Foreword: Margaret Donaldson.
1. What is the Problem?.
2. Piaget under Attack.
3. Addition and Subtraction before School.
4. What's so Hard About Two and Two.
5. Children's Invention of Written Arithmetic.
6. The Written Number Systems of Other Cultures.
7. Understanding the Written Symbolism of Arithmetic.
8. Children's Difficulties in School.
9. Learning through Number Games.
10. Learning with LOGO.
11. A New Approach to Number.