkali Metals.
6.3 Separation Needs of Alkali Metal Radionuclides.
6.4 Potassium – 40K.
6.5 Cesium – 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs.
6.6 Essentials in the Radiochemistry of the Alkali Metals.
7 Radiochemistry of the Alkaline Earth Metals.
7.1 Most Important Radionuclides of the Alkaline Earth Metals.
7.2 Chemical Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals.
7.3 Beryllium – 7Be and 10Be.
7.4 Calcium – 41Ca and 45Ca.
7.5 Strontium – 89Sr and 90Sr.
7.6 Radium – 226Ra and 228Ra.
7.7 Essentials in the Radiochemistry of the Alkaline Earth Metals.
8 Radiochemistry of the 3d-Transition Metals.
8.1 The Most Important Radionuclides of the 3d-Transition Metals.
8.2 Chemical Properties of the 3d-Transition Metals.
8.3 Iron – 55Fe.
8.4 Nickel – 59Ni and 63Ni.
8.5 Essentials in 3-d Transition Metals Radiochemistry.
9 Radiochemistry of the 4d-Transition Metals.
9.1 Important Radionuclides of the 4d-Transition Metals.
9.2 Chemistry of the 4d-Transition Metals.
9.3 Technetium – 99Tc.
9.4 Zirconium – 93Zr.
9.5 Molybdenum – 93Mo.
9.6 Niobium – 94Nb.
9.7 Essentials in the Radiochemistry of 4-d Transition Metals.
10 Radiochemistry of the Lanthanides.
10.1 Important Lanthanide Radionuclides.
10.2 Chemical Properties of the Lanthanides.
10.3 Separation of Lanthanides from Actinides.
10.4 Lanthanides as Actinide Analogs.
10.5 147Pm and 151Sm.
10.6 Essentials of Lanthanide Radiochemistry.
11 Radiochemistry of the Halogens.
11.1 Important Halogen Radionuclides.
11.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of the Halogens.
11.3 Chlorine – 36Cl.
11.4 Iodine – 129I.
11.5 Essentials of Halogen Radiochemistry.
12 Radiochemistry of the Noble Gases.
12.1 Important Radionuclides of the Noble Gases.
12.2 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Noble Gases.
12.3 Measurement of Xe Isotopes in Air.
12.4 Determination of 85Kr in Air.
12.5 Radon and its Determination.
12.6 Essentials of Noble Gas Radiochemistry.
13 Radiochemistry of Tritium and Radiocarbon.
13.1 Tritium – 3H.
13.2 Radiocarbon – 14C.
13.3 Essentials of Tritium and Radiocarbon Radiochemistry.
14 Radiochemistry of Lead, Polonium, Tin, and Selenium.
14.1 Polonium – 210Po.
14.2 Lead – 210Pb.
14.3 Tin – 126Sn.
14.4 Selenium – 79Se.
14.5 Essentials of Polonium, Lead, Tin, and Selenium Radiochemistry.
15 Radiochemistry of the Actinides.
15.1 Important Actinide Isotopes.
15.2 Generation and Origin of the Actinides.
15.3 Electronic Structures of the Actinides.
15.4 Oxidation States of the Actinides.
15.5 Ionic Radii of the Actinides.
15.6 Major Chemical Forms of the Actinides.
15.8 Hydrolysis and Polymerization of the Actinides.
15.9 Complex Formation of the Actinides.
15.10 Oxides of the Actinides.
15.17 Americium and Curium.
16 Speciation Analysis.
16.1 Considerations Relevant to Speciation.
16.2 Significance of Speciation.
16.3 Categorization of Speciation Analyzes.
16.4 Fractionation Techniques for Environmental Samples.
16.5 Analysis of Radionuclide and Isotope Compositions.
16.6 Spectroscopic Speciation Methods.
16.7 Wet Chemical Methods.
16.8 Sequential Extractions.
16.9 Computational Speciation Methods.
16.10 Characterization of Radioactive Particles.
17 Measurement of Radionuclides by Mass Spectrometry.
17.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).
17.3 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS).
17.4 Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS).
17.5 Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS).
17.6 Essentials of the Measurement of Radionuclides by Mass Spectrometry.
18 Sampling and Sample Pretreatment for the Determination of Radionuclides.
18.2 Air Sampling and Pretreatment.
18.3 Sampling Gaseous Components.
18.4 Atmospheric Deposition Sampling.
18.5 Water Sampling.
18.6 Sediment Sampling and Pretreatment.
18.7 Soil Sampling and Pretreatment.
18.8 Essentials in Sampling and Sample Pretreatment for Radionuclides.
19 Chemical Changes Induced by Radioactive Decay.
19.2 Transmutation and Subsequent Chemical Changes.
19.3 Recoil – Hot Atom Chemistry.
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Shardflight jolted awake. The vision faded from his mind as he got to his paws. The smell of blood had seemed so real...<br>He looked at Burnedkit, almost six moons now. 'I wonder if I should give her a name,' he thought, trying to get the nightmare out of his mind. He looked to the horizon, noting the faint line of light rising in the distance. "Burnedkit," he told the reddish kit, "it's time to wake up."<br>For a second she didn't stir; then her eyes opened slowly. "Already...? I almost got the mouse..."<br>She stood, Shardflight looking around. "We should get going before a patrol finds us."<br>"I thought we were trying to find a new Clan. Don't we want them to find us?"<br>"Don't be mousebrained!" Shardflight snapped; then his voice softened. "We can't go to a Clan that's heard of the old one."<br>She just looked at him. "Because you ran before the rogues got there and it might hurt your reputation?"<br>He gave her a look and started heading toward the border. "Come on. They'll be sending out a dawn patrol right about now." Sighing, Burnedkit followed.<p>"What about this Clan?"<br>"No way. It's too close to the old camp."<br>"We left the old camp a moon ago! How is this too close?!"<br>Shardflight shook his head."News travels fast, but after a while, it slows down. So we're trying to travel faster than news and find a faraway Clan that the news hasn't reached."<br>"Well, can't we just rest for a bit? It's hot and we've been walking all day," Burnedkit complained. To her dismay, Shardflight shakes his head.<br>"It's nearly sunhigh. A patrol will come by soon."<br>"Then let them keep us as prisoners or something!" she wailed. "At least we get food and water and rest!"<br>"I get us plenty of food and water!"<br>"But not enough rest! I probably burned off all the calories from breakfast hours ago."<br>Shardflight laughed, but then he grew tense. "Up the tree!" he hissed urgently. "Now!"<br>Serious now, Burnedkit obeyed and climbed up the nearest tree, Shardflight behind her. At a high branch covered by leaves, they looked down at a passing patrol, hardly daring to breathe.<br>"I know I heard voices!" said a burly tom. "And I can smell something!"<br>A lean she-cat answered him, "It doesn't smell like any Clan I know...but it doesn't smell like rogues, either. And no one's here now. We'll report this to the leader, but we can't do anything unless we actually find them."<br>Shardflight and Burnedkit just barely kept from breathing sighs of relief as the patrol went on its way. They waited in the tree until the patrol'd been gone a while before making their way down and continuing their trek. At the border, Burnedkit turned to Shardflight.<br>"I can't smell another Clan's territory past here. I think...we can rest more often now."<br>Shardflight smiled at her. "Yes, Burnedpaw. I think we can."<br>He padded on, leaving the young she-cat looking on in bewilderment for a heartbeat before bounding after him.<p>Chapter 2 should be coming out tomorrow in the next result. Hope you liked it!