Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living Systems / Edition 1

Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living Systems / Edition 1

by Tibor Ganti, Tibor Gc Nti, Tibor Gnti

Dr. G nti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. This first volume, Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries, is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their

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Dr. G nti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. This first volume, Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries, is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons. The second volume of the book is the Theory of Living Systems, the application of the theory of fluid automata on living systems. The volume proves, that chemotons possess the general properties of living systems and - at the same time - every living system has the same basic organisation as a chemoton. Volume Two develops on the basis of the chemoton theory, the processes of biogenesis and of the prebiotic evolution, up to the appearance of the enzymes and genes, i.e. up to the formation of prokaryote cells. Chemoton Theory outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems.

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Product Details

Springer US
Publication date:
Mathematical and Computational Chemistry Series
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
1.25(w) x 10.00(h) x 7.00(d)

Table of Contents

II.Constructional Elements of Fluid Machines9
Reaction Chains9
Chemical reactions as sections of forced trajectories9
Coupling of chemical reactions12
AND-type branching18
OR-type branchings21
The Chemical Cycle22
Characterization of the chemical cycle22
Cycle stoichiometry25
Operation rules25
Examples for the application of the rules27
Generalization of cycle stoichiometry30
Kinetics of cycles31
An example for chemical cycles32
The catalytic nature of chemical cycles35
Enzyme reactions39
General considerations41
Self-Reproducing Chemical Cycles43
Simple self-reproducing cycle44
Kinetics of self-reproducing cycles53
Examples of self-reproducing cycles53
Self-consuming cycles56
Storage and Replication of Information56
Template processes57
Example for calculating template polymerization61
Kinetics of template polymerization63
General remarks67
Formal kinetics of membrane growth70
III.Design of Simple Fluid Machines73
Coupling of Simple Parts73
Coupling of chemical cycles with reaction chains73
Coupling of cycles with one another76
Second-generation cycles84
Industrial applications91
Coupling of Self-Reproducing Constituents97
Coupling of simple parts into self-reproducing systems97
The coupling of a self-reproducing cycle with a reaction chain101
Oscillating reaction systems103
Coupling of self-reproducing cycles and template polymerization: fluid program control109
Industrial applications114
IV.Proliferating Fluid Automata121
The Forms of Genesis121
Proliferating Microspheres127
Coupling, Stoichiometry128
Operation: growth and division130
Proliferating "Fluid Clockworks"137
Microspheres with OR-branching137
Microsphere with an oscillating chemical system139
Proliferating "fluid clockworks"141
Chemoton coupling147
Qualitative survey of operation150
Computer study of operation155
Chemoton variants159
V.Outlines of Self-Organizing Fluid Computers163
Introductory Remarks163
Constituents of Fluid Computers165
Connection to the electric field165
The I-switch170
The F-switch176
The C-switch177
A possible way to realize the C-switch180
Chemotons of limited proliferation183
The Basic Network188
Design of the basic network188
Operation of the basic network191
Energy supply of the basic network193
Shape recognition by light sensitivity194
Shape recognition by touching198
Coupling of the basic network to other sensors199
General remarks201
Cogitator Networks202
Networks consisting of C- and G-elements203
Basic cogitator network206
Secondary wiring207
Associative network209
The "dream" of the associative network210
Design of Cogitators211
Abstractor subunit211
Decoder subunit214
Simple cogitator218
The problem solving ability of the cogitator220
Cogitators with Time Coder222
Simple fluid clockwork225
Complex fluid clockwork227
Cogitator with clockwork228
Activity, Sleeping and Death229
Selective control of operation230
Sleeping and dreaming233
Toward Fluid Robots237
The cogitator as a robot brain237
Fluid robots239
VI.About the World of Living in General251
What is Life?251
The ambiguity of the concept of life251
Views concerning the essence of life254
The standpoints of some outstanding philosophers259
The Most General Properties of Living Beings268
Empirical facts providing the basis for the theory268
Life Criteria278
Alive, capable of living, dead, nonliving278
The levels of life280
Life criteria282
Chemotons as Living Systems289
Chemotons satisfy life criteria289
Chemotons are minimum systems of life293
VII.Chemical Evolution297
Setting of Objectives297
The Date of the Genesis of Life298
The Genesis of Earth300
The Primitive Atmosphere308
Chemical Evolution311
Energy source312
Initial compounds314
Low-molecular-weight products315
Abiotic formation of proteinoids324
Abiogenic formation of nucleic acids325
Formation of microscopic structures328
Models of Biogenesis331
Experimental models331
Qualitative theoretical models332
Quantitative theoretical models334
Metabolic Network of a Prebiotic Chemoton338
General aspects338
Autocatalytic subsystems340
Connective subsystems346
Additional pathways351
A qualitative survey of the operation of the network354
Quantitative Description of Prebiotic Chemotons356
Membrane synthesis359
Template synthesis361
Combination of the two subsystems371
Synthesis of precursors373
Self-reproducing metabolic network377
Overall equation of the prebiotic chemoton378
IX.Prebiotic Evolution383
Beginnings of Prebiotic Evolution384
Conditions of biogenesis on Earth384
Spontaneous genesis of proliferating systems388
Spontaneous genesis of chemotons389
External conditions of early evolution391
The early evolution of chemotons394
Appearance of Enzyme Activity396
The problem of primitive catalysis396
Evolution of RNAs400
Development of enzyme RNAs403
The Origin of Coenzymes409
General considerations409
Coenzymes are the remnants of eRNAs410
The Origin of Genes and the Code414
The origin of genes414
The origin of RNA polymerases416
The appearance of DNA419
The origin of code422
X.Exobiological Outlook427
Introductory Remarks427
Possibility of the Existence of Non-terrestrial Types of Life429
Non-carbon-based life429
Carbon-based life with a non-terrestrial type of metabolism434
Life of non-terrestrial origin with a terrestrial metabolism436
Exobiological Studies in the Solar System437
Dry celestial bodies437
Galilean moons449
Giant planets452
XI.Outlines of a Quantitative Biology453
Some Genetic Considerations455
Self-(re)production without genetic subsystem455
Reproduction by a "technological recipe"458
Hereditary properties acquired by adaptation461
General structure of the genetic material464
Quantitative Treatment of a Prokaryotic Cell470
Possibilities and limitations470
Stoichiometry of the minimum model of prokaryotes472
The Stoichiometric Principles of Evolution479
Csanyi's general theory of evolution479
Stoichiometric principles of the evolution of prokaryotes483
Evolution to eukaryotes486
Evolution of eukaryotes491
Applications in Biotechnology493
Limits of the prospective development of biotechnology493
One-step chemical syntheses496
Chemical syntheses by reaction networks498
Synthesis of Living Systems500
The objective of synthesis500
Possibility of an exact proof506

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