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Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change / Edition 4

Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change / Edition 4

by Martin Silberberg

See All Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0073101699

ISBN-13: 9780073101699

Pub. Date: 12/10/2004

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change by Martin Silberberg has become a favorite among faculty and students. Silberberg’s 4th edition contains features that make it the most comprehensive and relevant text for any student enrolled in General Chemistry. The text contains unprecedented macroscopic to microscopic molecular illustrations,


Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change by Martin Silberberg has become a favorite among faculty and students. Silberberg’s 4th edition contains features that make it the most comprehensive and relevant text for any student enrolled in General Chemistry. The text contains unprecedented macroscopic to microscopic molecular illustrations, consistent step-by-step worked exercises in every chapter, an extensive range of end-of-chapter problems which provide engaging applications covering a wide variety of freshman interests, including engineering, medicine, materials, and environmental studies. All of these qualities make Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change the centerpiece for any General Chemistry course.

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McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
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Table of Contents


The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change

1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry

1.1 Some Fundamental Definitions

The Properties of Matter

The Three States of Matter

The Central Theme in Chemistry

The Importance of Energy in the Study of Matter

1.2 Chemical Arts and the Origins of Modern Chemistry

Prechemical Traditions

The Phlogiston Fiasco and the Impact of Lavoisier

1.3 The Scientific Approach: Developing a Model

1.4 Chemical Problem Solving

Units and Conversion Factors in Calculations

A Systematic Approach to Solving Chemistry Problems

1.5 Measurement in Scientific Study

General Features of SI Units

Some Important SI Units in Chemistry
1.6 Uncertainty in Measurement: Significant Figures

Determining Which Digits Are Significant

Working with Significant Figures in Calculations

Precision, Accuracy, and Instrument Calibration

Chapter Perspective

Chemical Connections to Interdisciplinary Science:Chemistry Problem Solving in the Real World
For Review and Reference


The Components of Matter

2.1 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures: An Atomic Overview

2.2 The Observations That Led to an Atomic View of Matter

2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Postulates of the Atomic Theory

How the Theory Explains the Mass Laws

The Relative Masses of Atoms
2.4 The Observations That Led to the Nuclear Atom Model

Discovery of the Electron and ItsProperties

Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus

2.5 The Atomic Theory Today

Structure of the Atom

Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Atomic Symbol

Isotopes and Atomic Masses of the Elements

Tools of the Laboratory: Mass Spectrometry

A Modern Reassessment of the Atomic Theory

2.6 Elements: A First Look at the Periodic Table

2.7 Compounds: Introduction to Bonding

The Formation of Ionic Compounds

The Formation of Covalent Compounds

The Elements of Life

2.8 Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Masses

Types of Chemical Formulas

Some Advice about Learning Names and Formulas

Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds

An Introduction to Naming Organic Compounds

Molecular Masses from Chemical Formulas

Gallery: Picturing Molecules

2.9 Mixtures: Classification and Separation

Tools of the Laboratory: Basic Separation Techniques

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations

3.1 The Mole

Defining the Mole

Molar Mass

Interconverting Moles, Mass, and Number of Chemical Entities

Mass Percent from the Chemical Formula

3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound

Empirical Formulas

Molecular Formulas

Chemical Formulas and Molecular Structures

3.3 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

3.4 Calculating Amounts of Reactant and Product

Stoichiometrically Equivalent Molar Ratios from the Balanced Equation

Chemical Reactions That Occur in a Sequence

Chemical Reactions That Involve a Limiting Reactant

Chemical Reactions in Practice: Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields

3.5 Fundamentals of Solution Stoichiometry

Expressing Concentration in Terms of Molarity

Mole-Mass-Number Conversions Involving Solutions

Preparing and Diluting Molar Solutions

Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions in Solution

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions

4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent

The Polar Nature of Water

Ionic Compounds in Water

Covalent Compounds in Water

4.2 Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions

4.3 Precipitation Reactions

The Key Event: Formation of a Solid from Dissolved Ions

Predicting Whether a Precipitate Will Form

4.4 Acid-Base Reactions

The Key Event: Formation of H2O from H+ and OH–

Acid-Base Titrations

Proton Transfer: A Closer Look at Acid-Base Reactions

4.5 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions

The Key Event: Movement of Electrons Between Reactants

Some Essential Redox Terminology

Using Oxidation Numbers to Monitor the Movement of Electron Charge

Balancing Redox Equations

Redox Titrations

4.6 Elements in Redox Reactions

4.7 Reversible Reactions: An Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


5 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

5.1 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter

5.2 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement

Laboratory Devices for Measuring Gas Pressure
Units of Pressure

5.3 The Gas Laws and Their Experimental Foundations

The Relationship Between Volume and Pressure: Boyle’s Law

The Relationship Between Volume and Temperature: Charles’s Law

The Relationship Between Volume and Amount: Avogardro’s Law

Gas Behavior at Standard Conditions

The Ideal Gas

Solving Gas Law Problems

5.4 Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law

The Density of a Gas

The Molar Mass of a Gas

The Partial Pressure of a Gas in a Mixture of Gases

5.5 The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry

5.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: A Model for Gas Behavior

How the Kinetic-Molecular Theory Explains the Gas Laws
Effusion and Diffusion
The Chaotic World of Gases: Mean Free Path and Collision Frequency

Chemical Connections to Planetary Science: Structure and Composition of the Earth’s Atmosphere

5.7 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


6 Thermochemistry: Energy Flow and Chemical Change

6.1 Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion

The System and Its Surroundings

Energy Flow to and from a System

Heat and Work: Two Forms of Energy Transfer

The Law of Energy Conservation

Units of Energy

State Functions and the Path Independence of the Energy Change

6.2 Enthalpy: Heats of Reaction and Chemical Change

The Meaning of Enthalpy

Comparing ∆E and ∆H

Exothermic and Endothermic Processes

Some Important Types of Enthalpy Change

6.3 Calorimetry: Laboratory Measurement of Heats of Reaction

Specific Heat Capacity

The Practice of Calorimetry

6.4 Stoichiometry of Thermochemical Equations

6.5 Hess’s Law of Heat Summation

6.6 Standard Heats of Reaction (∆Hrxn0)

Formation Equations and Their Standard Enthalpy Changes

Determining ∆Hrxn0 from ∆Hf0 Values of Reactants and Products

Chemical Connections to Environmental Science: The Future of Energy Use

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

7.1 The Nature of Light

The Wave Nature of Light

The Particle Nature of Light

7.2 Atomic Spectra

The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Limitations of the Bohr Model

The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom

Tools of the Laboratory: Spectrophotometry in Chemical Analysis

7.3 The Wave-Particle Duality of Matter and Energy

The Wave Nature of Electrons and the Particle Nature of Photons

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

7.4 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

The Atomic Orbital and the Probable Location of the Electron

Quantum Numbers of an Atomic Orbital

Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

8.1 Development of the Periodic Table

8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms

The Electron-Spin Quantum Number

The Exclusion Principle

Electrostatic Effects and the Energy-Level Splitting

8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table

Building Up Periods 1 and 2

Building Up Period 3

Electron Configurations Within Groups

The First d-Orbital Transition Series: Building Up Period 4

General Principles of Electron Configurations

Unusual Configurations: Transition and Inner Transition Elements

8.4 Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties

Trends in Atomic Size

Trends in Ionization Energy

Trends in Electron Affinity

8.5 Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity

Trends in Metallic Behavior

Properties of Monatomic Ions

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Models of Chemical Bonding

9.1 Atomic Properties and Chemical Bonds

The Three Types of Chemical Bonding

Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols: Depicting Atoms in Chemical Bonding

9.2 The Ionic Bonding Model

Energy Considerations in Ionic Bonding: The Importance of Lattice Energy

Periodic Trends in Lattice Energy

How the Model Explains the Properties of Ionic Compounds

9.3 The Covalent Bonding Model

The Formation of a Covalent Bond

Properties of a Covalent Bond: Bond Energy and Bond Length

How the Model Explains the Properties of Covalent Compounds

Tools of the Laboratory: Infrared Spectroscopy

9.4 Bond Energy and Chemical Change

Changes in Bond Strength: Where Does ∆Hrxn0 Come From?

Using Bond Energies to Calculate ∆Hrxn0

Relative Bond Strengths in Fuels and Foods

9.5 Between the Extremes: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity


Polar Covalent Bonds and Bond Polarity

The Partial Ionic Character of Polar Covalent Bonds

The Continuum of Bonding Across a Period

9.6 An Introduction to Metallic Bonding

The Electron-Sea Model

How the Model Explains the Properties of Metals

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


The Shapes of Molecules

10.1 Depicting Molecules and Ions with Lewis Structures

Using the Octet Rule to Write Lewis Structures

Resonance: Delocalized Electron-Pair Bonding

Formal Charge: Selecting the Most Important (?) Resonance Structure

Lewis Structures for Exceptions to the Octet Rule

10.2 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory and Molecular Shape

Electron-Group Arrangements and Molecular Shapes

The Molecular Shape with Two Electron Groups (Linear Arrangement)

Molecular Shapes with Three Electron Groups (Trigonal Planar Arrangement)

Molecular Shapes with Four Electron Groups (Tetrahedral Arrangement)

Molecular Shapes with Five Electron Groups (Trigonal
Bipyramidal Arrangement)

Molecular Shapes with Six Electron Groups (Octahedral Arrangement)

Using VSEPR Theory to Determine Molecular Shape

Molecular Shapes with More Than One Central Atom

Gallery: Molecular Beauty: Odd Shapes with Useful Functions

10.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity

Bond Polarity, Bond Angle, and Dipole Moment

The Effect of Molecular Polarity on Behavior

Chapter Perspective

Chemical Connections in Sensory Physiology: Molecular Shape, Biological Receptors, and the Sense of Smell

For Review and Reference


Theories of Covalent Bonding

11.1 Valence Bond (VB) Theory and Orbital Hybridization

The Central Themes of VB Theory

Types of Hybrid Orbitals

11.2 The Mode of Orbital Overlap and the Types of Covalent Bonds

Orbital Overlap in Single and Multiple Bonds

Orbital Overlap and Molecular Rotation

11.3 Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory and Electron Delocalization

The Central Themes of MO Theory
Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules of the Period 2 Elements

MO Description of Some Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

MO Descriptions of Ozone and Benzene

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


12 Intermolecular Forces: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

12.1 An Overview of Physical States and Phase Changes

A Kinetic-Molecular View of the Three States

Types of Phase Changes

12.2 Quantitative Aspects of Phase Changes

Heat Involved in Phase Changes: A Kinetic-Molecular Approach

The Equilibrium Nature of Phase Changes

Phase Diagrams: Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Physical State

12.3 Types of Intermolecular Forces

Ion-Dipole Forces

Dipole-Dipole Forces

The Hydrogen Bond

Polarizability and Charge-Induced Dipole Forces

Dispersion (London) Forces

12.4 Properties of the Liquid State

Surface Tension



12.5 The Uniqueness of Water

Gallery: Properties of Liquids

Solvent Properties of Water

Thermal Properties of Water

Surface Properties of Water

The Density of Solid and Liquid Water

12.6 The Solid State: Structure, Properties, and Bonding

Structural Features of Solids

Tools of the Laboratory: X-Ray Diffraction Analysis and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Types and Properties of Crystalline Solids

Amorphous Solids

Bonding in Solids: Molecular Orbital Band Theory

12.7 Advanced Materials

Electronic Materials

Liquid Crystals

Ceramic Materials

Polymeric Materials

Nanotechnology: Designing Materials Atom by Atom

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions and Colloids

13.1 Types of Solutions: Intermolecular Forces and Predicting Solubility

Intermolecular Forces in Solution

Liquid Solutions and the Role of Molecular Polarity

Gas Solutions and Solid Solutions

13.2 Intermolecular Forces and Biological Macromolecules

The Structure of Proteins

The Structure of the Cell Membrane (?)

The Structure of DNA

The Structure of Cellulose

13.3 Energy Changes in the Solution Process

Heats of Solution and Solution Cycles

Heats of Hydration: Ionic Solids in Water

The Solution Process and the Change in Entropy

13.4 Solubility as an Equilibrium Process

Effect of Temperature on Solubility

Effect of Pressure on Solubility

13.5 Quantitative Ways of Expressing Concentration

Molarity and Molality

Parts of Solute by Parts of Solution

Converting Units of Concentration

13.6 Colligative Properties of Solutions

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Nonelectrolyte Solutions

Gallery: Colligative Properties in Industry and Biology

Using Colligative Properties to Find Solute Molar Mass

Colligative Properties of Volatile Nonelectrolyte Solutions

Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

13.7 The Structure and Properties of Colloids
Chemical Connections in Sanitary Engineering: Solutions and Colloids in Water Purification

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Interchapter: A Perspective on the Properties of the Elements
Topic 1
The Key Atomic Properties

Topic 2
Characteristics of Chemical Bonding

Topic 3
Metallic Behavior

Topic 4
Acid-Base Behavior of the Element Oxides

Topic 5
Redox Behavior of the Elements

Topic 6
Physical States and Changes of State

Periodic Patterns in the Main-Group Elements: Bonding, Structure, and Reactivity

14.1 Hydrogen, the Simplest Atom

Where Does Hydrogen Fit in the Periodic Table?

Highlights of Hydrogen Chemistry

14.2 Trends Across the Periodic Table: The Period 2 Elements

14.3 Group 1A(1): The Alkali Metals

Why Are the Alkakli Metals Soft, Low Melting, and Lightweight?

Why Are the Alkali Metals So Reactive?

The Anomalous Behavior of Lithium

14.4 Group 2A(2): The Alkaline Earth Metals

How Do the Physical Properties of the Alkaline Earth and Alkali Metals Compare?

How Do the Chemical Properties of the Alkaline Earth and Alkali Metals Compare?

The Anomalous Behavior of Beryllium

Diagonal Relationships: Lithium and Magnesium

Looking Backward and Forward: Groups 1A(1), 2A(2), and 3A(13)

14.5 Group 3A(13): The Boron Family

How Do the Transition Elements Influence Group 3A(13) Properties?

What New Features Appear in the Chemical Properties of Group 3A(13)?

Highlights of Boron Chemistry

Diagonal Relationships: Beryllium and Aluminum

14.6 Group 4A(14): The Carbon Family

How Does the Bonding in an Element Affect Physical Properties?

How Does the Type of Bonding Change in Group 4A(14) Compounds?

Highlights of Carbon Chemistry

Highlights of Silicon Chemistry

Diagonal Relationships: Boron and Silicon

Looking Backward and Forward: Groups 3A(13), 4A(14), and 5A(15)

Gallery: Silicate Minerals and Silicone Polymers

14.7 Group 5A(15): The Nitrogen Family

What Accounts for the Wide Range of Physical Behavior in Group 5A(15)?

What Patterns Appear in the Chemical Behavior of Group 5A(15)?

Highlights of Nitrogen Chemistry

Highlights of Phosphorus Chemistry: Oxides and Oxoacids

14.8 Group 6A(16): The Oxygen Family

How Do the Oxygen and Nitrogen Families Compare Physically?

How Do the Oxygen and Nitrogen Families Compare Chemically?

Highlights of Oxygen Chemistry: Range of Oxide Properties

Highlights of Sulfur Chemistry: Oxides, Oxoacids, and Sulfides

Looking Backward and Forward: Groups 5A(15), 6A(16), and 7A(17)

14.9 Group 7A(17): The Halogens

What Accounts for the Regular Changes in the Halogens’ Physical Properties?

Why Are the Halogens So Reactive?

Highlights of Halogen Chemistry

14.10 Group 8A(18): The Noble Gases

How Can Noble Gases Form Compounds?

Looking Backward and Forward: Groups 7A(17), 8A(18), and 1A(1)

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Organic Compounds and the Atomic Properties of Carbon

15.1 The Special Nature of Carbon and the Characteristics of Organic Molecules

The Structural Complexity of Organic Molecules

The Chemical Diversity of Organic Molecules

15.2 The Structures and Classes of Hydrocarbons

Carbon Skeletons and Hydrogen Skins

Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with Only Single Bonds

Constitutional Isomerism and the Physical Properties of Alkanes

Chiral Molecules and Optical Isomerism

Alkenes: Hydrocarbons with Double Bonds

Chemical Connections to Sensory Physiology: Geometric Isomers and the Chemistry of Vision

Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with Triple Bonds

Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Cyclic Molecules with Delocalized π Electrons

Variations on a Theme: Catenated Inorganic Hydrides

Tools of the Laboratory: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

15.3 Some Important Classes of Organic Reactions

Types of Organic Reactions

The Redox Process in Organic Reactions

15.4 Properties and Reactivities of Common Functional Groups

Functional Groups with Only Single Bonds [?]

Functional Groups with Double Bonds

Functional Groups with Single and Double Bonds

Functional Groups with Triple Bonds

15.5 The Monomer-Polymer Theme I: Synthetic Macromolecules

Addition Polymers

Condensation Polymers

15.6 The Monomer-Polymer Theme II: Biological Macromolecules

Sugars and Polysaccharides

Amino Acids and Proteins

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Chapter Perspective

Chemical Connections to Genetics: DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project

For Review and Reference


Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions

16.1 Factors That Influence Reaction Rate

16.2 Expressing the Reaction Rate

16.3 The Rate Law and Its Components

Tools of the Laboratory: Measuring Reaction Rates

Determining the Initial Rate

Reaction Order Terminology

Determining Reaction Orders

Determining the Rate Constant

16.4 Integrated Rate Laws: Concentration Changes over Time

Integrated Rate Laws for First-, Second-, and Zero-Order Reactions

Determining the Reaction Order from the Integrated Rate Law

Reaction Half-Life

16.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate

16.6 Explaining the Effects of Concentration and Temperature

Collision Theory: Basis of the Rate Law

Transition State Theory: Molecular Nature of the Activated Complex

16.7 Reaction Mechanisms: Steps in the Overall Reaction

Elementary Reactions and Molecularity

The Rate-Determining Step of a Reaction Mechanism

Correlating the Mechanism with the Rate Law

16.8 Catalysis: Speeding Up a Chemical Reaction

Homogeneous Catalysis

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Chemical Connections to Enzymology: Kinetics and Function of Biological Catalysts

Chemical Connections to Atmospheric Science: Depletion of the Earth’s Ozone Layer

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions

17.1 The Dynamic Nature of the Equilibrium State

17.2 The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant

Writing the Reaction Quotient

Variations in the Form of the Reaction Quotient

17.3 Expressing Equilibria with Pressure Terms: Relation Between Kc and Kp

17.4 Reaction Direction: Comparing Q and K

17.5 How to Solve Equilibrium Problems

Using Quantities to Determine the Equilibrium Constant

Using the Equilibrium Constant to Determine Quantities

Mixtures of Reactants and Products: Determining Reaction Direction

17.6 Reaction Conditions and the Equilibrium State: Le Châtelier’s Principle

The Effect of a Change in Concentration

The Effect of a Change in Pressure (Volume)

The Effect of a Change in Temperature

The Lack of Effect of a Catalyst

Chemical Connections to Cellular Metabolism: Design and Control of a Metabolic Pathway

Chemical Connections to Industrial Production: The Haber Process for the Synthesis of Ammonia

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Acid-Base Equilibria

18.1 Acids and Bases in Water

Release of H+ or OH– and the Classical Acid-Base Definition

Variation in Acid Strength: The Acid-Dissociation Constant (Ka)

Classifying the Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

18.2 Autoionization of Water and the pH Scale

The Equilibrium Nature of Autoionization: The Ion-Product Constant for Water (Kw)

Expressing the Hydronium Ion Concentration: The pH Scale

18.3 Proton Transfer and the Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition

The Conjugate Acid-Base Pair

Relative Acid-Base Strength and the Net Direction of Reaction

18.4 Solving Problems Involving Weak-Acid Equilibria

Finding Ka Given a Concentration

Finding Concentration Given Ka

The Effect of Concentration on the Extent of Acid Dissociation

The Behavior of Polyprotic Acids

18.5 Weak Bases and Their Relation to Weak Acids

Molecules as Weak Bases: Ammonia and the Amines

Anions of Weak Acids as Weak Bases

The Relation Between Ka and Kb of a Conjugate Acid-Base Pair

18.6 Molecular Properties and Acid Strength

Trends in Acid Strength of Nonmetal Hydrides

Trends in Acid Strength of Oxoacids

Acidity of Hydrated Metal Ions

18.7 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

Salts That Yield Neutral Solutions

Salts That Yield Acidic Solutions

Salts That Yield Basic Solutions

Salts of Weakly Acidic Cations and Weakly Basic Anions

18.8 Generalizing the Brønsted-Lowry Concept: The Leveling Effect

18.9 Electron-Pair Donation and the Lewis Acid-Base Definition

Molecules as Lewis Acids

Metal Cations as Lewis Acids

An Overview of Acid-Base Definitions

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems

19.1 Equilibria of Acid-Base Buffer Systems

How a Buffer Works: The Common-Ion Effect

The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation

Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range

Preparing a Buffer

19.2 Acid-Base Titration Curves

Monitoring pH with Acid-Base Indicators

Strong Acid–Strong Base Titration Curves

Weak Acid–Strong Base Titration Curves

Weak Base–Strong Acid Titration Curves

Titration Curves for Polyprotic Acids

Amino Acids as Biological Polyprotic Acids

19.3 Equilibria of Slightly Soluble Ionic Compounds

The Ion-Product Expression (Qsp) and the Solubility-Product Constant (Ksp)

Calculations Involving the Solubility-Product Constant

The Effect of a Common Ion on Soubility

The Effect of pH on Solubility

Chemical Connections to Geology: Creation of a Limestone Cave

Predicting the Formation of a Precipitate: Qsp vs. Ksp

Chemical Connections to Environmental Science: The Acid-Rain Problem

19.4 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions

Formation of Complex Ions

Complex Ions and the Solubility of Precipitates

Complex Ions of Amphoteric Hydroxides

19.5 Ionic Equilibria in Chemical Analysis

Selective Precipitation

Qualitative Analysis: Identifying Ions in Complex Mixtures

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and the Direction of Chemical Reactions

20.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Predicting Spontaneous Change

Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics

The Sign of ∆H Cannot Predict Spontaneous Change

Freedom of Motion and Dispersal of Energy

Entropy and the Number of Microstates

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Standard Molar Entropies and the Third Law

20.2 Calculating the Change in Entropy of a Reaction

Entropy Changes in the System: Standard Entropy of Reaction (∆Srxn0)

Entropy Changes in the Surroundings: The Other Part of the Total

The Entropy Change and the Equilibrium State

Chemical Connections to Biology: Do Living Things Obey the Laws of Thermodynamics?

Spontaneous Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions: A Summary

20.3 Entropy, Free Energy, and Work

Free Energy Change and Reaction Spontaneity

Calculating Standard Free Energy Changes

∆G and the Work a System Can Do

The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Spontaneity

Coupling of Reactions to Drive a Nonspontaneous Change

Chemical Connections to Biological Energetics: The Universal Role of ATP

20.4 Free Energy, Equilibrium, and Reaction Direction

Chapter Perspective

For Review and Reference


Electrochemistry: Chemical Change and Electrical Work

21.1 Half-Reactions and Electrochemical Cells

A Quick Review of Oxidation-Reduction Concepts

Half-Reaction Method for Balancing Redox Reactions

An Overview of Electrochemical Cells

21.2 Voltaic Cells: Using Spontaneous Reactions to Generate Electrical Energy

Construction and Operation of a Voltaic Cell

Notation for a Voltaic Cell

Why Does a Voltaic Cell Work?

21.3 Cell Potential: Output of a Voltaic Cell

Standard Cell Potentials

Relative Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

21.4 Free Energy and Electrical Work

Standard Cell Potential and the Equilibrium Constant

The Effect of Concentration on Cell Potential

Changes in Potential During Cell Operation

Concentration Cells

21.5 Electrochemical Processes in Batteries

Primary (Nonrechargeable) Batteries

Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries

Fuel Cells

21.6 Corrosion: A Case of Environmental Electrochemistry

The Corrosion of Iron

Protecting Against the Corrosion of Iron

21.7 Electrolytic Cells: Using Electrical Energy to Drive Nonspontaneous Reactions

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