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The Eighth Edition of CHEMISTRY incorporates a strong molecular reasoning focus, amplified problem-solving exercises, and innovative technological resources. This kind of reasoning helps students think at the molecular level and make connections between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. Molecular reasoning and visualization are emphasized via Molecular-Reasoning icons, chapter objectives, end-of-chapter problems, and new artwork, and are integrated into the accompanying technology, including OWL (online homework management system) and General ChemistryNow (student assessment program). As in previous editions, thermochemistry is covered mainly in one chapter (Chapter 15) and begins the second half of the course. However, to address the need for more material on thermochemistry earlier in the course, the text now includes information on bond energies in Chapter 7 on Chemical Bonding. The discussion of entropy in Chapter 15 has been expanded to include not only molecular disorder but also the concept of energy dispersal.
1. The Foundations of Chemistry. 2. Chemical Formulas and Composition Stoichiometry. 3. Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry. 4. Some Types of Chemical Reactions. 5. The Structure of Atoms. 6. Chemical Periodicity. 7. Chemical Bonding. 8. Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonding Theories. 9. Molecular Orbitals in Chemical Bonding. 10. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 11. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations. 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. 13. Liquids and Solids. 14. Solutions. 15. Chemical Thermodynamics. 16. Chemical Kinetics. 17. Chemical Equilibrium. 18. Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases. 19. Ionic Equilibria II: Buffers and Titration Curves. 20. Ionic Equilibria III: The Solubility Product Principle. 21. Electrochemistry. 22. Metals I: Metallurgy. 23. Metals II: Properties and Reactions. 24. Some Nonmetals and Metalloids. 25. Coordination Compounds. 26. Nuclear Chemistry. 27. Organic Chemistry I: Formulas, Names, and Properties. 28. Organic Chemistry II: Shapes, Selected Reactions, and Biopolymers. Appendix A: Some Mathematical Operations. Appendix B: Electron Conﬁgurations of the Atoms of the Elements. Appendix C: Common Units, Equivalences, and Conversion Factors. Appendix D: Physical Constants. Appendix E: Some Physical Constants for a Few Common Substances. Appendix F: Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25°C. Appendix G: Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25°C. Appendix H: Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25°C. Appendix I: Dissociation Constants for Some Complex Ions. Appendix J: Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C. Appendix K: Selected Thermodynamic Values at 298.15 K. Appendix L: Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Numerical Exercises. Glossary. Index.