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Chemistry: Principles and Reactions / Edition 4

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions / Edition 4

by William L. Masterton, Cecile N. Hurley

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ISBN-10: 0030269164

ISBN-13: 9780030269165

Pub. Date: 08/01/2000

Publisher: Cengage Learning

This new edition of CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES AND REACTIONS continues to provide students with the "core" material essential to understanding the principles of general chemistry. Appropriate for either a one- or two-semester course, CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES AND REACTIONS, Fourth Edition is three hundred pages shorter than most general chemistry texts and lives up to


This new edition of CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES AND REACTIONS continues to provide students with the "core" material essential to understanding the principles of general chemistry. Appropriate for either a one- or two-semester course, CHEMISTRY: PRINCIPLES AND REACTIONS, Fourth Edition is three hundred pages shorter than most general chemistry texts and lives up to its long-standing reputation as THE student-oriented text.

Product Details

Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
Study Guide
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 10.88(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Matter and Measurements2
1.1Types of Matter3
1.3Properties of Substances15
Chemistry: The Human Side: Antoine Lavoisier16
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Titanium: A Space-Age Metal19
Chapter Highlights20
Summary Problem21
Questions & Problems21
Chapter 2Atoms, Molecules, and Ions26
2.1Atoms and the Atomic Theory27
Chemistry: The Human Side: John Dalton27
2.2Components of the Atom28
2.3Introduction to the Periodic Table33
2.4Molecules and Ions35
2.5Formulas of Ionic Compounds40
2.6Names of Compounds41
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Ethyl Alcohol and the Law45
Chapter Highlights46
Summary Problem47
Questions & Problems47
Chapter 3Mass Relations in Chemistry; Stoichiometry52
3.1Atomic Masses53
3.2The Mole56
3.3Mass Relations in Chemical Formulas58
3.4Mass Relations in Reactions61
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Hydrates68
Chapter Highlights69
Summary Problem69
Questions & Problems70
Chapter 4Reactions in Aqueous Solution76
4.1Solute Concentrations; Molarity77
4.2Precipitation Reactions79
4.3Acid-Base Reactions82
Chemistry: The Human Side: Svante August Arrhenius87
4.4Oxidation-Reduction Reactions87
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Antacids94
Chapter Highlights95
Summary Problem95
Questions & Problems96
Chapter 5Gases102
5.1Measurements on Gases103
5.2The Ideal Gas Law105
5.3Gas Law Calculations107
5.4Stoichiometry of Gaseous Reactions110
Chemistry: The Human Side: Amadeo Avogadro112
5.5Gas Mixtures: Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions113
5.6Kinetic Theory of Gases115
5.7Real Gases121
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Airbags123
Chapter Highlights124
Summary Problem124
Questions & Problems125
Chapter 6Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table130
6.1Light, Photon Energies, and Atomic Spectra131
6.2The Hydrogen Atom134
6.3Quantum Numbers138
6.4Atomic Orbitals; Shapes and Sizes141
6.5Electron Configurations in Atoms141
Chemistry: The Human Side: Glenn Seaborg145
6.6Orbital Diagrams of Atoms146
6.7Electron Arrangements in Monatomic Ions148
6.8Periodic Trends in the Properties of Atoms150
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Aurora155
Chapter Highlights156
Summary Problem156
Questions & Problems157
Chapter 7Covalent Bonding162
7.1Lewis Structures; The Octet Rule164
Chemistry: The Human Side: G. N. Lewis172
7.2Molecular Geometry173
7.3Polarity of Molecules180
7.4Atomic Orbitals; Hybridization183
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Noble Gases188
Chapter Highlights189
Summary Problem189
Questions & Problems190
Chapter 8Thermochemistry194
8.1Principles of Heat Flow195
8.2Measurement of Heat Flow; Calorimetry198
8.4Thermochemical Equations202
8.5Enthalpies of Formation206
8.6Bond Enthalpy210
8.7The First Law of Thermodynamics212
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Energy Balance in the Human Body216
Chapter Highlights218
Summary Problem218
Questions & Problems219
Chapter 9Liquids and Solids224
9.1Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium225
9.2Phase Diagrams230
9.3Molecular Substances; Intermolecular Forces233
9.4Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids238
9.5Crystal Structures244
Chemistry: The Human Side: Dorothy Hodgkin247
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Allotropy249
Chapter Highlights250
Summary Problem251
Questions & Problems252
Chapter 10Solutions256
10.1Concentration Units257
10.2Principles of Solubility261
10.3Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolytes264
10.4Colligative Properties of Electrolytes271
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Maple Syrup274
Chapter Highlights275
Summary Problem275
Questions & Problems276
Chapter 11Rate of Reaction282
11.1Meaning of Reaction Rate283
11.2Reaction Rate and Concentration286
11.3Reactant Concentration and Time290
11.4Models for Reaction Rate295
Chemistry: The Human Side: Henry Eyring299
11.5Reaction Rate and Temperature299
11.7Reaction Mechanisms304
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: The Ozone Story308
Chapter Highlights310
Summary Problem310
Questions & Problems311
Chapter 12Gaseous Chemical Equilibrium320
12.1The N[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]-NO[subscript 2] Equilibrium System321
12.2The Equilibrium Constant Expression324
12.3Determination of K329
12.4Applications of the Equilibrium Constant330
12.5Effect of Changes in Conditions on an Equilibrium System334
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: An Industrial Application of Gaseous Equilibrium340
Chapter Highlights342
Summary Problem342
Questions & Problems343
Chapter 13Acids and Bases350
13.1Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Model351
13.2The Ion Product of Water352
13.3pH and pOH353
13.4Weak Acids and Their Equilibrium Constants357
13.5Weak Bases and Their Equilibrium Constants365
13.6Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions368
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Organic Acids and Bases371
Chapter Highlights373
Summary Problem373
Questions & Problems374
Chapter 14Equilibria in Acid-Base Solutions378
14.2Acid-Base Indicators386
14.3Acid-Base Titrations388
Chemistry: Beyond The Classroom: Acid Rain394
Chapter Highlights395
Summary Problem396
Questions & Problems396
Chapter 15Complex Ions402
15.1Composition of Complex Ions403
15.2Geometry of Complex Ions407
Chemistry: The Human Side: Alfred Werner411
15.3Electronic Structure of Complex Ions411
15.4Formation Constants of Complex Ions416
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Chelates: Natural and Synthetic418
Chapter Highlights420
Summary Problem420
Questions & Problems421
Chapter 16Precipitation Equilibria424
16.1Precipitate Formation; Solubility Product Constant (K[subscript sp])425
16.2Dissolving Precipitates431
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Qualitative Analysis436
Chapter Highlights438
Summary Problem438
Questions & Problems439
Chapter 17Spontaneity of Reaction444
17.1Spontaneous Processes445
17.2Entropy, S447
17.3Free Energy, G452
Chemistry: The Human Side: J. Willard Gibbs453
17.4Standard Free Energy Change, [Delta]G[degree]454
17.5Effect of Temperature, Pressure, and Concentration on Reaction Spontaneity457
17.6The Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant461
17.7Additivity of Free Energy Changes; Coupled Reactions462
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Global Warming465
Chapter Highlights466
Summary Problem467
Questions & Problems468
Chapter 18Electrochemistry474
18.1Voltaic Cells475
18.2Standard Voltages479
18.3Relations Between E[degree], [Delta]G[degree], and K484
18.4Effect of Concentration on Voltage486
18.5Electrolytic Cells489
Chemistry: The Human Side: Michael Faraday493
18.6Commercial Cells493
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Corrosion of Metals498
Chapter Highlights499
Summary Problem500
Questions & Problems500
Chapter 19Nuclear Reactions506
Chemistry: The Human Side: The Curies511
19.2Rate of Radioactive Decay512
19.3Mass-Energy Relations514
19.4Nuclear Fission518
19.5Nuclear Fusion521
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Biological Effects of Radiation523
Chapter Highlights524
Summary Problem525
Questions & Problems525
Chapter 20Chemistry of the Metals530
20.2Reactions of the Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals537
20.3Redox Chemistry of the Transition Metals540
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Essential Metals in Nutrition546
Chapter Highlights547
Summary Problem547
Questions & Problems548
Chapter 21Chemistry of the Nonmetals550
21.1The Elements and Their Preparation551
21.2Hydrogen Compounds of Nonmetals555
21.3Oxygen Compounds of Nonmetals559
21.4Oxoacids and Oxoanions562
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Arsenic and Selenium570
Chapter Highlights571
Summary Problem571
Questions & Problems572
Chapter 22Organic Chemistry576
22.1Saturated Hydrocarbons: Alkanes577
22.2Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Alkenes and Alkynes581
22.3Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives583
22.4Oxygen Compounds; Functional Groups585
22.5Isomerism in Organic Compounds588
22.6Synthetic Organic Polymers593
Chemistry: Beyond the Classroom: Cholesterol596
Chapter Highlights598
Summary Problem598
Questions & Problems599
Appendix 1Units, Constants, and Reference Data603
Appendix 2Properties of the Elements609
Appendix 3Exponents and Logarithms611
Appendix 4Nomenclature616
Appendix 5Molecular Orbitals619
Appendix 6Answers to Even-Numbered and Challenge Questions & Problems625

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