Child Development: Principles and Perspectives / Edition 2

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Overview

The topically-organized Child Development, Second Edition combines streamlined coverage with an application-driven active learning system. Cook and Cook focus students on how they can promote positive child development by putting the science to work outside of the classroom.

Looking for additional resources to help you understand the material and succeed in this course? MyDevelopmentLab contains study tools such as flashcards, self tests, videos, as well as MyVirtualChild which allows you to raise your own virtual child from birth through age 18 and monitor the results.

Want to learn more about MyVirtualChild? Visit www.mydevelopmentlab.com and click on the ‘watch this video’ link to learn about MyVirtualChild.

MyDevelpmentLab with MyVirtualChild is available at www.mydevelopmentlab.com.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205494064
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/28/2008
  • Series: MyDevelopmentLab Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 596,296
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Joan Littlefield Cook teaches in the Psychology Department at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. As an undergraduate she majored in Psychology at Tennessee Technological University. She earned a Ph.D. in Psychology and Human Development at Vanderbilt University. Over the last 18 years she has taught courses related to child and adolescent development, educational psychology, and cognitive psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Middle Tennessee State University. Her classes have ranged from large lecture courses (with 300 or more students) to small seminars. Students have always appreciated her knowledge of the field and her ability to present information in a way that is useful, motivating, and friendly. In fact, the Student Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison voted her as one of their most outstanding professors. Joan's research is on mathematical problem solving and cognitive development. She and her colleagues have published paperrs in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Intelligence, Cogition & Instruction, Memory & Cognition, the Gifted Child Quarterly, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology. She has co-authored two other books and numerous instructional materials.

Greg Cook also teaches Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. He majored in Psychology at the University of Dayton and later received his Ph.D. in Psychology at Vanderbilt University. For the last 18 years he has taught courses in child development, research methods, statistics, and related topics at Whitewater as well as at the Madison and Richland Center campuses in the University of Wisconsin system and Vanderbilt University. At Whitewater, he received a departmental award for excellence in teaching. Students consistently comment on his ability to present difficult information in a clear and understandable way. His research in cognitive development ahs been published in scholarly journals such as Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. He also collaborated with colleagues in the College of Education on studies published in the Journal of Experimental Education, the Journal of Research & Development in Education, and the Journal of Reading Education.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

EXPLORING CHILD DEVELOPMENT

DEFINING THE FIELD

What Develops?

What Drives Development? Nature, and Nurture, and Reciprocal Relationships

THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

What Is a Theory, and Why Are Theories Useful?

Psychoanalytic Theories

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories

Cognitive Theories

Biological Theories

Contextual and Systems Theories

USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Descriptive Research Methods

Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations

Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect

Methods for Assessing Development

Ethics in Research with Children

APPLICATIONS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND CAREERS RELATED TO CHILDREN

Practical Applications of Child Development Research

Personal Perspective “Meet First-Time Expectant Parents”

Social Policy Perspective: “Every Day in America”

Careers Related to Children

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Social Worker”

CHAPTER 2

HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

GENES AND HUMAN REPRODUCTION

Genes and the Magical Four-Letter Code

Social Policy Perspective: “Protecting the Genetic Privacy of Citizens”

Human Reproduction and Cell Division

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Couple Who Used Artificial Insemination ”

HOW TRAITS AND GENETIC ABNORMALITIES ARE INHERITED

Dominant—Recessive Traits

Chromosome Abnormalities

Prenatal Screening and Genetic Testing

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Genetic Counselor”

HOW GENES AND ENVIRONMENTS INTERACT

Range of Reaction

Canalization

Niche-Picking: I Gotta Be Me ...

Probabilistic Epigenesis: Activating Your Genes

BEHAVIOR GENETICS: MEASURING THE HERITABILITY OF TRAITS

Behavior Genetics, Heritability, and Shared and Nonshared Environments

How Is Heritability Estimated?

Heritability of Complex Characteristics

CHAPTER 3

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Conception

Stages of Prenatal Development

TERATOGENS: HEALTH RISKS FOR THE BABY

Alcohol

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Family Who Adopted a Child with FAS”

Cocaine

Cigarette Smoking

Social Policy Perspective: “The Case of Malissa Ann Crawley”

Maternal Health

Maternal Age

Critical Periods

The Role of Fathers

THE PROCESS OF BIRTH

Stages of Birth

Options in Giving Birth: Choices and Alternatives

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Certified Nurse—Midwife.”

Drugs during Labor and Delivery

The Partner’s Role: Helping During Birth

Birthing Complications: Something Isn’t Right

Here’s the Newborn!

INFANTS AT RISK: PREMATURITY AND INFANT MORTALITY

What Is Prematurity?

Infant Mortality

Prenatal Care: Having a Healthy Baby

BECOMING A FAMILY: PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS TO HAVING A NEWBORN

The Transition to Parenthood

Becoming the Big Brother or Sister

CHAPTER 4

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: BODY, BRAIN, AND PERCEPTION

PHYSICAL GROWTH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR COORDINATION

Physical Growth

Reflexes: The Infant’s First Coordinated Movements

Voluntary Movements: The Motor Milestones

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Physical Therapist”

Nutrition and Eating-Related Problems

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM

Structure of the Brain and Nervous System

Forming the Brain and Nervous System

The Role of Experience in Brain Development

Social Policy Perspective: “Can Mozart Stimulate Neural Connections in Infants?”

Neural Plasticity and Sensitive Periods

Larger Developmental Patterns in the Brain

PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT

Robert Fantz and Visual Preferences

Habituation—Dishabituation Research

Vision

Auditory Perception

Perception of Smell and Taste

Intermodal Perception

HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES

Childhood Deaths and Safety Issues

Child Abuse and Neglect

Personal Perspective: One Survivor’s Story

CHAPTER 5

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGETIAN AND SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWS

PIAGET’S CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Piaget as a Child Prodigy

Constructivism and Interaction with the Environment

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Stage 1: Sensorimotor Thought (Birth to 2 Years)

Personal Perspective: “Where Did It Go?”

Stage 2: Preoperational Thought (2 to 7 Years)

Stage 3: Concrete Operational Thought (7 to 11 Years)

Stage 4: Formal Operational Thought (Approximately Age 12 and Above)

Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory

Piaget’s Legacy

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus:Meet a Constructivist Teacher”

VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Vygotsky’s Background: The Sociocultural Context for a New Theory

The Role of Speech and Language

Mediation: With a Little Help from Your Friends

The Zone of Proximal Development

Social Policy Perspective: “When Should Children Start School?”

Scaffolding: Support during Learning

RECENT SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Situated Cognition

Guided Participation

Thinking as Socially Shared Cognition: Two Heads Are Better than One

CHAPTER 6: INFORMATION PROCESSING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY AND THOUGHT

INFORMATION PROCESSING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

What Is the Information-Processing Approach?

Processing Capacity and Efficiency

Attention and Attention Defecit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”

MEMORY DEVELOPMENT

Two Models of Memory: Stores and Networks

Working Memory

Long-Term Memory

Other Characteristics of Memory Development

Social Policy Perspective: “Children’s Eyewitness Testimony”

DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE AND STRATEGIES

Knowledge Base

Strategy Development

Professional Perspective: “Teaching Memory Strategies in the Classroom”

METACOGNITION AND THE CHILD’S DEVELOPING THEORY OF MIND

Metacognition and Metamemory

Theory of Mind

Autism and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

CURRENT APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Computational Models of Thought

Fuzzy Trace Theory

Information Processing: Where Does It Stand?

CHAPTER 7

Intelligence and Academic Skills

Theories of Intelligence

Psychometric Approaches

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

What about Creativity?

Assessing Intelligence

History of Intelligence Testing

Intelligence Testing Today

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Psychologist”

Extremes of Intelligence

Ethnic Differences and Questions about Cultural Bias

Social Policy Perspective: “Ethnicity and IQ”

DEVELOPING Academic Skills

Mathematics

Reading

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Literacy Volunteer”

Writing

Problems with Academics: Communication and Learning Disorders

CHAPTER 8

Language Development

What Is Language?

Characteristics of Language

The Structure of Language

Theories of Language Development

Learning Theory: Language as a Learned Skill

Nativist Theory: Born to Talk

Interaction Theories: Cognitive and Social Interactionist Approaches

Development of Language: What Happens When?

Infant Communication: How Language Starts

From First Words to Conversation: Language in Early Childhood

Perfecting Communication: Language in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Speech—Language Therapist”

Issues in Language Development

Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Bilingual Family”

Social Policy Perspective: “Bilingual Education”

Social and Cultural Dialects

CHAPTER 9

Attachment, Temperament, and Emotion

Attachment

The Story of Attachment Research

Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation

Parent, Child, and Cultural Factors in Attachment

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Preschool Teacher”

Fathers, Day Care, and Attachment

Social Policy Perspective: “Parental Leave Policies in the United States and Other Nations”

Early Attachment and Long-Term Outcomes

Other Measures of Attachment

Temperament

Types of Temperaments

Personal Perspective: “Meet the Parent of a Difficult Child”

Other Approaches to Temperament

Appreciating Temperamental Differences

Emotion

Infants’ Responses to Emotions

Childhood Emotional Development

Depression, Suicide, and Resilient Children

Tying It Together: Attachment, Temperament, and Emotional Development

CHAPTER 10

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF AND GENDER

WHO AM I? THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF

What Is “Self”?

Changes in Self-Representation across Ages

Personal Perspective: “Developing an Ethnic Identity”

SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-REGULATION

Evaluating the Self

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a High School Guidance Counselor”

Self-Regulation

SEXUAL MATURATION AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION

Sexual Maturation

Early and Late Maturation

The Development of Sexual Orientation

THEORIES AND ISSUES IN GENDER DEVELOPMENT

Similarities and Differences Between Boys and Girls

Social Policy Perspective: “Single Sex Schools: Increasing Opportunity or a Return to Educational Segregation?”

Theories of Gender Development: A Brief Survey

The Development of Gender Concepts and Sex-Typed Behaviors

CHAPTER 11

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

MORAL REASONING AND EMOTIONS

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning

Guilt and Empathy: The Roles of Emotions in Moral Development

MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGGRESSION

Aggressive Behavior

Bullying

Conduct Disorder

Juvenile Delinquency and Gangs

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Juvenile Probation Officer”

MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND RISKY BEHAVIORS

Substance Use and Abuse

Teen Driving

Teen Sexual Activity

Teenage Pregnancy

Social Policy Perspective: “The Sex Education Debate”

POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

What is Positive Youth Development?

Prosocial Reasoning and Behavior

Religiosity and Spirituality

Personal Perspective: “Through Our Eyes”

Resilient Children

How Can Adults Help Foster Positive Youth Development?

CHAPTER 12

PEERS, PLAY, AND POPULARITY

Peer Relations, Friendships, AND DATING

Social Relations among Infants and Toddlers

Friendships during the Preschool and Childhood Years

Gender Segregation among Childhood Friends

Friends and Peers in Adolescence

Transition to Dating and Romantic Relationships

CHILDREN’S PLAY

The Social Levels of Play: Parten’s Classic Study

Types of Play from Infancy through Adolescence

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Toy Company Executive”

Personal Perspective: “Play at Different Ages”

Cultural Differences in Play

POPULAR AND UNPOPULAR CHILDREN

Categories of Popular and Unpopular Children

A Social Cognition Model of Peer Relations

Consequences of Peer Rejection

Social Policy Perspective: “How Should We Deal with Aggressive Students?”

CHAPTER 13

Families

FAMILY LIFE

The Family System

Parenting: Best Practices for Raising Children

Discipline: What’s a Parent to Do?

Social Policy Perspective: “Should Parents Be Licensed?”

Personal Perspective: “Carrots or Sticks?”

Mothers, Fathers, and Co-Parenting

Sibling Relationships

Grandparents and the Family System

Changing Family Structures

Marital Conflict and Divorce

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Psychotherapist Who Works with Divorced

Parents and Children”

Never-Married Households

Starting Over: Stepfamilies

Adopted Children

Families with Lesbian or Gay Parents

Ethnic Minority Families

CHILD CARE: WHO’S WATCHING THE KIDS?

Nonparental Care and Its Effects

Child Care Quality

Self-Care: Latchkey Kids

Chapter 14

Schools, Media, and Culture

Schools and Development

Early Childhood Education and Kindergarten Readiness

Social Policy Perspective: “Project Head Start: What Lies Ahead?”

Effective Schooling: What Does It Take?

Cross-National and Ethnic Differences in Schooling

Personal Perspective: “Meet a Teen With a Music Talent”

How Can We Prevent Problems in Schooling?

Children and the Media

What Kinds of Media Are Children Using?

What Are the Effects of Media?

State of the Art: Newer Forms of Media

Explaining Media’s Effects

Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Marketing Executive”

Cultural Contexts for Development

Cultural Orientations: Individualism and Collectivism

What’s the Neighborhood Like? Urban and Rural Poverty

Coming to America: Immigration and Acculturation

Explaining Culture’s Influence

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