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This volume highlights recent research findings which elucidate the biological and behavioral underpinnings of childhood obesity. The book is divided into four sections: Perspectives, Determinants, Prevention, and Treatment. Topics include the social and psychological factors that comprise the obese child's world; eating patterns early in life and their influence on adiposity later in development; two types of opoid peptides, their respective receptor sites, and the effects they produce when released; putative relationships between food preferences and obesity; relationships between inactivity and obesity; design and implementation of school-based programs to prevent obesity in school children; medical care to the obese child and family; metabolic factors of dieting; the role of parental and family influences in childhood obesity; and treatment intervention. The book is a must for advanced graduate students and practitioners in medicine and psychology dealing with child health. It is an invaluable reference for clinicians and researchers alike.
Preface. PERSPECTIVES. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS OBESITY? THE SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WORLD OF THE OBESE CHILD. The Social and Psychological Climate of the Obese Child. Behavioral Aspects of Childhood Obesity. The Influence of Social Support Factors on Health. Using the Social Arena to Aid the Obese Child in Weight Loss: Social Factors and Treatment. Family Interventions. Treatment in the Schools. Conclusions. DETERMINANTS. GENETIC AND FAMILIAL FACTORS IN HUMAN OBESITY. Introduction. Classical Studies of the Genetics of Obesity. Recent Studies of the Genetics of Obesity. A Genetic-Epidemiological Approach to Investigating Obesity. Summary and Recommendations for Future Study. DOES EARLY EATING BEHAVIOR INFLUENCE LATER ADIPOSITY? Caloric Intake and Early Adiposity. Infant Feeding Behavior and Adiposity. Implications for Clinical Practice. Implications for Future Research. STUPEFACIENT AND ACTIFACIENT OPIOIDS IN OBESE AND LEAN CHILDREN. Overfeeding Releases Opioids that Promote Hibernation. Overactivity Releases Opioids that Promote Migration. Famine: A Natural Selector of Genes for Hibernation or Migration. Migration-like Running May Involve Brain Delta Opioid Receptors. Future Research Directions. Summary. OBESITY AND FOOD PREFERENCE: MEASUREMENTS IN SEARCH OF MEANINGS. Introduction. Obesity and Food Intake: Preference and Food Choice Some Parallels. The Nature of Human Food Preferences. A Psychological Taxonomy of Potential Edibles. Mechanisms for the Acquisition of Food Preferences. Accounting for the Variance in Food Selection. Linkages between Obesity and Food Preferences. Some Reasons for Skepticism. Some Indications of Relations between Obesity and Food Preferences. Summary and Recommendations. DETERMINING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES AND CORRELATES OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY: METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS. Methodological Issues. Integration Issues. Recommendations for Future Research. PREVENTION. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PREVENTION OF OBESITY IN CHILDHOOD. Literature Review. Current Studies. Conclusions. Recommendations. SCHOOL-BASED PROGRAMS TO PREVENT OR REDUCE OBESITY. Introduction. Research on Obesity Interventions. School-based Interventions. Future Direction for Research and Programs. Summary of Current Knowledge. TREATMENT. APPROACHES TO THE CLINICAL EVALUATION OF OBESITY IN CHILDREN. Introduction. Medical Evaluation. Psychosocial Evaluation. Surveillance for Clinical Improvement. Safety Monitoring. Summary. METABOLIC ASPECTS OF DIETING. Diet Therapy. Fat Losses. Adherence. PARENTAL AND FAMILY INFLUENCES IN THE ETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY. Introduction. Parental Involvement in the Treatment Process. Parenting Skills. Family Variables as Predictors of Outcome. Future Directions. THE PITTSBURGH CHILDHOOD WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM: AN UPDATE. Introduction. Treatment of Childhood Obesity. Summary. Index.