The Origin and Purpose of Festivals
Ideas suggested by Christmas
Pagan and Christian Elements
The Names of the Festival
Foundation of the Feast of the Nativity
It's Relation to the Epiphany
December 25 and the Natalis Invicti
The Kalends of January
Yule and Teutonic Festivals
The Church and Pagan Survivals
Two Conflicting Types of Festival
Plan of the Book
PART I THE CHRISTIAN FEAST
CHRISTMAS POETRY (I)
"Ancient Latin Hymns, their Dogmatic, Theological Character"
Humanizing Influence of Franciscanism
Jacopone da Todi's Vernacular Verse
German Catholic Poetry
Mediaeval English Carols
CHRISTMAS POETRY (II)
The French Noël
Latin Hymnody in Eighteenth-century France
Spanish Christmas Verse
Traditional Carols of Many Countries
Christmas Poetry in Protestant Germany
Post-Reformation Verse in England
Modern English Carols
CHRISTMAS IN LITURGY AND POPULAR DEVOTION
Advent and Christmas Offices of the Roman Church
"The Trhee Masses of Christmas, their Origin and their Celebration in Rome"
The Midnight Mass in Many Lands
Protestant Survivals of the Night Services Christmas in the Greek Church
The Eastern Epiphany and the Blessing of the Waters
"The Presepio or Crib, its Supposed Institution by St. Francis"
Early Traces of the Crib
"The Crib in Germany, Tyrol, &c."
Cradle-rocking in Mediaeval Germany
Christmas Minstrels in Italy and Sicily
The Presepio in Italy
Ceremonies with the Culla and the Bambino in Rome
Christmas in Italian London
The Spanish Christmas
Possible Survivals of the Crib in England
Origins of the Mediaeval Drama
Dramatic Tendencies in the Liturgy
Latin Liturgical Plays
The Drama becomes Laicized
Characteristics of the Popular Drama
The Nativity in the English Miracle Cycles
Christmas Mysteries in France
Later French Survivals of Christmas Drama
German Christmas Plays
Mediaeval Italian Plays and Pageants
Spanish Nativity Plays
Modern Survivals in Various Countries
"The Star Singers, &c."
PART II PAGAN SURVIVALS
PRE-CHRISTIAN WINTER FESTIVALS
The Church and Superstition
Nature of Pagan Survivals
Roman Festivals of the Saturnalia and Kalends
Was there a Teutonic Midwinter Festival?
"The Teutonic, Celtic, and Slav New Year"
Customs Attracted to Christmas or January I
The Winter Cycle of Festivals
Rationale of Festival Ritual:
(a) Sacrifice and Sacrament
(b) The Cult of the Dead
(c) Omens and Charms for the New Year
Compromise in the Later Middle Ages
The Puritans and Christmas
Decay of Old Traditions
ALL HALLOW TIDE TO MARTINMAS
"All Saints' and All Souls' Days, their Relation to a New Year Festival"
All Souls' Eve and Tendance of the Departed
Soul Cakes in England and on the Continent
Pagan Parallels of All Souls'
Hallowe'en Charms and Omens
Guy Fawkes Day
"Old Hob," the Schimmelreiter, and other Animal Masks"
Martinmas and its Slaughter
St. Martin's Fires in Germany
Winter Visitors in the Low Countries and Germany
St. Martin as Gift-bringer
St. Martin's Rod
ST. CLEMENT TO ST. THOMAS
St. Clement's Day Quests and Processions
St. Catherine's Day as Spinsters' Festival
St. Andrew's Eve Auguries
"St. Nicholas's Day, the Saint as Gift-bringer, and his Attendants"
Election of the Boy Biship
St. Nicholas's Day at Bari
"St. Lucia's Day in Sweden, Sicily, and Central Europe"
St. Thomas's Day as School Festival
Its Uncanny Eve
CHRISTMAS EVE AND THE TWELVE DAYS
"Christkind, Santa Klaus, and Knecht Ruprecht"
Talking Animals and other Wonders of Christmas Eve
Scandinavian Beliefs about Trolls and the Return of the Dead
Traditional Christmas Songs in Eastern Europe
"The Twelve Days, their Christian Origin and Pagan Superstitions"
The Raging Host
Hints of Supernatural Visitors in England
The German Frauen
The Greek Kallikantzaroi
THE YULE LOG
The Log as Centre of the Domestic Christmas
Customs of the Southern Slavs
Origin of the Yule Log
Probable Commection with Vegetation-cults or Ancestor-worship
The Souche de Noël in France
Italian and German Christmas Logs
The Yule Candle in England and Scandinavia
"THE CHRISTMAS-TREE, DECORATIONS, AND GIFTS"
The Christmas-tree a German Creation
Charm of the German Christmas
The Christmas Pyramid
Hogmanay and Aguillanneuf
"New Year Processions in Macedonia, Roumania, Greece, and Rome"
Methods of Augury
Sundry New Year Charms
EPIPHANY TO CANDLEMAS
"The Twelfth Cake and the "King of the Bean"
French Twelfth Night Customs
St. Basil's Cake in Macedonia
Epiphany and the Expulsion of Evils
The Befana in Italy
The Magi as Present-bringers
Greek Epiphany Customs
Herefordshire and Irish Twelfth Night Practices
"The "Haxey Hood" and Christmas Football"
St. Knut's Day in Sweden
"Candlemas, its Ecclesiastical and Folk Ceremonies"
Farewells to Christmas
NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY