China's Political System / Edition 7

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“Dreyer provides a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of China’s political, economic and social landscape. Rather than providing a static overview of existing institutions and processes, the author convincingly shows how the lasting struggle between external influence and China’s own tradition underlies changes in China’s political system.”–Yi Edward Yang, James Madison University

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Product Details

Meet the Author

June Teufel Dreyer is Professor of Political Science at the University of Miami.

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Table of Contents

Illustrations xv

Preface xvi

About the Author xix

Political Map of China xx

1 Introducation 1

Modernization and Chinese Civilization 1

Theories of Analysis of Chinese Politics 8

Theoretical Analysis in the Early Years of the PRC 10

Theories Engendered by the Cultural Revolution 15

Post-Mao Theories of Analysis 21

Conclusions 23

Suggestions for Further Reading 24

2 The Chinese Tradition 25

Basic Characteristics 25

The Governmental Structure of Traditional China 31

The Examination System 35

Literature and Art 36

The Role of Law in Traditional China 36

The Military 38

The Barbarian Problem 39

Interpretations of Chinese History 39

Implications for Industrialization 42

Conclusions 46

Suggestions for Further Reading 46

3 Reformers, Warlords, and Communists 47

The New Invasion 47

The Self-Strengthening Movement 49

Reform and Revolution 53

The Reformers 54

The Reactionaries 55

The Revolutionaries 56

The Kuomintang 61

Suggestions for Further Reading 65

4 The Communist Road to Power 66

The Early Years: 1919-1923 66

The Period of Soviet Control: 1923-1931 68

The Jiangxi Soviet: 1931-1934 70

The Long March: 1934-1935 72

The Xi'an Incident: 1936 75

The Second United Front: 1936-1941 76

Civil War and Victory: 1941-1949 82

Suggestions for Further Reading 84

5 PRC Politics under Mao: 1949-1976 85

Consolidation of Power: 1949-1955 85

Establishing the Organs of Power 89

The Hundred Flowers Period: 1956-1957 94

The Great Leap Forward and Its Aftermath: 1958-1961 97

The Socialist Education Movement: 1962-1966 102

The Cultural Revolution: 1966-1976 104

The Yearsof Upheaval: 1966-1969 104

Reconstruction: 1970-1976 109

Suggestions for Further Reading 112

6 PRC Politics in the Post-Mao Era: 1976-2008 113

Interregnum: 1976-1978 113

Deng Ascendant 116

The Legacy of Mao 119

Political Realignment and Policy Readjustment 120

The Tiananmen Demonstrations. 1989 129

The "Third Generation": China under Jiang Zemin 134

The Three Represents 136

Civie Organizations 136

Changing Central-Local Relationships 137

The "Fourth Generation" Assumes Power 141

Conclusions 145

Suggestions for Further Reading 147

7 The Politics of the Economy 148

Introduction 148

The Early Years: 1949-1950 149

The Socialist Transformation of Agriculture: 1949-1978 150

Industrial Policy in the Maoist Era 155

Maoist Economic Policies Assessed 156

Economic Policy under Deng Xiaoping 158

Agricultural Reforms 158

The Private Sector 161

More Responsibility for State Enterprises 162

Reforming the Price System 163

Reforming the Reforms 165

New Problems for Deng's Successors 169

Future Concerns 173

Conclusions 176

Suggestions for Further Reading 177

8 Crime and Punishment: The Legal System of the PRC 178

Less than Peaceful Coexistence of the Societal and Jural Models: 1949-1953 179

The Jural Model in Ascendance: 1954-1957 180

Resurgence of the Societal Model: 1957-1965 182

The Societal Model Rampant: 1966-1976 183

Law and Justice in the Post-Mao Era: Return to the Jural Model 185

The New Legal System 186

Legal Developments 188

The Trial Process 189

Mediation 191

Petitions 193

The Penal System 193

Conclusions 202

Suggestions for Further Reading 203

9 The Role of the Military 204

Party and Army 204

Assessing the Maoist Model 207

The Influence of the Korean War on the PLA 208

The Revolt Against Professionalism 210

Professionalism Returns 216

The Effect of the June Fourth Incident on the PLA 220

The Military under Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao 222

Conclusions 227

Suggestions for Further Reading 228

10 Education 229

Devising a System 229

The Drive for Egalitarianism and Fall Back Toward Expertise 232

Redness Revisited: The Cultural Revolution 233

Egalitarians versus Experts: The Search for a Synthesis 236

The Search for Academic Excellence 237

Conclusions 248

Suggestions for Further Reading 251

11 Quality-of-Life Issues: Health, Demography, and the Environment 252

Health 252

Demography 260

The Environment 269

Conclusions 275

Suggestions for Further Reading 276

12 Conformity and Dissent: The Arts, the Media, and Social Control 277

Artist and Society in China 277

The Party, Art, and Social Protest 278

Post-1949 Control Mechanisms 279

Repression and Reaction 281

Culture and the Cultural Revolution 283

The Arts under Deng Xiaoping 285

Restrained Dissent 285

Protest Gains Momentum 286

Experimenting with Capitalism in the Arts 288

The Campaign Against Spiritual Pollution 288

Looming Confrontation 289

The Tiananmen Demonstrations and Their Aftermath 290

Expression, Repression, and Social Control 291

Conclusions 297

Suggestions for Further Reading 298

13 Ethnic Minorities and National Integration 299

China's Minority Peoples 299

Ethnicity in Communist Ideology 303

Minorities Policy in Practice 304

The Early Years: 1949-1957 304

The Great Leap Forward and Its Aftermath: 1959-1965 309

The Cultural Revolution: 1966-1971 312

Return to Pluralism: 1971-1977 313

Post-Mao Minorities Policy 314

Reform Produces Problems 315

External Factors 317

Repression Increases 318

Genuine Autonomy as a Possible Solution 323

Conclusions 325

Suggestions for Further Reading 326

14 Foreign Policy 327

Determinants 327

Tradition 327

Ideology 329

Capabilities 330

Goals 331

The Formulation of Foreign Policy 331

Chinese Foreign Relations: An Overview 334

The "Lean to One Side" Policy: 1949-1954 334

The Bandung spirit: 1954-1957 337

Resurgent Nationalism and Isolation: 1957-1969 339

Global Power Politics: 1969-Present 343

Triangular Politics 1969-1989 343

Counterbalancing the Sole Superpower: 1989-Present 348

Post-9/11 Developments 350

Conclusions 353

Suggestions for Further Reading 355

15 Conclusions 356

Suggestions for Further Reading 366

Useful Websites 367

Index 369

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