CISA Exam Prep: Certified Information Systems Auditor (ACM Press Series)

Overview

CISA Exam Prep

Certified Information Systems Auditor

Michael Gregg

Your Complete Certification Solution!

The Smart Way to Study™

In This Book You’ll Learn How To:

  • Approach the IS audit process from ...
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Overview

CISA Exam Prep

Certified Information Systems Auditor

Michael Gregg

Your Complete Certification Solution!

The Smart Way to Study™

In This Book You’ll Learn How To:

  • Approach the IS audit process from ISACA’s view of IS auditing best practices
  • Relate and apply information security and systems audit best practices to the six CISA job practice areas
  • Understand the IS audit process and learn how to apply best practices to secure an organization’s assets
  • Evaluate IT governance to ensure that the organization has the structure, policies, and mechanisms in place to provide sufficient IS controls
  • Minimize risk within an IT/IS environment by using sound security techniques and practices
  • Assess systems and infrastructure lifecycle practices to determine their effectiveness in meeting security requirements and meeting organizational objectives
  • Gain a deeper understanding of the business continuity and disaster recovery process to help minimize risk
  • Protect key informational assets by examining the security architecture and evaluating controls designed for the protection of confidentiality, availability, and integrity
  • Streamline your exam preparations with our exam insights, tips, and study strategies

WRITTEN BY A LEADING CISA EXAM EXPERT!

Michael Gregg, founder and president of Superior Solutions, Inc., a Houston-based IT security consulting and auditing firm, has more than 20 years experience in information security and risk. He holds two associate degrees, a bachelor’s degree, and a master’s degree. He presently maintains more than a dozen certifications and is a nine-time winner of Global Knowledge’s Perfect Instructor Award. Michael not only has experience in performing security audits and assessments, but also is the author of Que Publishing’s Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep, CISSP Exam Cram, and is the co-author of Inside Network Security Assessment: Guarding Your IT Infrastructure by Sams Publishing.

Introduction

Study and Exam Prep Tips

Part I: IT Governance and the Audit Process

Chapter 1: The Audit Process

Chapter 2: IT Governance

Part II: System and Infrastructure Lifecycle Management

Chapter 3: Lifecycle Management

Chapter 4: System Infrastructure Control

Part III: IT Service Delivery and Support

Chapter 5: Information Systems Hardware and Architecture

Chapter 6: Information Systems Used for IT Delivery and Support

Part IV: Protection of Information Assets

Chapter 7: Protection of Logical Assets

Chapter 8: Physical Security

Part V: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

Chapter 9: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

Part VI: Final Preparation

Fast Facts

Practice Exam

Answers to Practice Exam Questions

Glossary

Index

www.examcram.com

ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3573-7

ISBN-10: 0-7897-3573-3

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789735737
  • Publisher: Pearson IT Certification
  • Publication date: 5/23/2007
  • Series: ACM Press Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 578
  • Sales rank: 997,817
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

As the founder and president of Superior Solutions, Inc., a Houston-based IT security consulting and auditing firm, Michael Gregg has more than 15 years of experience in information security and risk management. He holds two associate's degrees, a bachelor's degree, and a master's degree. Some of the certifications he holds include the following: CISA, CISSP, MCSE, CTT+, A+, N+, Security+, CNA, CCNA, CIW Security Analyst, CCE, CEH, CHFI, CEI, DCNP, ES Dragon IDS, ES Advanced Dragon IDS, and TICSA.

Michael not only has experience in performing security audits and assessments, but he also is the co-author of Inside Network Security Assessment: Guarding Your IT Infrastructure (ISBN

0672328097, Sams, 2005). Other publications he has authored include the CISSP Exam Cram 2 (ISBN 078973446X, Que, 2005) and the Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep 2 (ISBN 0789735318, Que, 2006). Michael is a site expert for TechTarget.com websites, including SearchSMB.com and SearchNetworking.com; he also serves on their editorial advisory board. His articles have been published on IT websites including CertMag.com, CramSession.com, and GoCertify.com. Michael has created security audit and assessment course material for various

companies and universities. Although audits and assessments are where he spends the bulk of his time, teaching and contributing to the written body of IT security knowledge is how Michael believes he can give something back to the community that has given him so much. He is a member of the American College of Forensic Examiners and of the Texas Association

for Educational Technology. When not working, Michael enjoys traveling and restoring muscle cars.

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Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1

How This Book Helps You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

About the CISA Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

CISA Exam Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

How to Prepare for the Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Additional Exam-Preparation Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Practice Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

What This Book Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

What This Book Does Not Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Contacting the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

About the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Instructional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Extensive Practice Test Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Final Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Final Words of Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Study and Exam Prep Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Learning Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Study Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Study Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Pretesting Yourself. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Exam Prep Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Exam Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Question Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

More Exam Preparation Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Final Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Part I: IT Governance and the Audit Process

Chapter 1: The Audit Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Issues and Challenges of the IS Auditor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Audit Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Standards and Guidelines for ISACA IS Auditors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

ISACA Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

ISACA Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Risk Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Risk-Based Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Auditing and the Use of Internal Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

CobiT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

The Audit Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Audit Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Audit Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Audit Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Objectives of the Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Compliance Versus Substantive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Sampling and Embedded Audit Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Detection of Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Audit Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Changes in the IS Audit Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

The Control Self-Assessment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Integrated Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Continuous Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Chapter 2: IT Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Best Practices for Senior Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Audit’s Role in Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

IT Steering Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Measuring Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Information Security Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

The Role of Strategy, Policies, Planning, and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Policy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Risk Identification and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

The Risk-Management Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Asset Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Threat Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Risk-Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Management Practices and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Employee Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Sourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Change Management and Quality Improvement Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Understanding Personnel Roles and Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Employee Roles and Duties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Segregation of Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Part II: System and Infrastructure Lifecycle Management

Chapter 3: Lifecycle Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Project Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Roles, Responsibility, and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Project Culture and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Project-Management Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Project Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Project Control and Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Closing a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Business Application Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

Systems-Development Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Alternative Application-Development Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Application-Development Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

Information Systems Maintenance Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Chapter 4: System Infrastructure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Programmed and Manual Application Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Business Process Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Auditing Application Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Understanding the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Observation and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Data Integrity Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Application System Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Continuous Online Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Auditing Systems Development, Acquisition, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Project Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Business Application Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

E-Commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Electronic Data Interchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Business Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Part III: IT Service Delivery and Support

Chapter 5: Information Systems Hardware and Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Information Systems Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Monitoring Resource Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Help Desk and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Change-Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Information Systems Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

The Central Processing Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

I/O Bus Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Computer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Computer Configurations and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Radio Frequency Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

Hardware Maintenance Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Hardware Monitoring and Capacity Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Information Systems Architecture and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Software Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Secondary Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Data Communication Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Database-Management Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Database Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Software Licensing Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Chapter 6: Information Systems Used for IT Delivery and Support. . . . . . . . 239

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Network Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Network Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Network Standards and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

The OSI Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Network Services and Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Comparing the OSI Model to the TCP/IP Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Network Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Network Cabling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

Network Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Wide Area Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Wireless Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

Network Administration and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Risks to Network Infrastructure and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Part IV: Protection of Information Assets

Chapter 7: Protection of Logical Assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

The Goals of Logical Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Information Security Protection Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

The Role of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Logical Access Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Identification and Authentication (I&A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

Single Sign-On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

Remote Access Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

Auditing and Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

Handling Confidential Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

Common Attack Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Passive Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Active Attacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

Network Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

Network and Internet Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Client/Server Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

LAN Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Wireless LAN Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

Voice Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Phreakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

PBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

VoIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Virus Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Containing Threats to Information Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Emergency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

Computer Forensics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

Auditing Information Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

Auditing Network Infrastructure Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Network Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

Tracking Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

Cryptographic Real-World Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Encryption Risks and Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Chapter 8: Physical Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Physical Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Physical Security Exposures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Physical Security Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Environmental Protection Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

Power Anomalies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

Power Protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

Physical Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Types of Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Purpose of Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

Defining Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

Deploying and Implementing Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

Physical Asset and Information Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

Part V: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

Chapter 9: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 403

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

Disasters and Disruptive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

BCP in the Real World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

ISACA and the BCP Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

Recovery Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

Alternate Processing Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Hardware Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

Software and Data Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Backup and Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

Telecommunications Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

Verification of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Process . . . . . . . . . 436

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Apply Your Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

Part VI: Final Preparation

Fast Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

1.0: IS Audit Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

2.0: IT Governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

3.0: Systems and Infrastructure Lifecycle Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

4.0: IT Service Delivery and Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

5.0: Protection of Information Assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

6.0: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

Practice Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

Practice Exam Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 476

Answers to Practice Exam Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

Answers with Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 16, 2007

    easy exam? too easy?

    The topics covered by Gregg are a mixture of high level policy management issues and some low level computing material. The latter should be straightforward to anyone starting out as any type of IT professional. As in using ping to measure the latency (or effective network temporal distance) to another internet node. Then we have the groupings of internet subnets into Class A, B or C. And the 5 layers of the internet. I'm glad to see that the text only gives brief mention of the 7 layer OSI model, describing how in practice it is the 5 layers of the internet that is by far the dominant occurrence. On the most basic material, there is a bare 2 pages that takes the reader from machine language to 5th generation software languages. Admirably concise. But do CISA students really have such a brief background in this? On other topics, there's some recent material about e-commerce. Good, given the rapid buildout in the last 10 years. So we see various categories, like b2b, b2c, b2g [business to government] and b2e [business to employee - think portal]. The exercises and questions at the end of each chapter do seem rudimentary. Given that each chapter is rather brief to begin with. A casual parsing of a chapter should suffice in letting many readers get most questions correct without too much sweat. Presumably, Gregg's assessment of the level of difficulty of an actual CISA exam is accurate, and he has thus pitched his questions at a correspondingly suitable level for you. But if this is so, I'm underwhelmed by what it means to be a CISA. A credential that's way too easy to get.

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