Chronic Inflammation: Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions

Overview

Although acute inflammation is a healthy physiological response indicative of wound healing, chronic inflammation has been directly implicated in a wide range of degenerative human health disorders encompassing almost all present day non-communicable diseases including autoimmune diseases, obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Chronic Inflammation: Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions provides an exposition of the process of chronic inflammation ...

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Overview

Although acute inflammation is a healthy physiological response indicative of wound healing, chronic inflammation has been directly implicated in a wide range of degenerative human health disorders encompassing almost all present day non-communicable diseases including autoimmune diseases, obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Chronic Inflammation: Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions provides an exposition of the process of chronic inflammation in three parts:

  1. Systems Biology of Inflammation and Regulatory Mechanisms describes the process of chronic inflammation including initiation, progression, and resolution.
  2. Pathologies Associated with Inflammation gives a rigorous and critical treatment of specific human health disorders where chronic inflammation plays a major role.
  3. Nutrition & Therapeutics for Inflammatory Diseases details the protective abilities of structurally diverse antioxidants, phytochemicals, anti-inflammatory diets, omega-3 fatty acids, NSAIDs, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and novel regimens.

Designed for scientists as well as clinicians, Chronic Inflammation provides critical understanding of the key checkpoints that regulate chronic inflammation. Going beyond the epidemiology of chronic inflammation, the text covers regulatory mechanisms controlling inflammation initiation, progression, and resolution. The authors address pathologies associated with inflammation and provide various nutritional and therapeutic interventions for inflammatory diseases.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781439872116
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 9/7/2012
  • Pages: 472
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Sashwati Roy, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery and Director, Laser Capture Molecular Core in the College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus.

Debasis Bagchi, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Houston, Texas. His research interests include free radicals, human diseases, carcinogenesis, pathophysiology, mechanistic aspects of cytoprotection by antioxidants, regulatory pathways in obesity, and gene expression.

Siba P. Raychaudhuri, MD, is the Chief of the Rheumatology Division at the VA Medical Center in Sacramento, California, and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Raychaudhuri’s major research focus is to understand the molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

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Table of Contents

SECTION I Systems Biology of Inflammation and Regulatory Mechanisms
At the Interface between Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Insights from Computational Modeling
Yoram Vodovotz
Inflammation in Health and Disease: A Robust, Adaptive, Multiscale System
Inflammation Is a Complex System with Context-Dependent Regulation: Insights from Computational Modeling
From Wound Healing to Cancer: Modeling Interrelationships among Acute Inflammation, Chronic Inflammation, and Cancer
From Modeling to Rational Reprogramming of Inflammation
Summary: Clinical and Basic Science Perspectives
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgments
References

The Cellular Component of Chronic Inflammation
Julie Roda and Tim Eubank
What is Chronic Inflammation?
The Cellular Component of Chronic Inflammation
Take-Home Messages
References

Mast Cells in Chronic Inflammation
Traci A. Wilgus and Brian C. Wulff
Mast Cell Biology
Physiological Functions
Pathological Role in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Inflammation
Kiichi Hirota
Inflammation
Interaction between Hypoxic Environment and Inflammation
Canonical Signaling Pathway to Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activation
Oxygen Tension-Independent Activation of HIF
Cross Talk between NF-κB and HIF Immunocompetent Cells and HIF Impact of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on HIF Activity
Inflammatory Disorders and HIF
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Bioactive Phospholipid Mediators of Inflammation
Sainath R. Kotha, Jordan D. Secor, Smitha Malireddy, and Narasimham L. Parinandi
Salient Features of Inflammation
Mediators of Inflammation
Phosphatidic Acid (PA) as a Bioactive Phospholipid Mediator of Inflammation
Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) as a Bioactive Phospholipid Mediator of Inflammation
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgements
References

Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Atherosclerotic Development and Resolution
Reeva Aggarwal, Vincent J. Pompili, and Hiranmoy Das
Introduction
HSC Regulation of Self-Renewal
Differentiation of HSCs
Development of Atherosclerosis
Therapies for Atherosclerosis
Development of Ischemia and Therapy
Conclusions and Perspectives
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgments
References

Inflammation as a Confounding Factor in Regenerative Medicine
Myron Allukian and Kenneth W. Liechty
Inflammation
Cells
Extracellular Matrix
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Points
References

NOx in the CNS: Inflammation and Beyond
Annadora J. Bruce-Keller
NOx History and Structure
Cell Type Specific Expression and Function in Brain
Physiologic Mechanisms of NOx Signaling
Conclusions and Unanswered Questions
Take-Home Messages
References

Resolution of Inflammation
Amitava Das and Sashwati Roy
Introduction
Cascades of Wound Healing
Resolution of Inflammation
Role of Micrornas in Inflammation
Linking Micrornas and Lipid Mediators in Resolution of Inflammation
Take-Home Messages
References

H2S in Inflammation
Hyun-Ock Pae and Hun-Taeg Chung
Introduction
Dynamic Interplay of H2S with NO and CO in Inflammatory Conditions
Janus Face of H2S: Its Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Perspectives
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgements
References

SECTION II Pathologies Associated with Inflammation
Is There a Connection between Inflammation and Oxidative Stress?
Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Xueting Jiang, Zhaohui Yang, Krithika Selvarajan, and Sampath Parthasarathy
Introduction
Atherosclerosis
Oxidative Stress and Atherosclerosis
Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
Would Anti-Inflammatories and Antioxidants Prevent Atherosclerosis?
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgements
References

Chronic Inflammation and Cancer: A Matter of Lifestyle
Subash C. Gupta, Ji Hye Kim, Sahdeo Prasad, and Bharat B. Aggarwal
What Is Inflammation?
Regulation of Inflammation at the Molecular Level
Lifestyle Factors That Activate Inflammation
How Inflammation Causes Cancer
Controlling Inflammation and Cancer
Conclusion and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgments
References

Chronic Wounds and Inflammation
Jaideep Banerjee and Chandan K. Sen
Introduction
Most Common Types of Chronic Wounds
Phases of Healing
Wound Inflammatory Response
Excess Inflammation is Associated with Impaired Wound Healing
MicroRNAs in Chronic Inflammation
Biofi lm and Chronic Wound Inflammation
Conclusion and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Multiphasic Roles for TGF-Beta in Scarring: Implications for Therapeutic Intervention
Praveen R. Arany, George X. Huang, and Woo Seob Kim
Introduction
Etiopathogenesis of Scar Generation
TGF-β1 as a Plausible Link Targeting TGF-β1 in Scar Management
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Natural Vitamin E Tocotrienol against Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress
Cameron Rink and Savita Khanna
Central Nervous System Immunology
Tocotrienol Vitamin E
Arachidonic Acid Cascade in NeuroInflammatory Disease
Conclusion and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Inflammatory Cascades in Autoimmune Disease
Amita Aggarwal and Arpita Myles
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Take-Home Messages
References

Shear Stress and Vascular Inflammation: A Study in the Lung
John Noel and Shampa Chatterjee
Introduction
Haemodynamic Forces and the Quiescent and Activated Endothelium
Disturbed Flow and Inflammatory Responses of Endothelial Cells
Inflammation in the Pulmonary Endothelium
The Pulmonary Endothelium as a Therapeutic Target
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
References

NGF and Its Receptor System in Inflammatory Diseases
Anupam Mitra, Smriti K. Raychaudhuri, and Siba P. Raychaudhuri
Neurogenic Inflammation
NGF and Its Receptor
NGF and Its Role in Inflammatory Cascade
Role of NGF in Different Inflammatory Diseases
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
References

SECTION III Nutrition & Therapeutics for Inflammatory Diseases
Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants
Naveen Kaushal, Vivek Narayan, Ujjawal H. Gandhi, Shakira M. Nelson,Anil Kumar Kotha, and K. Sandeep Prabhu
Introduction
ROS Mediated Oxidative Stress as Source of Inflammation
Antioxidants as Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Trace Elements as Antioxidants
Summary and Future Directives
Acknowledgments
Take-Home Messages
References

Lipid Biomarkers of Inflammation
Ginger L. Milne
Introduction
Prostaglandins and Inflammation
Leukotrienes and Inflammation
Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation: The Isoprostanes
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Physical Activity and Inflammation: An Overview
Edite Teixeira de Lemos and Flávio Reis
The State of Low-Grade Inflammation—Healthy Significance
The Anti-Inflammatory Nature of Physical Activity
Exercise-Induced Inflammation
Physical Activity for the Treatment of Low-Grade Inflammation in Cardiometabolic Disorders: Focus on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes
Philip C. Calder
Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids—Naming, Biosynthesis, Sources, and Intakes
Omega-6 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cells Involved in Inflammation
Arachidonic Acid Is a Precursor of Eicosanoid Mediators Involved in Inflammation
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Lipid Mediators
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Decrease NFkB-Mediated Inflammatory Signaling
Effects of EPA and DHA on T Cells
Omega-3 Fatty Acids as a Therapeutic Option for Chronic Inflammation
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
References

Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals, Obesity, and Diabetes: An Overview
Srujana Rayalam, MaryAnne Della-Fera, and Clifton A. Baile
Introduction
Obesity and Diabetes as Major Public Health Issues
Adipose Tissue as a Secretory Organ
Relationship between Obesity, Diabetes, and Inflammation
Complications of Obesity and Diabetes
Phytochemicals in Obesity and Diabetes
Perspectives
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
References

Anti-Inflammatory Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicines for the Management of Metabolic Syndrome
George Q. Li, Ka H. Wong, Antony Kam, Xian Zhou, Eshaifol A. Omar, Ali Alqahtani, Kong M. Li, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, and Kelvin Chan
Introduction
Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine
Heat Clearing Chinese Herbs for Metabolic Syndrome
Anti-Inflammatory Food and Tea
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Management of Metabolic Syndrome
Discussion and Summary
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgments
References

Epigenetics and Nutriepigenomics in Chronic Inflammatory Lung Diseases: Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions
Saravanan Rajendrasozhanm, Isaac K. Sundar, and Irfan Rahman
Lung Inflammation and Pathogenesis of Chronic Lung Diseases (Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Epigenetic/Epigenomic Changes
Molecular Epigenomic Targets for Therapeutic Interventions
Nutriepigenomics
Perspectives
Conclusions and Future Directions
Take-Home Messages
Acknowledgments
References

Biologics: Molecular Medicine from Bench to Bedside
Ananya Datta Mitra, Siba P. Raychaudhuri, Smriti K. Raychaudhuri, and Debasis Bagchi
Introduction
Interplay of the Immune System in the Development of Autoimmune Disease
Targets for Biologics
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
References

Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs
Nigil Haroon and Vinod Chandran
Introduction
Methotrexate
Leflunomide
Sulfasalazine
Antimalarials
Azathioprine
Cyclosporin A
Other DMARDs
Conclusions
Take-Home Messages
References

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Alakendu Ghosh and Pradyot Sinhamahapatra
Introduction
History
Mechanism of Action
Classification
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
Clinical Uses of NSAIDs
How to Guide Therapy
Adverse Reactions and Toxicities of NSAIDs
Choice of NSAIDs
Precautions for Use of NSAIDs
Drug Interactions
Special Situations and Toxicities
Treatment Options for Patients with Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Risk Take-Home Messages
References
Web sites
General Resources
Index

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