Overview

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Electronics Engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The ...
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Circuit Design: Know It All: Know It All

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Overview

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Electronics Engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Circuit Design Know It All covers every angle including semiconductors, IC Design and Fabrication, Computer-Aided Design, as well as Programmable Logic Design.

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors
• Topics include fundamentals, Analog, Linear, and Digital circuits
• The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780080949659
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 4/19/2011
  • Series: Newnes Know It All
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1248
  • Sales rank: 861,667
  • File size: 24 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Bonnie Baker has been involved with analog design and analog systems for nearly 20 years, having started as a manufacturing product engineer supporting analog products at Burr-Brown. From there, Bonnie moved up to IC design, analog division strategic marketer, and then corporate applications engineering manager. In 1998, she joined Microchip Technology’s Microperipherals Division as the analog/mixed signal applications engineering manager. This has expanded her background to not only include analog applications, but to the microcontroller. Bonnie holds a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) and a bachelor’s degree in music education from Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, AZ). In addition to her fascination with analog design, Bonnie has a drive to share her knowledge and experience and has written more than 200 articles, design notes, and application notes and she is a frequent presenter at technical conferences and shows.

Pease attended Mt. Hermon School, and graduated from MIT in 1961 with a BSEE. He worked at Philbrick Researches up to 1975 and designed many OpAmps and Analog Computing Modules. Pease joined National Semiconductor in 1976. He has designed about 24 analog ICs including power regulators, voltage references, and temp sensors. He has written 65+ magazine articles and holds about 21 US patents. Pease is the self-declared Czar of Bandgaps since 1986. He enjoys hiking and trekking in Nepal, and ferroequinology. His position at NSC is Staff Scientist. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE. Pease wrote the definitive book, TROUBLESHOOTING ANALOG CIRCUITS, now in its 18th printing. It has been translated into French, German, Dutch, Russian, and Polish. Pease is a columnist in Electronic Design magazine, with over 240 columns published. The column, PEASE PORRIDGE, covers a wide range of technical topics. Pease also has posted many technical and semi-technical items on his main web-site: Many of Pease's recent columns are accessible there. Pease was inducted into the E.E. Hall Of Fame in 2002. Refer to:  

Bob Zeidman is the president of The Chalkboard Network, an e-learning company for high-tech professionals. He is also president of Zeidman Consulting, a hardware and software contract development firm. Since 1983, he has designed CPLDs, FPGAs, ASI

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Read an Excerpt

Circuit Design


By Darren Ashby Bonnie Baker Stuart Ball J. Crowe Barrie Hayes-Gill Ian Hickman Walt Kester Ron Mancini Ian Grout Robert A. Pease Mike Tooley Tim Williams Peter Wilson Bob Zeidman

Newnes

Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-08-094965-9


Chapter One

The Fundamentals

Mike Tooley Darren Ashby Robert Pease

1.1 Electrical Fundamentals

This chapter has been designed to provide you with the background knowledge required to help you understand the concepts introduced in the later chapters. If you have studied electrical science, electrical principles, or electronics then you will already be familiar with many of these concepts. If, on the other hand, you are returning to study or are a newcomer to electronics or electrical technology this chapter will help you get up to speed.

1.1.1 Fundamental Units

You will already know that the units that we now use to describe such things as length, mass and time are standardized within the International System of Units (SI). This SI system is based upon the seven fundamental units (see Table 1.1).

1.1.2 Derived Units

All other units are derived from these seven fundamental units. These derived units generally have their own names and those commonly encountered in electrical circuits are summarized in Table 1.2, together with the corresponding physical quantities.

(Note that 0K is equal to 273°C and an interval of 1K is the same as an interval of 1°C.)

If you find the exponent notation shown in Table 1.2 a little confusing, just remember that V 1 is simply 1/V, s 1 is 1/s, m 2 is 1/m 2, and so on.

Example 1.1

The unit of flux density (the tesla) is defined as the magnetic flux per unit area. Express this in terms of the fundamental units.

Solution

The SI unit of flux is the weber (Wb). Area is directly proportional to length squared and, expressed in terms of the fundamental SI units, this is square meters (m2). Dividing the flux (Wb) by the area (m2) gives Wb/m2 or Wb m 2. Hence, in terms of the fundamental SI units, the tesla is expressed in Wb m 2.

Example 1.2

The unit of electrical potential, the volt (V), is defined as the difference in potential between two points in a conductor, which when carrying a current of one amp (A), dissipates a power of one watt (W). Express the volt (V) in terms of joules (J) and coulombs (C).

Solution

In terms of the derived units:

Volts = Watts/Amperes = Joules seconds/Amperes

= Joules/Amperes x seconds = Joules/Coulombs

Note that: Watts = Joules/seconds and also that Amperes x seconds = Coulombs. Alternatively, in terms of the symbols used to denote the units:

V = W/A = J s/A = J/As = J/C = JC 1

One volt is equivalent to one joule per coulomb.

1.1.3 Measuring Angles

You might think it strange to be concerned with angles in electrical circuits. The reason is simply that, in analog and AC circuits, signals are based on repetitive waves (often sinusoidal in shape). We can refer to a point on such a wave in one of two basic ways, either in terms of the time from the start of the cycle or in terms of the angle (a cycle starts at 0° and finishes as 360°—see Figure 1.1). In practice, it is often more convenient to use angles rather than time; however, the two methods of measurement are interchangeable and it's important to be able to work in either of these units.

In electrical circuits, angles are measured in either degrees or radians (both of which are strictly dimensionless units). You will doubtless already be familiar with angular measure in degrees where one complete circular revolution is equivalent to an angular change of 360°. The alternative method of measuring angles, the radian, is defined somewhat differently. It is the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc having length that is equal to the radius of the circle (see Figure 1.2).

You may sometimes find that you need to convert from radians to degrees, and vice versa. A complete circular revolution is equivalent to a rotation of 360° or 2π radians (note that π is approximately equal to 3.142). Thus, one radian is equivalent to 360/2π degrees (or approximately 57.3°). Try to remember the following rules that will help you to convert angles expressed in degrees to radians and vice versa:

• From degrees to radians, divide by 57.3.

• From radians to degrees, multiply by 57.3.

Example 1.3

Express a quarter of a cycle revolution in terms of:

(a) degrees;

(b) radians.

Solution

(a) There are 360° in one complete cycle (i.e., one full revolution. Hence, there are (360/4)° or 90° in one quarter of a cycle).

(b) There are 2p radians in one complete cycle. Thus, there are 2p/4 or p/2 radians in one quarter of a cycle.

Example 1.4

Express an angle of 215° in radians.

Solution

To convert from degrees to radians, divide by 57.3. So, 215° is equivalent to 215/57.3 = 3.75 radians.

Example 1.5

Express an angle of 2.5 radians in degrees.

Solution

To convert from radians to degrees, multiply by 57.3. Hence, 2.5 radians is equivalent to 2.5 x 57.3 = 143.25°.

1.1.4 Electrical Units and Symbols

Table 1.3 shows the units and symbols that are commonly encountered in electrical circuits. It is important to get to know these units and also be able to recognize their abbreviations and symbols. You will meet all of these units later in this chapter.

1.1.5 Multiples and Sub-Multiples

Unfortunately, many of the derived units are either too large or too small for convenient everyday use, but we can make life a little easier by using a standard range of multiples and sub-multiples (see Table 1.4).

Example 1.6

An indicator lamp requires a current of 0.075A. Express this in mA.

Solution

You can express the current in mA (rather than in A) by simply moving the decimal point three places to the right. Hence, 0.075A is the same as 75 mA.

Example 1.7

A medium-wave radio transmitter operates on a frequency of 1,495 kHz. Express its frequency in MHz.

Solution

To express the frequency in MHz rather than kHz, we need to move the decimal point three places to the left. Hence, 1,495 kHz is equivalent to 1.495 MHz.

Example 1.8

Express the value of a 27,000 pF in µF.

Solution

To express the value in mF rather than pF we need to move the decimal point six places to the left. Hence, 27,000 pF is equivalent to 0.027 µF (note that we have had to introduce an extra zero before the 2 and after the decimal point).

1.1.6 Exponent Notation

Exponent notation (or scientific notation) is useful when dealing with either very small or very large quantities. It's well worth getting to grips with this notation as it will allow you to simplify quantities before using them in formulae.

Exponents are based on powers of ten. To express a number in exponent notation the number is split into two parts. The first part is usually a number in the range 0.1 to 100 while the second part is a multiplier expressed as a power of ten.

For example, 251.7 can be expressed as 2.517 x 100, i.e., 2.517 x 102. It can also be expressed as 0.2517 x 1,000, i.e., 0.2517 x 103. In both cases the exponent is the same as the number of noughts in the multiplier (i.e., 2 in the first case and 3 in the second case). To summarize:

251:7 = 2:517 x 102 = 0:2517 x 103

As a further example, 0.01825 can be expressed as 1.825/100; that is, 1.825 x 10 2. It can also be expressed as 18.25/1,000, i.e., 18.25 x 10 3. Again, the exponent is the same as the number of zeros but the minus sign is used to denote a fractional multiplier. To summarize:

0:01825 = 1:825 x 10 2 = 18:25 x 10 3

Example 1.9

A current of 7.25 mA flows in a circuit. Express this current in amperes using exponent notation.

Solution

1 mA = 1 x 10 3 A; thus, 7.25 mA = 7:25 x 10 3 A

Example 1.10

A voltage of 3.75 x 10 6V appears at the input of an amplifier. Express this voltage in (a) V, and (b) mV, using exponent notation.

Solution

(a) 1 x 10 6 V = 1 µV so 3.75 x 10 6 V = 3.75 µV

(b) There are 1,000 µV in 1 mV so we must divide the previous result by 1,000 in order to express the voltage in mV. So 3.75 µV = 0.00375 mV.

1.1.7 Multiplication and Division Using Exponents

Exponent notation really comes into its own when values have to be multiplied or divided. When multiplying two values expressed using exponents, you simply need to add the exponents. Here's an example:

(2 x 102) x (3 x 106) = (2 x 3) x 10(2+6) = 6 x 108

Similarly, when dividing two values which are expressed using exponents, you only need to subtract the exponents. As an example:

(4 x 106) x (2 x 104) = 4 2 x 10(6 4) = 2 x 102

In either case it's important to remember to specify the units, multiples and sub-multiples in which you are working (e.g., A, kσ, mV, µF, etc.).

Example 1.11

A current of 3 mA flows in a resistance of 33 kσ. Determine the voltage dropped across the resistor.

Solution

Voltage is equal to current multiplied by resistance. Thus:

V = I x R = 3 mA x 33 kΩ

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Circuit Design by Darren Ashby Bonnie Baker Stuart Ball J. Crowe Barrie Hayes-Gill Ian Hickman Walt Kester Ron Mancini Ian Grout Robert A. Pease Mike Tooley Tim Williams Peter Wilson Bob Zeidman Copyright © 2008 by Elsevier Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Newnes. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Fundamentals
Chapter 2 The Semiconductor diode
Chapter 3 Understanding diodes and their problems
Chapter 4 Bipolar transistors
Chapter 5 Field effect transistors
Chapter 6 Identifying and avoiding transistor problems
Chapter 7 Fundamentals
Chapter 8 Number Systems
Chapter 9 Binary Data Manipulation
Chapter 10 Combinational Logic Design
Chapter 11 Sequential Logic Design
Chapter 12 Memory
Chapter 13 Selecting a design route
Chapter 14 Designing with logic ICs
Chapter 15 Interfacing
Chapter 16 DSP and digital filters
Chapter 17 Dealing with high speed logic
Chapter 18 Bridging the Gap Between Analog and Digital
Chapter 19 Op Amps
Chapter 20 Converters-Analog Meets Digital
Chapter 21 Sensors
Chapter 22 Active filters
Chapter 23 Radio-Frequency (RF) Circuits
Chapter 24 Signal Sources
Chapter 25 EDA Design Tools for Analog and RF
Chapter 26 Useful Circuits
Chapter 27 Programmable Logic to ASICs
Chapter 28 Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs)
Chapter 29 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
Chapter 30 Design Automation and Testing for FPGAs
Chapter 31 Integrating processors onto FPGAs
Chapter 32 Implementing digital filters in VHDL
Chapter 33 Overview
Chapter 34 Microcontroller Toolbox
Chapter 35 Overview
Chapter 36 Specifications
Chapter 37 Off the shelf versus roll your own
Chapter 38 Input and output parameters
Chapter 39 Batteries
Chapter 40 Layout and Grounding for Analog and Digital Circuits
Chapter 41 Safety
Chapter 42 Design for Production
Chapter 43 Testability
Chapter 44 Reliability
Chapter 45 Thermal Management
Appendix A Standards
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