Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities / Edition 1

Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities / Edition 1

by Tom E. C. Smith, Carol A. Dowdy, Edward A. Polloway, Ginger Blalock

ISBN-10: 0205194311

ISBN-13: 9780205194315

Pub. Date: 11/22/1996

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

The most significant features of this book focus on its organization and content. Differing from all other introductory learning disabilities books, this book provides a true introduction to the field of learning disabilities, but does not include material related to methods of teaching students with learning disabilities. Rather, it provides a wealth of information


The most significant features of this book focus on its organization and content. Differing from all other introductory learning disabilities books, this book provides a true introduction to the field of learning disabilities, but does not include material related to methods of teaching students with learning disabilities. Rather, it provides a wealth of information that will provide readers with the knowledge necessary to understand this very nebulous category of disabilities. A lifespan approach is used, which follows individuals with learning disabilities from preschool and elementary ages through adulthood. In this book, learning disabilities is viewed as a broader category of disabilities than in many other books. A chapter on concomitant disabilities describes the many different problems that an individual can have in addition to exhibiting learning disabilities. For professionals working in the field of special education.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.13(h) x 0.92(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with "Opening Vignette" and "Introduction" and concludes with "Summary."

1. Learning Disabilities: An Introduction.
History of Learning Disabilities.
Foundations Phase
* Early Years of the Learning Disabilities Movement
* Modern Phase
* New Instructional Models.
Emerging Issues and Directions.
Defining Learning Disabilities
* Identification of Individuals with Learning Disabilities
* Generic/Noncategorical Movement
* Intervention
* Preventive Intervention
* Differentiation of Science and Public Policy
* Research in Treatment Effectiveness
* Teacher Training
* Early Identification and Intervention
* Transition Services
* Adult Services.

2. Conceptual Issues in Defining Learning Disabilities.
Early Definitions.
Current Definitions.
The U.S. Office of Education Definition (1977)
* The 1981 National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities Definition
* The Learning Disabilities Association of America Definition
* The Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities Definition (ICLD)
* The Revised NJCLD Definition.
Common Factors in Definitions.
The Debate Goes On!
Are Learning Disabilities Equal to Mild Disabilities?
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities.

3. Characteristics Assessment.
Purpose of Assessment.
Legal Mandates and Special Education Assessment.
Parent Participation
* Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
* Regulations for Learning Disabilities.
Assessment Battery.
Formal Tests.
Informal Tests and Measurement.
Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA)
* Curriculum-Based Measurement
* Response and Error Analysis
* Academic Probes
* Task Analysis
* Teacher-Made Test
* Portfolio Assessment
* Criterion-Referenced Assessment
* Observation
* Interviews, Questionnaires, and Checklists.
Components of the Assessment Process.
Stage One: Screening to Prereferral.
Stage Two: Referral and Identification of the Disability.
Stage Three: Eligibility Decisions.
Grade Level Deviation Models
* Expected Formula Models
* Standard Score Comparison Models
* Regression Inclusion Model
* Professional Judgment Models.
Stage Four: Instructional Programming Decisions.
Stage Five: Program Evaluation.

4. Educational Planning and Service Delivery Options.
Educational Planning.
Contents of the IEP
* Overview of Service Delivery Systems
* Regular Education Initiative (REI) and Inclusion.
Impact on Placement for Students with Learning Disability.

5. Biological and Environmental Considerations.
Model for Causation.
Brain and Brain Dysfunction.
The Brain and Spinal Cord
* Neurons.
Genetic Considerations.
Chromosomal Disorders
* Single Gene Disorders
* Autosomal Dominant Conditions
* Autosomal Recessive Conditions
* Proposed Genetic Influences
* Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Factors.
Prenatal Factors.
Substance Exposure in Utero
* Early Amniotic Rupture.
Perinatal Factors.
Postnatal Factors.
Head Injuries
* Lead Exposure
* Diet.
Environmental Considerations.
Home and Child Rearing Factors
* Emotional Factors.
Principles of Prevention.
Cautionary Concerns.

6. Preschool and Elementary Students.
Early Childhood Years and Learning Disabilities.
Early Identification Issues and Procedures
* Early Intervention and Their Relevance to LD
* Transitions from Preschool to Kindergarten
* Subtypes of LD in Children
* Cognitive Characteristics
* Oral and Written Language Characteristics
* Mathematics Performance
* Social Characteristics.
Assessing Curricular Needs of Children with LD.
Curriculum-Based Assessment
* Dynamic Assessment.
Major Intervention Approaches.
Cognitive Instruction
* Oral Language Skills Instruction
* Mathematics Instruction
* Social Skills Intervention
* Transition Services and Supports from Elementary to Middle School.

7. Adolescence and Transition Issues.
Challenges of Adolescence.
Changing Realities.
Characteristics of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.
Cognitive Characteristics
* Personal Characteristics
* Social Characteristics
* Functional Outcomes of Youth with Learning Disabilities.
Transition Concepts and Legal Requirements.
Definition of Transition
* Major Federal Initiatives
* Exclusion of Students with LD from Transition Planning and Services.
Learner Options within the Schools.
Individualized Planning Frameworks
* Academic Instructional Approaches
* Life Skills Instructional Approaches.
Transition Services and Supports

8. Learning Disabilities in Adulthood.
The Adult Agenda.
Characteristics of Adults with Learning Disabilities.
The General Perspective of Adults with Learning Disabilities.
A Word of Caution.
Cognitive Characteristics.
Educational Characteristics.
Psychosocial Characteristics.
Vocational Characteristics.
Postsecondary Educational Characteristics
* Reasons for Increased Postsecondary Enrollment by Adults with Learning Disabilities.
Accommodations for College Students with Learning Disabilities.
Making the Right Match Between Students and Postsecondary Environments.
The Demands of the College Environment.
Making the Postsecondary Match.
The Work Environment.
Reasonable Accommodations.
Evaluating the "Reasonableness" of Accommodations.
Making the Employment Match.
Social and Interpersonal Environments.
Quality of Life Issues.
Alternative "Postsecondary" Environments.
Vocational Rehabilitation Services.
Working in Partnerships with Adults with Learning Disabilities to Create a Positive Vision for the Future.

9. Diversity and Learning Disabilities.
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Learning Disabilities.
Demographic Characteristics
* Definitions
* Identification Issues
* Language Acquisition Issues
* IEP Issues and Strategies: Planning for Culturally/Linguistically Appropriate Education
* Teaching Approaches for Language/Literacy Development
* Challenges for Educators.
Socioeconomic Correlates and Learning Disabilities.
Poverty's Relationship to Disability
* Perceptions about Equity and Outcomes
* Challenges for Educators.
Gender Issues and Learning Disabilities.
General Differences of Males and Females
* Prevalence and Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Across Gender
* Instructional Considerations and Strategies.
Sexual Orientation and Learning Disabilities.
Student Issues
* Personnel Preparation Issues.

10. Legal Issues and Learning Disabilities.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Child Find
* Referral and Evaluation
* Individual Education Program
* Least Restrictive Environment
* Transition Programming
* Due Process Procedures.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.
Eligibility for Section 504
* Definition of Disability Under Section 504
* Requirements of Section 504
* Accommodations and Modifications
* Services In Public School
* Due Process Procedures and Section 504
* Section 504 and Adults with Learning Disabilities.
The Americans with Disabilities Education Act and Students with Learning Disabilities.
Reasonable Accommodations.
Employment Issues.

11. Working with Families of Students with Learning Disabilities.
The Family.
Families and Children with Disabilities.
Family and School Collaboration.
Need for Family and School Collaboration
* Levels of Collaboration
* Level Requirements for Collaboration.
Communication Between Schools and Parents.
Disagreements Between Schools and Parents.
Special Collaboration Activities.

12. Concomitant Exceptionalities.
Dual Diagnosis.
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics
* Implications.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics
* Implications.
Communication Disabilities.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics
* Implications.
Visual Impairments.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics and Implications.
Hearing Impairments.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics and Implications.
Mental Retardation.
Conceptual Issues.
Neurological and Health Conditions.
Cerebral Palsy
* Convulsive Disorders
* Tourette Syndrome
* Health Disorders.
Conceptual Issues
* Characteristics
* Implications.

13. Emerging Considerations for the Future.
Social Transformation.
Conceptualization and Identification.
Curriculum and Instruction
* School Inclusion.

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