OK, close your eyes and imagine. You're going for your CCIE. You've taken your 100-question written exam. It was tough, but you survived. Now, it's the morning after a long flight, and you're standing next to a senior Cisco internetworking engineer in one of Cisco's exam labs. You have no notes. You're facing a stack of routers and switches with varying interfaces, each running a different version of IOS. You're handed instructions:
1. Please configure an OSPF domain with variable length subnets for the address space of 10.0.0.0. Some are to be 24 bits; others 26 bits.
2. Next, please configure an RIP domain with 24-bit subnets for network 10.0.0.0.
3. Once both OSPF and RIP domains are configured, please exchange routing table information between them via the process of redistribution.
4. Finally, please ping all the interfaces in both the RIP and OSPF domains.
Did you catch the conflict between RIP and OSPF subnetting rules which prevents RIP from recognizing OSPF routes, so RIP routers can't ping OSPF domain interfaces? Did you know you could solve the problem using OPSF route summarization? Great. But don't relax yet: the Cisco engineer is introducing faults into your network. Your job: to recognize, isolate, document, and resolve every one.
This is why only 30% of CCIE candidates pass on the first attempt. And it's why you need Cisco Certification: Bridges, Routers and Switches for CCIEs, by Andrew Bruce Caslow.
Caslow is a long-time CCIE whose company is one of only nine that have been certified by Cisco to provide CCIE training. He compares the CCIE lab to the Apollo 13 mission the moment after that legendary on-board explosion; you never know what terrifying event will come at you next, so you'd better be prepared. And he's distilled years of Cisco training expertise into a set of practical techniques and thought processes you can use to spot just about any challenge you're likely to encounter.
You'll start with an in-depth review of the physical and data-link foundation of Cisco-based internetworks including LAN and WAN interface configuration, non-broadcast multiple access configuration (Frame Relay, X.25 and ATM), and switched configuration (ISDN and asynchronous).
Next, you'll move on to the network layer: IP address planning, subnetting, route summarization, and the mechanics of configuring RIP, IGRP, OSPF and EIGRP. Building on what you've learned, you'll master routing IP between autonomous systems using BGP4.
By now, you've learned all you need to design, implement, maintain and troubleshoot large-scale IP internetworks. But not all you need to pass the CCIE written and lab exams. Caslow also walks you through configuring non-IP routing protocols such as IPX, AppleTalk and DECnet, as well as non-routable protocols including SNA and NetBIOS.
Then, once your IP or multi-protocol traffic is configured and working properly, you'll learn detailed techniques for controlling and filtering it with access lists, access expressions, queue lists, dialer lists and routemaps.
Cisco Certification: Bridges, Routers and Switches for CCIEs is replete with tips and tricks for analyzing, configuring and troubleshooting internetworks more effectively-in or out of the lab. Because, hey, as long as you're going to pass the first time, you might as well have a book you can use afterwards, right?
Bill Carmada @ Cyberian Express
Provides a roadmap to guide candidates for Certified Cisco Internetworking Expert (CCIE) certification. Focuses on configuring, monitoring, and troubleshooting Cisco routers and switches with the Cisco Internetwork Operating System. Reviews major protocols, and covers test-taking strategies, with many checklists, chapter summaries, sample scenarios, and questions with answers. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Read an Excerpt
Chapter 2: Getting StartedThe Core-Level
Just as "all roads lead to Rome" all internetwork segments lead to the Core. The Core is the top level aggregation point for the entire internetwork. The Core-level is focused on switching packets, frames, and cells as fast as possible. The core should be designed with routers and switches that can forward packets as fast as possible and with connections that possess ample bandwidth. Core routers should not be performing tasks such as access-list filtering, network address translation, encryption, or compression. These tasks should be performed as far out on the edge of the internetwork as possible: at the distribution or access levels.
Three resources you never want any routers or switches to exhaust are:
1. CPU Cycles
Since core-level routers and switches are the aggregation point of an organization's entire internetwork, it is especially important that core routers and switches do not run out of the resources listed above. Therefore, Cisco core routers and switches are configured with high-speed switching architectures, high-performance microprocessors (multiple high-performance processors), a large amount of memory, and high bandwidth connections.
Traditionally, the core-level was composed of high speed routers with high speed connections. In the late 1980's and early 1990's, Cisco made its mark with the AGS+ router. it was during this time that Cisco captured the Internet routing market with routers like the AGS+. The AGS+ became the core router used in the infrastructure of virtually every ISP in the early 1990's. In 1993, Cisco introduced the Model 7000 router. The Model 7000 router is the direct descendant of the AGS+ and the direct predecessor of the current model 7500 core router. Today, model 7500 routers can be loaded with high performance route switch processors and high performance interface processors such as the versatile interface processor (VIP) for optimized routing. Even with the optimized features of the 7500 series routers, many internetwork designers were searching for alternative core routing technologies such as ATM switching or packet over SONET switching.
Cisco is innovating in new core-level switching technologies with products like the gigaswitch router (GSR) Model 12000 router, the Catalyst 8500 layer three switch, the Catalyst 5000 with a supervisor Ill module and a NetFlow feature card, and with the LightStream and Stratacom family of ATM switches.
The Model 12000 router (GSR) contains both optimized hardware and software features. From a hardware perspective, the GSR is designed with an optimized crossbar switching fabric and can be configured with OC-3, OC-12, and OC-48 interface processors. From a software perspective, the GSR supports Cisco Express forwarding that optimizes layer three WAN switching.
Core-level campus area networks can deploy the Catalyst 8500 layer three switch for wire speed forwarding of IP and IPX traffic over ethernet, fast-ethernet, and gigabit ethernet. From a hardware perspective, the Catalyst 8500, performs layer three forwarding of IP and IPX packets at the hardware level. From a software perspective, the Catalyst 8500 uses the same Cisco Express Forwarding technology of the Model 12000 router.
Optimized core-level routing can also be performed with Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor III Modules and NetFlow Feature cards. If an ATM core is desired, the LightStream and Stratacomm ATM switches can be deployed for core-level ATM switching.
The Distribution Level
The distribution level is the intermediary between the core and the access levels. The distribution level terminates all of the access level connections and aggregates them to the core. Many times over subscription is performed at the distribution level. For every T-1 connection to the core, a distribution-level router may have five T-1 connections from the access-level. Common distrib tion class routers are the 4000 family and 3600 family of routers, It is not uncommon to see 7200 and 7500 routers also deployed at the distribution level of large-scale internetworks.
Access-list filtering, compression and encryption can be performed at the distribution level of a hierarchical routed internetwork; however, it is optimal for the access-level routers to perform these tasks.In a campus-area network, routers at the distribution level must perform access-list filtering, compression, and encryption. In these networks, access-level equipment do not consist of routers but rather of hubs or LAN switches. Common campuslevel distribution routers are Model 4000, 7200, or even 7500 routers with a fast-ethernet interface or a Route Switch Module residing in a Catalyst 5000.
The access-level is a local network's driveway into the internetwork. in a WAN environment, it is the terminating point for a local user segment connected either directly to the core or to a distribution-level router. For example, it is the branch office of a bank that has a single ethernet connection that connects to headquarters over a 128 Kbps fractional T-1 line. Common accesslevel routers are the Model 1600, 2500, and 2600 routers. In a WAN environment, access-level routers should perform access-list filtering, compression, network address translation, and encryption.
In a campus-area network, the access-level is a shared hub or a switched LAN. Neither of these devices have the intelligence to perform access-list filtering, compression, network address translation, and encryption....