The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way

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Michael Horton’s highly anticipated The Christian Faith represents his magnum opus and will be viewed as one of---if not the---most important systematic theologies since Louis Berkhof wrote his in 1932.

A prolific, award-winning author and theologian, Professor Horton views this volume as “doctrine that can be preached, experienced, and lived, as well as understood, clarified, and articulated.” It is written for a growing cast of pilgrims making their way together and will be ...

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The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way

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Michael Horton’s highly anticipated The Christian Faith represents his magnum opus and will be viewed as one of---if not the---most important systematic theologies since Louis Berkhof wrote his in 1932.

A prolific, award-winning author and theologian, Professor Horton views this volume as “doctrine that can be preached, experienced, and lived, as well as understood, clarified, and articulated.” It is written for a growing cast of pilgrims making their way together and will be especially welcomed by professors, pastors, students, and armchair theologians.

Features of this volume include: (1) a brief synopsis of biblical passages that inform a particular doctrine; (2) surveys of past and current theologies with contemporary emphasis on exegetical, philosophical, practical, and theological questions; (3) substantial interaction with various Christian movements within the Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodoxy traditions, as well as the hermeneutical issues raised by postmodernity; and (4) charts, sidebars, questions for discussion, and an extensive bibliography, divided into different entry levels and topics.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
“The most authoritative systematic theologies must possess a range of qualities: a firm grasp of the overall shape and proportions of Christian teaching; an eye for its fine details; deep biblical and historical learning; conceptual prowess matched by descriptive power; a sense of cultural occasion---all animated by humble delight in the inexhaustibility of God and the gospel. Michael Horton’s presentation exhibits all these excellences. This is a work of outstanding theological and spiritual cogency and will command wide attention.” -- John Webster

“The Christian Faith is impressively deep, immensely practical, and infinitely hopeful for us pilgrims on the Way. Michael Horton will sculpt your appreciation for theology and enhance your love for Christ crucified. Anyone wanting to impact this world effectively---pastors, missionaries, evangelists, church planters, lay leaders, and all other wayfarers---must read this book.” -- Pastor Fikret Bocek

“This is a remarkable volume. Lucid, insightful, learned, and faithful, The Christian Faith is that rare book that substantially contributes to and helpfully introduces Christian theology. I highly recommend it.” -- Kevin W. Hector

“The Christian Faith offers a fine, comprehensive companion to a number of recent systematic theologies. Crisply written, scripturally informed throughout, distinctively evangelical and Reformed, conversant with classic as well as contemporary Christian authors---Horton’s study is an outstanding contribution that will richly nourish Christian pilgrims on their way toward the consummation of Christ’s kingdom.” -- Cornelis P. Venema, , President

“The Christian Faith is a remarkable accomplishment---the most significant single-volume systematic theology to be written in decades! This book is written for the sake of the church, yet it also reflects a fresh engagement with a broad range of biblical and theological scholarship. The Christian Faith is an excellent resource for all who wish to engage classical Christian theology in a Reformed key.” -- J. Todd Billings, , Associate Professor

“Michael Horton has done the Protestant church a profound service by bringing the theology of the Reformation forward to the twenty-first century. For decades, there has been a need for Reformed dogmatists to tackle new questions in theology, philosophy, and culture. Horton’s well-researched volume brings a rich, theological heritage into conversation with ideas and thinkers that are shaping the future of our world. This volume demonstrates that Protestant orthodoxy is alive and active. Horton’s precision is sure to initiate a new series of theological refinement in light of new global realities.” -- Anthony B. Bradley, , Associate Professor

“There has been a renaissance of theological writing in our day, but no one writes as carefully, cogently, and thoughtfully in the grand tradition of Protestant systematic theology as does Michael Horton. This work is a powerful reminder that theology ought to grow first from the soil of the biblical text; then, in conversation with the church across the ages, it ought to clarify conceptually the great truths of the gospel. Theology, as Horton has written it here in The Christian Faith, must always be cognizant of the challenges of the contemporary world, but it must finally belong to the church, which gives it voice in the first place. There is no one better at this task in our day than Michael Horton.” -- Richard Lints, , Professor of Theology

“Horton’s Christian Faith has the great merit of never letting the reader forget that doctrine is for disciples who want to walk the way of Jesus Christ. Horton knows that the best systematic theology is a practical theology---one that helps us understand the ways of God, make sense of life, and give direction for God-glorifying living. He also knows that the best systematic theologies draw on biblical and historical theology. May many readers, therefore, take up this book, read, and walk!” -- Kevin J. Vanhoozer, , Professor of Theology

“A crisp, clear, and forceful new theology that is at once biblical and reverent, historical and contemporary, learned but accessible. What a great gift this is to the church!” -- David F. Wells, , Distinguished Research Professor

“In this impressive volume, Michael Horton takes the movement of confessing evangelicals to a new level. He remits and rethinks the greatness of seventeenth-century Reformed theology and makes it accessible for readers today. Even those who cannot go along with some of his central positions will find them to be challenging and formidable. It is well worth grappling with Horton’s up-to-date work.” -- George Hunsinger, , Professor of Systematic Theology“Michael Horton has hit a home run: a narrative-shaped, comprehensive, one-volume systematic theology that is biblically-grounded, warmly evangelical, confessionally Reformed in its angularity while catholic in its tone, and freshly contemporary. In the spirit of the Westminster Catechism, Horton directs readers to the glory of God and the joy of doing theology.” -- John Bolt, , Professor of Systematic Theology

“Dr. Horton has produced a remarkable work. His approach to systematic theology is fresh and critically needed in our time. Every pilgrim will profit from this work.” -- R.C. Sproul, , Chairman and President

“This ‘pilgrim’ systematic theology, thoroughly impressive for its architectonic design and sweeping scope and the wide reading it reflects, provides a major restatement of Christian truth for today. Its overall plan is to explore the interaction between four key factors: the historically reliable narrative drama of Scripture that gives rise to doctrine, culminates in doxology, and results in discipleship. The author carries this plan through in a fresh and stimulating fashion out of a deep commitment to Reformation and post-Reformation orthodoxy. He enriches his discussion by using the subsequent redemptive-historical insights of Geerhardus Vos and others and interacts substantially with other traditions, both sympathetic and critical. One may have reservations about the author’s ‘forensic ontology’ and aspects of his use of speech act theory yet benefit greatly from his able and biblically sound treatment of numerous theological topics.” -- Richard B. Gaffin, Jr., , Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology

“Michael Horton’s new systematic theology has been long-awaited and does not disappoint. Here is classic, deep, orthodox Reformed theology, written in a way that is thoughtful and engaged. The author draws deeply on his tradition, but also interacts fruitfully with insights from contemporary scholarship in a way that communicates clearly but does not sacrifice depth for the sake of simplicity. Each of the classic loci is addressed with exegetical and systematic insight, and old doctrines are once again brought to life on the page. Great truths are defended, but not in a defensive manner; and the glory of the gospel shines through in sharp relief. For those who think one must make a choice between guarding the faith and being thoughtfully relevant, think again: this book both teaches theology and is an example of how theology should be done. The reader who is undaunted by the number of pages will be richly rewarded; and the pastor, elder, discussion leader, and church member who wants to know more will not be disappointed.” -- Carl R. Trueman, , Professor of Historical Theology and Church Hist

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780310286042
  • Publisher: Zondervan
  • Publication date: 2/3/2011
  • Pages: 960
  • Sales rank: 384,492
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 2.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael Horton is the author of over 20 books and host of the White Horse Inn, a nationally syndicated radio program. He is the professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California and the editor-in-chief of Modern Reformation magazine. A popular blogger and sought-after lecturer, he resides in Escondido, California with his wife and children.
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Read an Excerpt

The Christian Faith

A Systematic Theology For Pilgrims On The Way
By Michael S. Horton


Copyright © 2011 Michael Horton
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-310-28604-2

Chapter One


Any genuine field of knowledge (the older meaning of scientia or "science") must have an object — in other words, a subject matter. Furthermore, that object must be knowable. Astronomy is a legitimate science because planets, stars, and other bodies in space actually exist and can be studied. Theology is "the study of God." For reasons explored later in the chapter, the object shifted in the modern era (with notable exceptions) from God and his works to humanity and its morality, spirituality, and experience. Science came to refer narrowly to the empirical sciences, and religion could only be a legitimate discipline only to the extent that it was studied as a natural phenomenon of culture. As a consequence, theology has become largely a subdiscipline of psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, or history of religions, even in universities with a Christian past. As we will see, theologians themselves pioneered this turn to the self in the hope of making Christianity more relevant and acceptable in our world.

The opening claim of this systematic theology is that the triune God is the object of theology and that this God is knowable because he has revealed himself to us. To explore this claim, we will begin with the widest horizon. Although this is the most philosophical chapter in this volume, our discussion will draw on the content of the Christian faith itself in order to develop the basic presuppositions of our worldview. From this widest horizon, we will narrow our focus to the character of theology, revelation, and Scripture.

I. Dissonant Dramas: The Nature of Reality

The widest horizon for theology — indeed for all of our knowledge — is the question of ontology: what is reality? Nothing is more central to our governing narratives than the God-world relation. In an important essay, existentialist philosopher and theologian Paul Tillich (1886-1965) suggested that all of the varied schools and theories in philosophy of religion can be grouped under two contrasting paradigms: overcoming estrangement and meeting a stranger. Adding a third, which I will call the stranger we never meet, I will define these paradigms and then defend a version of meeting a stranger that fits with the biblical drama.

A. Pantheism and Panentheism: Overcoming Estrangement

The first grand narrative erases (or tends to erase) the infinite-qualitative distinction between God and creatures. Narrated in myriad myths across many cultures, this is the story of the ascent of the soul — that divine part of us, which has somehow become trapped in matter and history. Although it originates in dualism — a stark (even violent) opposition between finite and infinite, matter and spirit, time and eternity, humanity and God, the goal is to reestablish the unity of all reality. In some versions, only that which is infinite, spiritual, eternal, and divine is real, so all else perishes or is somehow elevated into the upper world. Nevertheless, the goal is to lose all particularity and diversity in the One, which is Being itself.

If one begins with a story of the cosmos in which the divine is somehow buried within us, a sacred spark or soul trapped in a body, space, and time, then the ultimate source of reality is not outside of us but inside. God does not enter into the times and spaces that he has created; rather, all of reality emanates from this divine principle of unity like rays from the sun.

In Platonism, for example, spiritual/intellectual entities possess more "being," while aspects of reality that belong more to history and matter fall down the ladder in diminishing grades of being. To the "upper world" belong the eternal forms: unchanging, one, and real; the "lower world" consists of the realm of mere appearances: ever-changing, diverse, and shadowy in their existence. In the case of human beings, the mind or spirit is the immortal spark of divinity, while the emotions are slaves of the body and its bondage to the realm of mere appearances. We just need to go deeper within to find the truth, overcoming our sense of estrangement from "being" by returning to the source of a single Light.

In this perspective, if God is considered in personal terms at all, not just as a unifying principle (namely, The One, Ground of Being, Absolute Spirit, the Unity of All, etc.), he is certainly not viewed as someone other, standing over against the self, especially in judgment. In other words, divinity is domesticated, brought inside of the self, so that it can no longer threaten, judge, rule, or condemn. This type of deity does not offend, disrupt, command, or save; rather than a stranger, God, the gods, or the divine principle is the most immanent and personal aspect of one's own existence.

Although the confusion of the Creator with creation characterizes paganism generally, it formed the horizon for Greek philosophy. In the second century, a movement arose within esoteric Jewish and Christian groups that tried to reinterpret the biblical narrative in a basically Greek philosophical framework. Known as Gnosticism, this heresy was decisively challenged by Irenaeus (AD 115 - 202), bishop of Lyons. In contrast to the biblical story of a good creation, the fall into sin through transgressing the covenant, and redemption through Christ's incarnate life, death, and resurrection, the Gnostics sought redemption from an evil creation through inner enlightenment (gnosis). Plundering the Bible for its material, Gnostic sects offered a radical reinterpretation. The God of creation (Yahweh), represented in the Old Testament, becomes the evil deity who imprisons divine souls in bodies, while the serpent in the garden sought to liberate Adam and Eve through inner enlightenment. The God of redemption (Christ), revealed in the Gnostic "gospels," is an avatar of sorts, leading initiates away from their bodily incarceration in history, toward their divine destiny.

While distancing himself from the Gnostics, Origen of Alexandria (AD 185-254) nevertheless tried to assimilate Christian doctrine to a fundamentally Platonist scheme. In this he was following Philo of Alexandria, who had developed a system of Jewish Platonism with great success a century earlier. Origen rejected the biblical doctrine of ex nihilo creation and downplayed the reality of Christ's physical embodiment in his incarnation, ascension, and return in the flesh. He also taught reincarnation and the final restoration of all spiritual entities, including Satan and the fallen angels. For these speculations, Origen was later judged heretical by the Christian East, but his Platonized version of Christianity remained powerful and long-lasting especially in monastic movements.

Within the history of Western Christianity there have been tendencies among some mystics to move in a pantheistic direction. An extreme example is the fourteenth-century mystic Meister Eckhart, who wrote in a characteristic sermon, "To the inward-turned man all things have an inward divinity.... Nothing is so proper to the intellect, nor so present and near as God." The connection between rationalism and mysticism is as old as Platonism itself. This outer-inner dualism has characterized much of radical mysticism in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, as well as in Sufi Islam and Jewish Kabbalism. This trajectory continued in radical Protestantism from the Anabaptists to the early Enlightenment. It is especially evident in the philosophy of Benedict Spinoza (1632-77), which was revived in German Romanticism and American Transcendentalism. Its influence is evident in the dominant forms of theological liberalism and especially today in New Age and neopagan spiritualities.

Even in its dualism (for example, between spirit and matter), the pantheistic worldview is ultimately monistic. In other words, all of reality is ultimately one. There is no distinction, finally, between God and the world. While bodies may be lower than souls on the ladder of being, all of reality emanates from a single source to which it returns. In spite of the hierarchy of being, all distinctions — even between God and creation — become gradually lost. For example, theologian Rosemary Radford Reuther seeks to go back behind Christianity to ancient Near Eastern pagan myths and Gnosticism for a holistic (i.e., monistic) worldview. "The visible universe is the emanational manifestation of God, God's sacramental body."

Some have tried to blend pantheism ("all is divine") with belief in a personal God (theism). Often identified as panentheism ("all-within-God"), this view holds that "God" or the divine principle transcends the world, although God and the world exist in mutual dependence. In varying degrees of explicit dependence, panentheism is the working ontology of process theology and the theologies of Teilhard de Chardin, Wolfhart Pannenberg, and Jürgen Moltmann among many others, especially those working at the intersection of theology and the philosophy of science. 10 Some panentheists envision the world as the body of God.

B. Atheism and Deism: The Stranger We Never Meet

At the other end of the spectrum from pantheism and panentheism are atheism and deism. Although Buddhism denies the existence of a personal God, Western atheism rejects any transcendent reality beyond the world of sense experience. Deism affirms the existence of a Creator God, but generally denies that this Architect of the Universe intervenes miraculously in nature or history. Especially as formulated in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Sigmund Freud, modern atheism sees religion as arising from a psychological need to project something or someone to whom one can pray in the face of the threats and tragedies in a random and chaotic universe.

Nietzsche advocated an "inverted Platonism," where the upper world is illusion and the lower world is real. In fact, the dualism of two worlds is rejected as an illusion perpetuated by Christianity. Drawing on classical Greek myth, Nietzsche identifies Apollo (the god of order) with Plato's upper world and Dionysus (the god of pagan revelry and chaotic self-indulgence) with the lower world. Where the death of ultimate meaning led Schopenhauer to a state of depression — a passive resignation to fate — his disciple Nietzsche embraced it as a call to create meaning for ourselves. "That my life has no aim is evident from the accidental nature of its origin. That I can posit an aim for myself is another matter." As Mark C. Taylor expresses it, "The lawless land of erring, which is forever beyond good and evil, is the liminal world of Dionysus, the Anti-Christ, who calls every wandering mark to carnival, comedy, and carnality."

Amid important differences, there are some surprising similarities between pantheism and atheism. In fact, they are two sides of the same coin. Both embrace the view that being is univocal: in other words, that there is only one kind of reality or existence. In this perspective, there is reality (that which exists) and then there are particular beings who exist, such as divine and non-divine entities. In the "overcoming estrangement" paradigm of pantheism, the physical world is a weak projection of an eternal (real) world. In the atheistic paradigm ("the stranger we never meet"), the projection is reversed; in fact, the longing for transcendent meaning and truth reflects a form of psychological neurosis, nostalgia for a nonexistent "beyond" that paralyzes our responsibility in the present. In other words, pantheism assumes that the upper world is real and this world is mere appearance, while atheism assumes that this world is real and the upper world is nonexistent. In their drive toward immanence, both paradigms locate the divine within the self (reducing theology to anthropology or psychology). When, under the influence of the pantheistic scheme, modern theologians emphasized religion as a purely inner affair of mystical experience or personal piety, the atheist was then quite warranted to regard God's existence as an entirely subjective claim with no bearing on actual reality.


Excerpted from The Christian Faith by Michael S. Horton Copyright © 2011 by Michael Horton. Excerpted by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents


The Nicene Creed....................11
Introduction: The Dogma Is the Drama: A Theology for Pilgrims on the Way....................13
1 Dissonant Dramas: Paradigms for Knowing God and the World....................35
2 The Character of Theology: A Theoretical or a Practical Science?....................80
3 The Source of Theology: Revelation....................113
4 Scripture as Covenant Canon....................151
5 The Bible and the Church: From Scripture to System....................186
6 God: The Incommunicable Attributes....................223
7 God: The Communicable Attributes....................259
8 The Holy Trinity....................273
9 The Decree: Trinity and Predestination....................309
10 Creation: God's Time for Us....................324
11 Providence: God's Care for All He Has Made....................350
12 Being Human....................373
13 The Fall of Humanity....................408
14 The Person of Christ....................446
15 The State of Humiliation: Christ's Threefold Office....................483
16 The State of Exaltation: The Servant Who Is Lord....................521
17 Called to be Saints: Christ's Presence in the Spirit....................551
18 Union with Christ....................587
19 Forensic Aspects of Union with Christ: Justification and Adoption....................620
20 The Way Forward in Grace: Sanctification and Perseverance....................648
21 The Hope of Glory: "Those Whom He Justified He Also Glorified" (Ro 8:30)....................688
22 The Kingdom of Grace and the New Covenant Church....................711
23 Word and Sacrament: The Means of Grace....................751
24 Baptism and the Lord's Supper....................788
25 The Attributes of the Church: Unity, Catholicity, and Holiness....................828
26 Apostolicity: A Fellowship of Receivers and Deliverers....................872
27 A Dwelling Place....................906
28 The Return of Christ and the Last Judgment....................919
29 The Last Battle and Life Everlasting....................957
Scripture Index....................1005
Subject Index....................1027
Name Index....................1035
Confession Index....................1047
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  • Posted June 28, 2013

    Wow! This is a great book. A through review of Calvinist theolo

    Wow! This is a great book. A through review of Calvinist theology that is fair in its description and analysis of opposing theologies. And Chapter 24 on the Lord's Supper is a Spirit-inspired masterpiece. This is a must read for all conservative Christians.

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