Cisco CCIE Lab Practice Kit

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Overview

This is the ultimate hands-on preparation tool for the rigorous two-day CCIE lab exam. The book covers voice technology,multicasting,and VPNs and contains 6 full-scale CCIE lab case studies. The bonus CD-ROM includes actual configurations ideal for practice.

The Ultimate Hands-On Practice Kit for the CCIE Lab Exam If you*re among the many network professionals in quest of the highly coveted Cisco CCIE certification,then you need look no ...
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Overview

This is the ultimate hands-on preparation tool for the rigorous two-day CCIE lab exam. The book covers voice technology,multicasting,and VPNs and contains 6 full-scale CCIE lab case studies. The bonus CD-ROM includes actual configurations ideal for practice.

The Ultimate Hands-On Practice Kit for the CCIE Lab Exam If you*re among the many network professionals in quest of the highly coveted Cisco CCIE certification,then you need look no further than this step-by-step preparation guide. This instructional workbook contains 6 full-scale sample lab exams,accompanied by detailed explanations for each question,making this an ideal study tool for today's certification-seekers. Covering all the latest topics to be added to the exam including ATM LANE,Voice Over IP,IPSec,IS-IS,and more,this book also features actual configuration snippets and an illustration showing how each configuration is built. All chapters are formatted to give a technology overview,an equipment list,and physical connectivity diagrams. And the sample test includes an answers guide that walks you through actual lab scenarios. This is the ultimate practice kit for the challenging CCIE lab exam.
  • Prepare for the 2-day CCIE lab exam using up-to-date,hands-on instruction
  • Learn from real-world case studies—including ATM LANE,VOIP,IS-IS,OSPF,BGP,Bridging and IPSec
  • Understand how to build each configuration by following illustrated diagrams
  • Find out how to set up your own practice lab step-by-step
  • Use the CD-ROM to practice and re-use actual configurations before the exam
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072127669
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 2/12/2001
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 571
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 9.28 (h) x 1.58 (d)

Meet the Author

Stephen Hutnik, is a Senior Network Engineer at AT&T Global Network Services, where he is responsible for development, testing, and training for the Global backbone of the AT&T Network. He is also an adjunct Professor of Telecommunication at Pace University, and is the co-author of the All-in-One Cisco CCIE Lab Study Guide.

Michael Satterlee, CCIE, is a Senior Network Architect at AT&T IBM Global Network Services, where he is responsible for the architecture and design of a Global MPLS network. He is a co-author of the All-in-One Cisco CCIE Lab Study Guide.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 2: A Case Study in BGP

Introduction

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter-Autonomous System (AS) routing protocol and its primary function is to exchange network reachability information with other BGP speakers. The following case study provides complex BGP configuration scenarios to aid the student preparing for the CCIE Lab.

Overview

BGP is a path vector inter-AS routing protocol that is based on distance vector algorithms. (For the purposes of this chapter, inter means routing between entities and intra means routing within an entity.) An AS is a collection of routers or end stations that are under the same administrative control and viewed as a single entity. The reason BGP is called a path vector protocol is that the BGP routing information carries a sequence of AS numbers, which indicate the path the route has traversed. This information is used to construct a graph of AS connectivity from which routing loops can be pruned.

The interior gateway routing protocols (RIP, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP) were designed to operate in a single AS that is under a single administrative control. BGP was introduced to facilitate a loop-free exchange of routing information between ASs while controlling the expansion of routing tables through Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and providing a structured view of the Internet through the use of ASs.

In a sense, the Internet could have been a large Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) network. If this were the case, then all organizations that participated in it would have to adhere to the same administrative policies. By segregating the Internet into multiple ASs, one can create one large network that consists of smaller, more manageable networks. Within these smaller networks, or ASs, an organization's unique rules and administrative policies can be applied. A unique number assigned by an Internet registry identifies each AS.

Figure 2-1 displays two Internet service providers (ISPs), Xnet and Ynet, each of which consists of multiple networks running multiple Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs). Each service provider is assigned an AS number by an Internet registry that represents its entire network. When Company Xnet and Ynet want to exchange routing information, they do so using BGP.

Company Ynet advertises networks 2.0.0.0 and 3.0.0.0 to company Xnet, and the routes are marked as originating from AS 200. Company Xnet does not need to have a full topological view of company Ynet nor does it need to understand Ynet's internal routing or policies. It simply knows that networks 2.0.0.0 and 3.0.0.0 are in AS 200.

BGP Terminology

Before diving into the intricate details of BGP, it is important to have a. clear understanding of key terms and concepts, some of which are used interchangeably.

External BGP (EBGP) versus Internal BGP (IBGP) Although BGP was designed to be used between ASs (EBGP), it is often used within an AS (IBGP) to carry information between border routers running EBGP to other ASs. This enables all BGP path attributes to be maintained across the AS.

By definition, an EBGP neighbor is a router with an administrative and policy control that is outside of your AS. An IBGP neighbor is a router that is under the same administrative control (see Figure 2-2).

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) This was developed to address the explosive growth of IP addresses present in IP routing tables on Internet routers and the exhaustion of IP address space. CIDR is an address allocation scheme that eliminates the concept of a network class within BGP. In CIDR, an IP network is represented by a prefix, which is the IP address and a number that indicates the leftmost contiguous significant bits in the address. For example, in Figure 2-3, 256 Class C networks are present on service provider A's network. Without CIDR, the service provider must advertise each network individually. Using CIDR, service provider A can advertise all of these networks with one classless advertisement (200.10.0.0 /16), as shown in Figure 2-4.

Supernet A supernet is a network advertisement whose prefix boundary contains fewer bits than the network's natural mask. For example, in Figure 2-4, the natural network mask for the Class C network 200.10.1.0 is 255.255.255.0. However, when you represent it as 200.10.0.0 /16, the mask is 16, which is less than 24. Hence, it is termed a supernet advertisement.

IP Prefix An IP prefix is an IP network address along with an indication of the number of bits that makes up the network number. For example, 10.0.0.0/8 is an IP prefix.

Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) This is how BGP supports classless routing (CIDR). The NLRI is part of the BGP update message and is used to list a set of destinations that is reachable. The NLRI field in the BGP update message contains two tuples: <length, prefix>. The length is the number of bits in the mask and the prefix is the IP address. The two combined represent the network number. For example, the network 10.0.0.0/8 would be advertised in the NLRI field of a BGP update message as<8,10.0.0.0>.

Autonomous System (AS) An AS is a group of routers or hosts that are under the same administrative control and policies. AS numbers are assigned by an Internet registry.

Synchronization Before BGP can announce a route, the route must be present in the IP routing table. In other words, BGP and IGP must be in sync before the networks can be advertised. Cisco enables BGP to override the synchronization requirement with the command no synchronization. This allows BGP to announce routes that are known via BGP but are not in the routing table. The reason that this rule exists is that it is important for the AS to be consistent with the routes it advertises.

In Figure 2-5, RouterA and RouterB are the only routers running B GP. If synchronization is disabled on RouterB, it will advertise network 1.0.0.0 /8 to AS 200. When RouterD wants to send traffic to network 1.0.0.0, it sends the packet to RouterB, which does a recursive lookup in its IP routing table and forwards the packet to RouterC. Because RouterC is not running BGP, it has no visibility to network 1.0.0.0 and therefore drops the packet. This is why BGP requires synchronization between BGP and IGP. Care must be taken when disabling synchronization. If an AS is a transit AS, all routes should be running fully meshed IBGP before synchronization is disabled.

Technology Overview

BGP is an inter-AS routing protocol whose primary function is to exchange network reachability information with other BGP speakers (a BGP speaker is any device that is configured for BGP). BGP uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as its transport protocol (port 179) that provides reliable data transfer between the BGP speakers.

Two BGP routers form a transport protocol connection between one another. The two routers are called neighbors or peers. Once the transport connection is formed, the peer routers exchange messages to open and confirm connection parameters. It is in this stage that the routers exchange information on the BGP version number, the AS number, the hold time, the BGP identifier, and other optional parameters. If the peers disagree on any of the parameters, a notification error is sent and the peer connection does not get established.

If the peer routers agree upon the parameters, then the entire BGP routing table is exchanged using UPDATE messages. The UPDATE messages contain a list of destinations reachable via each system (NLRI) along with path attributes for each route. The path attributes contain information such as the origin of the route and the degree of preference. Path attributes will be covered in great detail later in this chapter.

The BGP table is valid for each peer for the duration of the BGP connection. If any routing information changes, the neighbor router uses incremental updates to convey this information. BGP does not require that routing information be periodically refreshed. If no routing changes occur, BGP peers only exchange keepalive packets, which are sent periodically to ensure that the connection is kept active.

Case Study 1: BGP

IOS Requirements

BGP-4 first became available in IOS release 10.0, but this case study was performed using IOS 11.2.

Equipment Needed

The following equipment is needed to perform this case study:

  • One Catalyst 1900 Ethernet switch
  • One terminal server with one Ethernet and one serial port...
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
About the Authors
About the Reviewers
Chapter 1: As Close As You Can Get
Chapter 2: A Case Study in BGP
Chapter 3: A Case Study in Desktop Protocols
Chapter 4: A Case Study in IGPs
Chapter 5: A Case Study in DLSW and Bridging
Chapter 6: A Case Study in IPSec, VolP, and ATM LANE
Appendix A: Case Study Tearsheets
Index
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Customer Reviews

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 21, 2003

    Good attempt

    Good attempt at producing a CCIE lab exam study guide. This book will take you that extra step in passing the most challenging exam in the industry. Should be considered for the lack of anything else on the subject.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 12, 2001

    Awesome book

    This book is a MUST HAVE. I'm glad this book is out, I know this book will help anyone looking for complex labs and to assist in preparing for the CCIE lab.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 9, 2001

    Get this book

    For those who found the authors' first book (CCIE Lab Study Guide) to be lacking, this book is a must. Rather than labs oriented to a single protocol, this book offers six scenarios that more closely approximate the two-day lab. CCIE Lab Practice Kit is in the same league as Bridges, Routers, and Switches by Caslow in terms of 'must-have' status.

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