Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present

Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present

by Robert Eric Frykenberg
     
 

ISBN-10: 0198263775

ISBN-13: 9780198263777

Pub. Date: 10/15/2008

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Robert Eric Frykenberg's wide ranging study and enhances out historical understanding of Christian communities, cultures, and institutions within the Indian world from their beginnings down to the present. Frykenberg focuses on those trans-cultural interactions within Hindu and Muslim environments which have made Christians in this part of the world distinctive,

Overview

Robert Eric Frykenberg's wide ranging study and enhances out historical understanding of Christian communities, cultures, and institutions within the Indian world from their beginnings down to the present. Frykenberg focuses on those trans-cultural interactions within Hindu and Muslim environments which have made Christians in this part of the world distinctive, ever aware of the contemporary context of a newly emerging World Christianity, in which Christians of a Post-Christian West are a minority. Frykenberg's purposefully Indocentric perspective guides the reader through complexities in the proliferation of Christianity. He offers a sensitive and nuanced examination of the processes by which Christian elements intermingled with indigenous cultures, leaving imprints upon the many cultures of India today.

Frykenberg provides a fascinating insight into four major waves of Christian expansion, beginning with the growth of the Thomas Christian community, who believe that the Apostle-Thomas came to India in 52 AD/CE leaving behind seven congregations. The three hierarchies of the Indian Catholic church are discussed alongside a variety of Evangelical and Protestant communities that proliferate today. With the rise of Pentecostalism, the fourth great wave of Christian expansion in India has occurred. Starting with movements that began five centuries ago there are now ten to fifteen times more missionaries than ever before, virtually all of them Indian Needless to say, Christianity in India is profoundly India. Here for the first time in one volume, we are offered a fluent scholarly explanation of what this means by a lifelong specialist in the history and cultural of South Asia.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780198263777
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Publication date:
10/15/2008
Series:
Oxford History of the Christian Church Series
Pages:
596
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.60(d)

Table of Contents

List of Maps xxii

List of Illustrations xxiii

1 Introduction: Christians, Christianity, and Christendom 1

Initial Expansions across the World 2

Proliferation and Propagation 4

Primal Religions and Christianity 9

History and Historiography 16

2 Contextualizing Complexity, I: India's Lands, Peoples, and Social Structures 21

Geo-environmental Settings 21

Ethno-demographic Settings 27

Language Settings 30

Kinship Settings: A Classical Stereotype 35

Socio-structural Settings: Varnashramadharma 43

Village Setting: Primordial Political Entities 50

3 Contextualizing Complexity, II: India's Dominant Religious Traditions: Sanatana-Dharma and Dar-ul-Islam 57

Dharma/Karma 57

Al Hind and Dar-ul-Islam 72

4 Thomas Christians and the Thomas Tradition 91

The Thomas Tradition 92

The Acts of Thomas 93

The Thomas Parvam and Other Evidence 98

The Church of the East 102

The Waves of Refugees 107

The Refugees from Dar-al-Islam 111

Conclusion 114

5 Pfarangi Catholic Christians and Padroado Christendom 116

The Missionaries of Medieval Europe 116

The Pfarangi Fleets of Portugal 119

The Padroado Real of Goa 127

The Imposition of Catholic Padroado Christendom 130

The Jesuit Missions in the Mufassal 137

Conclusion 140

6 Evangelical Christians as Missionary Dubashis: Conduits of Cross-Cultural Communication 142

The Impetus of Missionary Pietism 144

The Dubashi Pandits of Tranquebar: Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg and his Tamil Associates 146

The Dubashi Missionaries of Madras: Benjamin Schultze, Johann Philip Fabricius, and Telugu 151

The Raja-Gum and Sishiyas of Thanjavur: Christian Friedrich Schwartz and his Disciples 152

Conclusion 165

7 India's Raj and Political Logic: The Unification of India, a Southern Perspective 169

Metaphors and Paradigms 170

Pre-modern Systems of Power 173

Baniya Company and Kompanee Bahadur 177

Dynamics of Imperial Logic 190

Stages of Imperial Expansion 194

India's Raj and Imperial Paramountcy 200

Conclusion 204

8 Avarna Christians and Conversion Movements 206

Avarna Movements in the South 207

Conversion Movements Further North 230

Conclusion 240

9 Missionaries, Colonialism, and Ecclesiastical Dominion 243

Travancore: Anglican Attempts to Dominate Thomas Christians 244

Tirunelveli: The 'Rhenius Affair' and Missionary Colonialism 249

'Tanjore Christians', Anglican Missionaries, and Caste 257

Colonial Domination and Dual Identity 261

Conclusion 266

10 Indian Christians and 'Hindu Raj' 268

Christian Resistance to the Raj 269

'Hindu' Resistance to New Christians 274

Hindu-Christian Disputes and Encounters 277

Official Responses to Religious Controversy 280

'Hindu' Establishment and the State 284

Struggles over Defining 'Public' Space 288

Conclusion 300

11 Elite Education and Missionaries 301

'Oriental' Learning and Modern Education 302

Indigenous Demands for Modern Education in English 307

Early Official Efforts to Spread Education 314

Pressures for Modern Education in English 320

Mahajans vs. Missionary Educators 327

Ascendancy of English in Upper-Class Education 333

Missionary Compromise and Elite Co-option 336

Conclusion 341

12 Catholic Renewal and Resurgence 344

Catholic India in Decline and Disarray 345

The Padroado-Propaganda Struggle, or 'Goa Schism' 346

The Consolidation of Catholic Christianity in India 350

Conflicts with Thomas Christians 358

Conclusion 375

13 'Trophies of Grace' and their Public Influence 380

Pandita Ramabai Saraswati: The Mahatma of Mukti 382

Other Sample 'Trophies of Grace' 410

Conclusion 416

14 Adivasi Movements in the North-East 419

Naga Christian Movements: A Paradigm of Metamorphosis 422

Adivasi Movements of Meghalaya and Mizoland 445

Conclusion 451

15 Conclusion and Epilogue 454

Critical and Comprehensive Concerns 454

Epilogue 464

Bibliography 485

Glossary 517

Index 535

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