Chemistry in Focus: A Molecular View of Our World / Edition 4

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This text helps students understand basic chemical principles in the context of discovering the molecular causes behind our everyday observations. What does matter look like at the molecular and atomic level? Why are leaves green? Why do colored fabrics fade upon repeated exposure to sunlight? All of these basic questions have molecular answers that teach and illustrate chemical principles. Once students have grasped the basic concepts, they are introduced to consumer applications and environmental problems related to the concepts. Mathematical aspects of chemistry are optional.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495605478
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 8/13/2008
  • Series: Available Titles OWL Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 640
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Nivaldo J. Tro received his B.A. degree from Westmont College and his Ph.D. from Stanford University. He went on to a post-doctoral research position at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1990, he joined the chemistry faculty at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California. Professor Tro was honored as Westmont's outstanding teacher of the year in 1994 and 2001, and he was named Westmont's outstanding researcher of the year in 1996. Professor Tro lives in the foothills of Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Alicia, Kyle, and Kaden. In his leisure time, Professor Tro likes to spend time with his family in the outdoors. He enjoys running, camping, surfing, and snowboarding.

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Table of Contents

1. MOLECULAR REASONS. Fire. Molecular Reasons. The Scientist and the Artist. The First People to Wonder about Molecular Reasons. Immortality and Endless Riches. The Beginning of Understanding. The Classification of Matter. The Atomic Theory. 2. THE CHEMISTS TOOL BOX. Curious about Oranges. Feynmans Ants. Measurement. Theorizing. Mathematics in Chemistry. Scientific Notation. Algebraic Manipulations. Solving Word Problems. A Ton of Bricks and a Ton of Feathers. 3. ATOMS AND ELEMENTS. A Walk on the Beach. Protons Determine the Element. Electrons. Neurons. Specifying an Atom. Atomic Weight. Periodic Law. A Theory that Explains the Periodic Law: The Bohr Model. Families of Elements. A Dozen Nails and a Mole of Atoms. 4. MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS. Compounds. Chemical Formulas. Ionic Compounds. Covalent Compounds. Molecular Weight. Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors. Naming Simple Compounds. Forming and Transforming Compounds: Chemical Reactions. Chemical Equations as Conversion Factors. 5. THE BONDS THAT CHANGE. From Poison to Seasoning. Chemical Bonding and Professor G. N. Lewis. Ionic Lewis Structures. Covalent Lewis Structures. The Shapes of Molecules. Water: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules. 6. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. A Monstrous Thicket. A Vital Force. The Simplest Organic Compounds: Hydrocarbons. Naming Hydrocarbons. Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Kekules Dream. Functional Groups. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids. Esters and Ethers. Amines. A Look at a Label. 7. LIGHT AND COLOR. A New England Fall. Light. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Excited Electrons. Identifying Molecules and Atoms with Light. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Spectroscopy of the Human Body. Lasers. Lasers in Medicine. 8. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. A Tragedy. An Accidental Discovery. Radioactivity. Half Life. Nuclear Fission. The Manhattan Project. Nuclear Power. Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy. Fusion. The Effect of Radiation on Human Life. Carbon Dating and the Shroud of Turin. Uranium and the Age of the Earth. Nuclear Medicine. 9. ENERGY FOR TODAY. Molecules in Motion. Our Absolute Reliance on Energy. The Total Amount of Energy is Constant: You Cant Get Something for Nothing. The Total Amount of Disorder Increases: Natures Heat Tax. Some Units and Definitions. Chemistry and Energy. Energy for Our Society. Electricity from Fossil Fuels. Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil Fuel Use: Smog. Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil Fuel Use: Acid Rain. Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil Fuel Use: Global Warming. 11. THE AIR AROUND US. Exploding a Bicycle Tire. A Gas is a Swarm of Particles. Pressure. The Relationships Between Gas Properties. The Atmosphere: Whats in It? The Atmosphere: A Layered Structure. Air Pollution: An Environmental Problem in the Troposphere. Cleaning Up Air Pollution: The Clean Air Act. Ozone Depletion: An Environmental Problem in the Stratosphere. The Montreal Protocol: The End of Chlorofluorocarbons. 12. THE LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS AROUND US: ESPECIALLY WATER. No Gravity, No Spills. Liquids and Solids. Separating Molecules: Melting and Boiling. The Forces That Hold Us—And Everything Else—Together. Smelling Molecules: The Chemistry of Perfume. Chemists Have Solutions. Water: An Oddity Among Molecules. Water: Where Is It and How Did It Get There?. Water: Pure or Polluted?. Hard Water: Good for Our Health, Bad for Our Pipes. Biological Contaminants. Chemical Contaminants. Ensuring Good Water Quality: The Safe Drinking Water Act. Public Water Treatment. Home Water Treatment. 13. ACIDS AND BASES: THE MOLECULES RESPONSIBLE FOR SOUR AND BITTER. If Its Sour, Its Probably an Acid. The Properties of Acids: Tasting Sour and Dissolving Metals. Properties of Bases: Tasting Bitter and Feeling Slippery. Acids and Bases: Molecular Definitions. Strong and Weak Acids and Bases. Specifying the Concentration of Acids and Bases: The pH Scale. Some Common Acids. Some Common Bases. Acid Rain: Extra Acidity from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. Acid Rain: The Effects. Cleaning Up Acid Rain: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 14. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION. Rust. Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions. Some Common Oxidizing and Reducing Agents. Respiration and Photosynthesis. Batteries: Making Electricity with Chemistry. Fuel Cells. Corrosion: The Chemistry of Rust. 15. BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. Brown Hair, Blue Eyes, and Big Mice. Lipids and Fats. Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Sawdust. Proteins: More than Muscle. Protein Structure. Some Common Proteins. Nucleic Acids: The Blueprint for Proteins. Recombinant DNA Technology. Cloning. 16. DRUGS AND MEDICINE: HEALING, HELPING, AND HURTING. Love and Depression. Relieving Pain, Reducing Fever, and Lowering Inflammation. Killing Microscopic Bugs: Antibiotics. Anti-Viral Drugs and AIDS. Sex Hormones and the Pill. Depressants: Drugs that Dull the Mind. Narcotics: Drugs That Diminish Pain. Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines. Legal Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine. Hallucinogenic Drugs: Mescaline and LSD. Marijuana. The Wonder Drugs of the '90s: Prozac and Zoloft. 17. THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD. You Are What You Eat, Literally. Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers. Proteins. Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol, Caloric Intake and the First Law: Extra Calories Lead to Fat. Vitamins. Minerals. Food Additives. The Molecules Used to Protect Crops: Insecticides and Herbicides. 18. THE CHEMISTRY OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS. Cleaning Clothes with Molecules. Soap: A Surfactant. Synthetic Detergents: Surfactants for Hard Water. Laundry Cleaning Formulations. Hair Products. Corrosive Cleaners. Skin Products. Facial Cosmetics. Perfumes and Deodorants: Producing Pleasant Odors and Eliminating Unpleasant Ones. Polymers and Plastics.

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