Cisco IP Routing: Packet Forwarding and Intra-domain Routing Protocols / Edition 1

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Overview

As a networking professional, you will find this practical guide an invaluable resource for understanding routing technologies and configuring and troubleshooting Cisco routers, as well as for studying for the CCIE exam. Cisco IP Routing presents the most thorough information available on the inner workings of Cisco routers. Focusing on intra-domain dynamic routing protocols, the book provides an in-depth understanding of IP routing and forwarding technologies, and their implementation within Cisco routers.

You will find essential background information on IP addressing, general routing and forwarding processes, and routing table maintenance. The book discusses packet forwarding and static routing, and details the specific mechanisms inside the dynamic routing protocols, covering both the distance vector and link-state routing protocols. Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP), Cisco's proprietary routing protocol, are covered in depth within the context of Cisco's implementation.

Specific topics covered include:

  • Variable length subnet masks
  • Classful and classless addressing and routing
  • Routing and forwarding differences
  • Static and dynamic routing
  • Routing table structure and maintenance in Cisco routers
  • Cisco packet switching mechanisms, including fast, optimum, distributed, NetFlow, and Cisco Express Forwarding
  • Cisco load-sharing techniques
  • The Bellman-Ford and Dijkstra algorithms
  • RIP packet formats, input and outbound messaging, event processing, configuration commands, and more
  • IGRP packet formats, input and outbound messaging, events processing, configuration commands, and more
  • Comparison between ISIS and OSPF
  • OSPF subprotocols and packet formats
  • OSPF intra-area, inter-area and external routing
  • OSPF flooding algorithm and link-state database synchronization
  • LSA installation and SPF scheduling
  • OSPF configuration and implementation in Cisco routers
  • EIGRP operation and configuration
  • EIGRP stub router feature

Numerous examples of logs from real Cisco routers illustrate the concepts presented and their practical application. Useful configuration examples are also presented. In addition, many of the chapters include a Frequently Asked Questions section that clarifies common misunderstandings and confusion about IP routing technologies and Cisco routers.

Comprehensive, yet detailed and accessible, Cisco IP Routing provides the inside information you need to be a truly proficient Cisco router networking professional.

0201604736B07242001

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201604733
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 10/28/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 656
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Alex Zinin has many years' experience in networking design, installation, support, and training. He started his career as a consultant and instructor for AMT Group, providing technical support for tier-1 ISPs, and training hundreds of professionals. Later, Mr. Zinin worked as the routing protocol escalation engineer for the ISP team at Cisco Systems, working closely with routing protocol developers and presenting at a number of Cisco events. Currently, Mr. Zinin is the senior routing software architect at Nexsi Systems, providing technical leadership for development of the new generation of IP routing software. An acknowledged routing and OSPF expert, he has coached many professionals for the CCIE exam and is active in IETF working groups and Cisco events.

0201604736AB07242001

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Introduction

The role of the Internet today cannot be overestimated. It has become a part of our culture. Children learn how to use the Internet at school. Millions of people start their day by checking e-mail messages. Internet connectivity is no longer considered something extraordinary. People use the Internet every day as they have been using cars or TV sets for decades. More and more devices become connected to the Internet. These are not limited to servers and personal computers anymore. Electronic organizers, cellular phones, TV sets, and many other types of equipment come with Internet accessibility. Digital video cameras and phones are connected to the Internet to instantly cast data to remote users around the globe.

The value of the Internet is definitely not in its just being a global network, but in the resources available through this network. Resources are provided and used by end devices (for example, servers and personal computers)—the largest part of the Internet. The other part of it is the intermediate network devices or routers. The role of the router is to provide connectivity between the end devices by properly forwarding packets of the Internet Protocol (IP) that end devices send to each other in order to exchange data such as e-mail messages or the contents of web pages. In order to deliver IP packets to their destinations successfully, routers communicate network reachability information to each other using routing protocols. The information provided by the routing protocols allows the routers to calculate the paths to remote networks. All routing protocols are divided into twogroups—intra-domain and inter-domain. Intra-domain routing protocols (for example, RIP or OSPF) are used for routing within an elementary block of the Internet architecture (an autonomous system or domain), while inter-domain protocols (the Internet is using BGPv4 today) are used to exchange routing information among these blocks.

Cisco routers are the most widely spread network devices in the Internet today. They are used to provide connectivity to the end users, aggregate traffic from multiple access devices, and perform routing in the Internet backbone. This book describes Cisco routers' functionality in detail with an emphasis on packet forwarding and intra-domain dynamic routing protocols.

Objectives

Quite a few very high quality books on IP, IP routing, IP network design, and configuration of Cisco routers have recently become available. However, it is still hard to find detailed explanations of the processes happening inside the routers. Nevertheless, this knowledge is vital for network professionals to be able to properly configure and efficiently troubleshoot Cisco routers.

This book does not teach how to build networks. It also does not teach the basics of the IP protocol or Cisco routers. Instead, it is written to thoroughly explain a very limited set of questions—IP routing and IP forwarding inside Cisco routers. The goal of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of the routing and forwarding technologies both in general and in connection with their implementation in Cisco routers. The reader feels the details instead of just memorizing them. The book also clarifies a great number of common misunderstandings about IP routing technologies and Cisco routers in particular.

Audience

An important condition that applies to the readers of this book is the presence of at least basic knowledge of IP and Cisco routers. Even though the book provides some introduction to these topics, the reader is assumed to have spent some time in the lab with Cisco routers and to be familiar with such notions as TCP/IP, ARP, or Ethernet.

Except for this reservation, the book is addressed to a wide range of readers. This includes IP network architects, engineers and operators who would like to know more details on IP routing technologies and processes inside Cisco routers, network engineers preparing for the Cisco certified internetworking engineer (CCIE) examination, network support and consulting engineers, and so on.

Organization

The book consists of ten chapters. The first three chapters refresh the knowledge of Cisco routers, IP addressing and routing technologies that is required for the rest of the book. Remaining chapters guide the reader through a thorough explanation of the generic routing and forwarding mechanisms inside Cisco routers and intra-domain IP routing protocols. A brief description of each chapter of the book follows.

Chapter 1—Introduction. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of Cisco routers, including basic information on routers' hardware and software, configuration and monitoring. This chapter clarifies some points pertinent to other chapters and describes the lab network used in the illustrations.

Chapter 2—IP addressing review. This part of the book explains topics that are important for the routing discussion—classful IP addressing and subnetting, classless IP addressing, and variable-length subnet masks.

Chapter 3—Routing and forwarding processes. This chapter sets the required background for a detailed discussion on specific routing technologies. The reader is familiarized with the fundamental networking concepts and router operation algorithms. The difference between routing and forwarding processes is explained. It is followed by a description of the sources of routing information and more detailed discussions on each source as well as the principles of default routing. This chapter also explains the basic forwarding algorithm and the differences between classful and classless routing operations.

Chapter 4—Routing Table Maintenance. This chapter provides a very detailed discussion on how routing information is organized and maintained in Cisco routers. It begins with a thorough explanation of each source of routing information. The second part of the chapter is dedicated to the routing table maintenance process. This includes processing of connected, static, and dynamic routes, as well as the default route selection algorithm.

Chapter 5—Packet Forwarding. This chapter describes in detail the IP packet forwarding process—the module that actually uses information in the routing table to move packets from one interface to another. It begins with the forwarding process overview and is followed by a systematic explanation of each stage. Packet switching mechanisms available in Cisco IOS, including fast, optimum, distributed, NetFlow switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding are described in the following section. The chapter ends with a discussion on the load sharing techniques available in Cisco routers.

Chapter 6—Static Routes. This chapter provides a complete description of static routes in Cisco IOS. This includes the details on recursive static routes, static routes via interfaces, backup (floating), default, and discard static routes. The chapter also includes implementation scenarios that help the reader understand the issues and tradeoffs involved in managing a network using static routes.

Chapter 7—Dynamic routing protocols in Cisco IOS. This chapter provides information about the generic mechanisms used by dynamic routing protocols. This includes basic routing protocol configuration, data structures, routes redistribution, and event processing.

Chapter 8—Distance vector routing protocols. This chapter begins with a discussion on principles of distance-vector routing and, specifically, the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Very detailed descriptions of two distance-vector IP routing protocols—Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)—are provided. Each protocol description includes information on protocol packet formats, input message and event processing, outbound message generation, as well as configuration commands and examples.

Chapter 9—Link-State Routing Protocols. This chapter describes the mechanisms of link-state routing in general and a link-state routing protocol—Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). The first part of the chapter gives a very detailed explanation of the link-state routing concepts, including the Dijkstra algorithm, link-state database synchronization, and flooding. An overview of the two link-state routing protocols (integrated IS-IS, and OSPF) currently used in IP world is given as well. The second part of the chapter provides a complete guide to the OSPF protocol and details of Cisco's OSPF implementation. Practically every aspect of the protocol is explained very thoroughly in this section. The chapter concludes with information on OSPF configuration commands and configuration examples.

Chapter 10—Enhanced IGRP. This chapter provides a detailed explanation of enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)—Cisco's proprietary routing protocol based on the diffusing update calculation algorithm. The chapter introduces the concepts of EIGRP by showing how the protocol solves real-life problems in the distance-vector protocols. As in the previous chapters, full descriptions of EIGRP packets, message and event processing, as well as update generation is included. The chapter also discusses the topics of the default route support and route aggregation in EIGRP followed by a description of the EIGRP stub router extension. Sections on EIGRP configuration and configuration examples conclude the chapter.

Approach

When this book was being written, the emphasis was on explaining why certain things work in a specific way, not just how they work. This is why practically every chapter in the book contains a theoretical introduction to the topic. The core of every chapter is the actual explanation of specific mechanisms inside the router. In most of the cases, discussions on specific topics are given in the context of Cisco's implementation of the algorithms and mechanisms, illustrated with logs from real Cisco routers.

The book contains descriptions of many algorithms. All of them are described in human language, and for some of them, a pseudocode definition is given for better understanding.

Chapters 4 through 10 also contain sections that answer the most frequently asked questions about a specific technology.



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Table of Contents

Preface.

1. Overview of Cisco Routers.

Description of a Cisco Router.

Interfacing With Routers.

Router Configuration.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting Tools.

The Test Lab.

References.

2. Review of IP Addressing.

IP Addressing.

Subnetting.

Special Addressing Rules.

Classful and Classless Addressing.

Variable Length Subnet Masks.

IP Addressing Details In Cisco Routers.

Frequently Asked Questions.

References.

3. Routing and Forwarding Processes.

Packet-Switched Technologies.

Router Operation Overview.

Routing Information Sources.

Static Routing.

Dynamic Routing.

Default Routing.

Basic Forwarding Algorithm.

Classful Routing Operations.

Classless Routing Operations.

4. Routing Table Maintenance.

Routing Information Sources.

Routing Table Maintenance.

Summary.

Frequently Asked Questions.

5. Packet Forwarding.

Overview of IP Forwarding.

Packet Input.

Forwarding Engine.

Packet Delivery.

Forwarding Methods in Cisco IOS.

Load Sharing in Cisco IOS.

Summary.

Frequently Asked Questions.

References.

6. Static Routes.

Static Routes in Cisco Routers.

Backup Static Routes.

Using Static Routes in NBMA and Dialup Environments.

Default Routes.

Routing Loops and Discard Routes.

Implementation Scenarios.

Frequently Asked Questions.

7. Dynamic Routing Protocols in Cisco IOS.

Common Functionality of Dynamic Routing Protocols.

Routing Protocol Configuration.

Routing Protocol Data Structures.

Route Redistribution.

Events Processed by Routing Protocols.

Summary.

Frequently Asked Questions.

References.

8. Distance-Vector Routing Protocols.

Distance-Vector Principles.

Routing Information Protocol.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

References.

9. Link-State Routing Protocols.

Introduction to Link-State Routing.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

References.

10. Enhanced IGRP.

Basic Description and History.

Theoretical Basis.

Subsystems and Data Structures.

Message Format.

Input Processing.

Internal Event Processing.

Sending EIGRP Packets.

Shortest Path Calculation.

Default Route Support.

Route Aggregation.

EIGRP Stub Router Extension.

EIGRP Configuration.

Configuration Examples.

Bibliography.

Index. 0201604736T10152001

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Preface

The role of the Internet today cannot be overestimated. It has become a part of our culture. Children learn how to use the Internet at school. Millions of people start their day by checking the e-mail messages. Internet connectivity is not considered as something extraordinary anymore. People use the Internet every day, as they have been using cars or TV sets for decades. More and more devices become connected to the Internet. These are not limited to servers and personal computers anymore. Electronic organizers, cellular phones, TV sets, and many other types of equipment come with the Internet applications. Digital video cameras and phones are connected to the Internet to instantly cast data to remote users around the globe.

The value of the Internet is definitely not in its just being a global network, but in the resources available through this network. Resources are provided and used by the end devices (for example, servers and personal computers)--the largest part of the Internet. The other part of it is the intermediate network devices or routers. The role of the routers is to provide connectivity between the end devices by properly forwarding the packets of the Internet Protocol (IP) that end devices send to each other in order to exchange data such as e-mail messages or the contents of the web pages. In order to deliver IP packets to their destinations successfully, routers communicate the network reachability information to each other using routing protocols. The information provided by the routing protocols allows the routers to calculate the paths to remote networks. All routing protocols are divided into two groups--intra-domain and inter-domain. Intra-domain routing protocols (for exampl! e, RIP or OSPF) are used for routing within an elementary block of the Internet architecture (an autonomous system or domain), while inter-domain protocols (the Internet is using BGPv4 today) are used to exchange routing information among these blocks.

Cisco routers are the most widely spread network devices in the Internet today. They are used to provide connectivity to the end users, aggregate traffic from multiple access devices, and perform routing in the Internet backbone. This book describes very deep details of Cisco routers functionality with the emphasis on packet forwarding and intra-domain dynamic routing protocols.

Objectives

Quite a few very high quality books on IP, IP routing, IP network design, and configuration of Cisco routers have recently become available. However, it is still hard to find detailed explanation of the processes happening inside the routers. Nevertheless, this knowledge is vital for network professionals to be able to properly configure and efficiently troubleshoot Cisco routers.

This book does not teach how to build networks. It also does not teach the basics of the IP protocol or Cisco routers. Instead, it is written to thoroughly explain a very limited set of questions--IP routing and IP forwarding inside Cisco routers. The goal of this book is to give the reader a very deep understanding of the routing and forwarding technologies in general and in connection with their implementation in Cisco routers. The contents are intended to make sure the reader feels the details instead of just memorizing them. The book also clarifies a great number of very common misunderstandings about IP routing technologies and Cisco routers in particular.

Audience

An important condition that applies to the readers of this book is the presence of at least basic knowledge of IP and Cisco routers. Even though the book provides some introduction to these topics, the reader is assumed to have spent some time in the lab with Cisco routers and be familiar with such notions as TCP/IP, ARP, or Ethernet.

Except for this reservation, the book is addressed to a wide range of readers. This includes IP network architects, engineers and operators that would like to know more details on IP routing technologies and processes inside Cisco routers, network engineers preparing for the Cisco certified internetworking engineer (CCIE) examination, network support and consulting engineers, and so on.

Organization

The book consists of ten chapters. The first three chapters refresh the knowledge of Cisco routers, IP addressing and routing technologies that is required for the rest of the book. Remain chapters guide the reader through a thorough explanation of the generic routing and forwarding mechanisms inside Cisco routers and intra-domain IP routing protocols. Brief description of each chapter of the book follows.

Chapter 1--Introduction. Chapter 1 provides brief overview of Cisco routers including basic information on routers' hardware and software, configuration and monitoring. This chapter clarifies some points important for other chapters and describes the lab network used in the illustrations.

Chapter 2--IP addressing review. This part of the book explains topics that are important for the routing discussion--classful IP addressing and subnetting, classless IP addressing, and variable length subnet masks.

Chapter 3--Routing and forwarding processes. This chapter sets required background for a detailed discussion on specific routing technologies. The reader is familiarized with the fundamental networking concepts and router operation algorithms. The difference between routing and forwarding processes is explained. It is followed by a description of the sources of routing information and more detailed discussions on each source and the principles of default routing. The chapter also explains the basic forwarding algorithm and the differences between classful and classless routing operations.

Chapter 4--Routing table maintenance. Chapter 4 provides a very detailed discussion on how routing information is organized and maintained in Cisco routers. The chapter starts with a thorough explanation of each source of routing information. The second part of the chapter is dedicated to the routing table maintenance process. This includes processing of connected, static and dynamic routes, as well as the default route selection algorithm.

Chapter 5--Packet forwarding. Chapter 5 describes in detail the IP packet forwarding process--the module that actually uses information in the routing table to move packets from one interface to another. The chapter starts with the forwarding process overview, followed by a systematic explanation of each stage. Packet switching mechanisms available in Cisco IOS, including fast, optimum, distributed, NetFlow switching and Cisco Express Forwarding are described in the following section. The chapter ends with a discussion on the load sharing techniques available in Cisco routers.

Chapter 6--Static routes. This chapter provides a complete description of static routes in Cisco IOS. This includes the details on recursive static routes, static routes via interfaces, backup (floating), default and discard static routes. The chapter also includes implementation scenarios that help the reader understand the issues and tradeoffs involved into managing of a network using static routes.

Chapter 7--Dynamic routing protocols in Cisco IOS. Chapter 7 provides information about generic mechanisms used by the dynamic routing protocols. This includes basic routing protocol configuration, data structures, routes redistribution and event processing.

Chapter 8--Distance vector routing protocols. This chapter begins with a discussion on principles of distance-vector routing and, specifically, the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Very detailed descriptions of two distance-vector IP routing protocols--Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)-are provided. Each protocol description includes information on protocol packet formats, input message and event processing, outbound message generation, as well as the configuration commands and examples.

Chapter 9--Link-state routing protocols. Chapter 9 describes the mechanisms of link-state routing in general and a link-state routing protocol-Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). The first part of the chapter gives a very detailed explanation of the link-state routing concepts, including the Dijkstra algorithm, link-state database synchronization and flooding. An overview of the two link-state routing protocols (integrated IS-IS, and OSPF) currently used in IP world is given as well. The second part of the chapter provides a complete guide to the OSPF protocol and details of Cisco's OSPF implementation. Practically every aspect of the protocol is explained very thoroughly in this section. The chapter is completed with information on OSPF configuration commands and configuration examples.

Chapter 10--Enhanced IGRP. This chapter gives a detailed explanation of enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)--a Cisco's proprietary routing protocol, based on the diffusing update calculation algorithm. The chapter introduces the concepts of EIGRP by showing how the protocol solves real-life problems in the distance-vector protocols. As in the previous chapters, full description of EIGRP packets, message and event processing, as well as update generation is included. The chapter also discusses the topics of the default route support and route aggregation in EIGRP, followed by a description of the EIGRP stub router extension. Sections on EIGRP configuration and configuration examples conclude the chapter.

Approach

When this book was being written, the emphasis was made on explaining why certain things work in a specific way, not just how they work. This is why practically every chapter in the book contains a theoretical introduction to the topic. The core of every chapter is the actual explanation of specific mechanisms inside the router. In most of the cases, discussions on specific topics are given in the context of Cisco's implementation of the algorithms and mechanisms, illustrated with logs from real Cisco routers.

The book contains description of many algorithms. All of them are described in human language, and for some of them a pseudocode definition is given for better understanding.

Chapters 4 through 10 also contain sections that answer the most frequently asked questions about a specific technology.

Disclaimer

The author would like to note that pseudocode used in this book is not a recompilation of the Cisco IOS source code and any similarity between the two is accidental.

0201604736P10152001

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