Child Soldiers: A Reference Handbook [NOOK Book]

Overview

In conflict-torn countries such as Myanmar and Uganda, the use of child soldiers in military and paramilitary operations continues to occur despite widespread condemnation and the efforts of organizations such as the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. This book will allow readers to grasp the impact of this issue for both individuals and nations worldwide. Child Soldiers: A Reference Handbook traces the evolution of child soldiers from approximately 1940 onwards, covering important historical to modern ...
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Child Soldiers: A Reference Handbook

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Overview

In conflict-torn countries such as Myanmar and Uganda, the use of child soldiers in military and paramilitary operations continues to occur despite widespread condemnation and the efforts of organizations such as the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. This book will allow readers to grasp the impact of this issue for both individuals and nations worldwide. Child Soldiers: A Reference Handbook traces the evolution of child soldiers from approximately 1940 onwards, covering important historical to modern conflicts. The subject is discussed from a global perspective, with particular attention given to areas where the use of child soldiers is most prevalent. The book covers the complex underlying reasons for the continued use of child soldiers in the modern world, examines the political and psychological consequences of using children€”both male and female€”in military and paramilitary organizations, and describes how this subject has been addressed by international law and various human rights organizations.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"This title from ABC-CLIO's Contemporary World Issues series addresses a vital, pressing global concern. . . . The writing is clear, and the work is well organized. It is current through 2011 and fulfills the goal of being useful for students, researchers, and the general public. For most collections."

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Booklist

"This well-written book provides good coverage of its subject, offering a chronology, historical background, and detailed material on legislation and on organizations that are trying to make a difference."

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Choice

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781598845273
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 4/23/2012
  • Series: Contemporary World Issues
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • File size: 671 KB

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Background and History 1

Defining the "Problem" of Child Soldiers 1

Where Are the Child Soldiers? 1

A New International Problem but a Very Old Situation 3

Curbing Child Recruitment: The Problem of Armed Groups 4

Using Law to End the Use of Child Soldiers 6

First Steps: The Geneva Conventions 7

Protecting Child Combatants: The 1977 Additional Protocols 10

The Rome Statute: Setting Equal Standards 12

Child Soldiers and International Customary Law 13

Who Is a Child? 14

Straight-18: The Human Rights Position in the Convention on the Rights of the Child 14

Moving toward Age 18 15

International Treaties, Children's Rights, and the Definition of Childhood 18

Common Assumptions about Child Soldiers 19

Assumption 1: Children Are Vulnerable 19

Assumption 2: All Child Soldiers Are Abused and Exploited 20

Assumption 3: Child Soldiers Are a Product of the New Barbarism of War 22

The Role of Humanitarian Groups and "Civil Society," 24

References 27

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 33

Ending the Used of Child Soldiers: Problems and Solutions 33

The Issue of Exceptions: Wars of National Liberation 35

The Complexities of Treaties and International Law 37

When Treaties Bind Nonsignatories 38

Using Customary Law: The Case of Sierra Leone 39

Captured Child Combatants 40

Children's Rights and the Straight-18 Position 41

Inventing a Universal Definition of Childhood 41

Human Rights and the Realities of International Law 42

Who Is a Child? 42

International Law and Local Understandings of Childhood 43

The Boundaries between Childhood and Adulthood 44

Civil Society and Social Change 46

Child Soldiers in Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspective 47

Who Is a Child Soldier? Expanding the Definition 50

Putting Child Recruiters on Trial 52

The ICC: Cases from the Congo and Uganda 53

The Special Court for Sierra Leone: The Meaning of Recruitment 53

Voluntary Enlistment or Forcible Recruitment? 54

Local Customs, International Interpretations 55

What Constitutes Enlistment? 58

The Implications of an Expanded Definition of Enlistment 60

Putting Children on Trial 62

Age and the Culpability of Children 64

Wrestling with Children's Culpability 66

Age and Culpability in Domestic Courts 67

DDR: Disarming, Demobilizing, and Reintegrating Child Soldiers 69

References 76

3 Special U.S. Issues 85

Grappling with the Child Soldier Problem: U.S. Achievements and Failures 85

The Recruitment of Child Soldiers 86

The United States and the Optional Protocol 86

U.S. Domestic Legislation 88

Compliance with Domestic Legislation 89

The Protection of Child Soldiers: The United States and the Treatment of Child Captives 91

Rules for the Treatment of Detainees 92

Unlawful Combatants and the War against Terror 93

Detaining Child Soldiers 94

The Treatment of Child Soldiers: The Legal Context 96

Presidential Orders 96

Legal Challenges 97

Putting Child Soldiers on Trial: U.S. Military Commissions 99

The Case of Mohammed Jawad: Tortured for Sport 99

Omar Khadr: The First Child Soldier Tried since World War II 104

Conclusion 110

References 110

4 Chronology 115

5 Biographical Sketches 137

Child Soldiers 137

al-Akhras, Ayat 137

Arafat, Yasser 138

Beah, Ishmael 138

Bevistein, Abraham (Aby) 139

Casabianca, Giancomo 140

Clem, John, Lincoln 140

Cornwall, John Travers 141

Dayan, Moshe 142

Jackson, Andrew 143

Jal, Emmanuel 144

Jawad, Mohammed 145

Joan of Arc 146

Khadr, Omar 146

Ladd, Luther C. 147

Lucas, Jack 148

Mackenzie, Clarence 149

Murphy, Audie 149

Okafor, Ben 151

Soldaderas 151

Tsam, Herzl Yankl 152

Tungwar, Lam 152

Yurlova, Marina 153

Prominent Recruiters of Child Soldiers 153

Dyilo, Thomas Lubanga 153

Farhat, Maryam Mohammad Yousif 154

Kony, Joseph 154

Taylor, Charles Ghankay 155

Key Figures in the Movement to End the Use of Child Soldiers 156

Becker, Jo 156

Coomaraswamy, Radhika 157

Dellaire, Romeo 157

Machel, Graca 158

Otunnu, Olara A. 159

6 Data and Documents 161

Data Overview 161

International Treaties 173

Articles Relating to the Protection of Children from the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 173

1949 Geneva Conventions Common Article 3 176

Selections from the Third Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949 177

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 179

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977 181

Articles Relating to Child Soldiers from the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 182

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (2000) 183

Articles Relating to Child Soldiers from the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998) 190

Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (2000) 196

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990) 197

Cape Town Principle and Best Practice on the Prevention of Recruitment of Children into the Armed Forces and Demobilization and Social Integration of Child Soldiers in Africa (1997) 198

International Labour Organization Convention 182

Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (1999) 207

U.S. Legislation 208

The Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2008 208

The Child Soldier Accountability Act of 2008 213

Human Rights Enforcement Act of 2009 216

7 Directory of Organizations 219

8 Resources 263

Child Soldiers: General Studies 263

Child Soldiers: Studies of Children at War 264

Policy and Advocacy 268

Human Rights Reports 270

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration 274

Child Soldiers in History 276

Child Soldiers and International Law: Key Treaties 278

International Criminal Tribunals 280

Child Soldiers: Legal Analyses 280

Autobiographies and Biographies 282

Memorial Books 284

Child Soldiers in Fiction 285

Film and Video 288

Podcasts 294

Glossary 297

Index 301

About the Author 323

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