Cisco Networking Academy Program: Second-Year Companion Guide / Edition 2

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Cisco Networking Academy Program: Second Year Companion Guide, Second Edition is the revised and improve text companion to the third and fourth semesters of Cisco Networking Academy Program classes. This bestseller, supports and reinforces the on-line learning for the Academy, along with topics pertaining to CCNA certification. The second year of the curriculum deals with the practical application of networking concepts the book will include the following:Learning objectives that the readers will know after completing each chapterLabs that provide students with an active learning experience of network design and developmentThreaded Case studies that present students with the experience of network developers. These studies will run throughout the book and increase in difficulty, as the case study becomes more involved.Developed with and approved by Cisco Systems, Cisco Networking Academy Program: Second Year Companion Guide, Second Edition will provide information and presentation unmatchable by any other publisher.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587130298
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 5/10/2001
  • Series: Cisco Networking Academy Program Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 720
  • Product dimensions: 8.26 (w) x 9.44 (h) x 1.44 (d)

Meet the Author

Vito Amato, Series Editor, is the Information Technology Director at the Arizona Department of Education, where he is designing and building a state-wide network for the transmission of educational data over the World Wide Web. Amato has been involved in the planning and implementation of the Cisco Systems Networking Academy curriculum. Other books published by this author: Book 1: Cisco Networking Academy Program First-Year Companion Guide Revised Printing, Book 2: Cisco Networking Academy Program, Lab Companion, Second Edition, and Book 3: Interactive Guide to the Internet.

Cisco Systems, Inc., is a leading global supplier of internetworking solutions, including routers, LAN and ATM switches, dial-up access servers, and network management software. This book is a collaboration of multiple authors who have developed the ultimate guide in internetworking technologies and detailing how the technologies interact.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4: LAN Design


After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
  • Explain LAN design goals
  • Identify LAN design issues
  • Explain network design methodology
  • Describe how to gather and analyze network equipment
  • Identify Layer 1 (media and topology) design issues
  • Identify Layer 2 (LAN switching) design issues
  • Identify Layer 3 (routing) design issues
  • Describe the physical and logical network implementation documentation


Chapter 3, "VLANs," provided an introduction to virtual LANs (VLANs) and switched internetworking, compared traditional shared local-area network (LAN) configurations with switched LAN configurations, and discussed the benefits of using a switched VLAN architecture. Despite improvements in equipment performance and media capabilities, network design is becoming more difficult. The trend is toward increasingly complex environments involving multimedia (or multiple media types) and interconnection to networks outside any single organization's controlled LAN. Keeping all the many factors in mind is important because carefully designing networks can reduce the hardships associated with growth as a networking environment evolves.

One of the most critical steps to ensure a fast and stable network is the design of the network. If a network is not designed properly, many unforeseen problems can arise, and network growth can be jeopardized. This design process is truly an indepth process. This chapter provides an overview of the LAN design process. In addition, LAN design goals, network design issues, network design methodology, and the development of LAN topologies are covered in this chapter.

Washington Project: Designing the Network
In this chapter, you will begin the process of designing the LAN at your specific site within the Washington School District WAN. As concepts and requirements are introduced, you will be able to apply them in your network design. You will need to make sure to address the following requirements:
  • The LAN is meant to serve different "workgroups" of staff members and students. This logical division will require the use of VLANs and will be a major design decision. For example, VLANs should be used to secure the administrators' machines from the students' machines.
  • Access to the Internet from any site in the school district, via the District WAN, is also an integral part of this implementation.
  • A series of servers is needed to facilitate online automations of all the district's administrative functions and many of the curricular functions.
  • Because this network implementation must be functional for a minimum of 7–10 years, all design considerations should include at least 100x (times) growth in the LAN throughput, 2x (times) growth in WAN throughput, and 10x (times) growth in the Internet connection throughput.
  • A minimum of 1.0 Mbps to any host computer in the network and 100 Mbps to any server host in the network is required.
  • Only two routed protocols may be implemented in the network: TCP/IP and Novell IPX.

LAN Design Goals

Designing a network can be a challenging task and involves more than just connecting computers together. A network requires many features in order to be scalable and manageable. To design reliable, scalable networks, network designers must realize that each of the major components of a network has distinct design requirements. Even a network that consists of only 50 routing nodes can pose complex problems that lead to unpredictable results. Attempting to design and build networks that contain thousands of nodes can pose even more complex problems.

The first step in designing a LAN is to establish and document the goals of the design. These goals are particular to each organization or situation. However, the following requirements tend to show up in most network designs:

Functionality—The network must work. That is, it must allow users to meet their job requirements. The network must provide user-to-user and user-to-application connectivity with reasonable speed and reliability.

Scalability—The network must be able to grow. That is, the initial design should grow without any major changes to the overall design.

Adaptability—The network must be designed with an eye toward future technologies, and it should include no element that would limit implementation of new technologies as they become available.

Manageability—The network should be designed to facilitate network monitoring and management to ensure ongoing stability of operation.

These requirements are specific to certain types of networks and more general in other types of networks. This chapter discusses how to address these requirements.

Network Design Components

With the emergence of high-speed technologies such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and more complex LAN architectures that use LAN switching and VLANs over the past several years, many organizations have been upgrading existing LANs or planning, designing, and implementing new LANs.

To design LANs for high-speed technologies and multimedia-based applications, network designers should address the following critical components of the overall LAN design:

  • The function and placement of servers
  • Collision detection
  • Segmentation
  • Bandwidth versus broadcast domains
These components are discussed in the following sections.

Function and Placement of Servers

One of the keys to designing a successful network is to understand the function and placement of servers needed for the network. Servers provide file sharing, printing, communication, and application services, such as word processing. Servers typically do not functions as workstations; rather, they run specialized operating systems, such as NetWare, Windows NT, UNIX, and Linux. Today, each server usually is dedicated to one function, such as e-mail or file sharing.

Servers can be categorized into two distinct classes: enterprise servers and workgroup servers. An enterprise server supports all the users on the network by offering services, such as e-mail or Domain Name System (DNS), as shown in Figure 4-1. E-mail or DNS is a service that everyone in an organization (such as the Washington School District) would need because it is a centralized function. On the other hand, a workgroup server supports a specific set of users, offering services such as word processing and file sharing, which are services only a few groups of people would need.

Enterprise servers should be placed in the main distribution facility (MDF). This way, traffic to the enterprise servers has to travel only to the MDF and does not need to be transmitted across other networks. Ideally, workgroup servers should be placed in the intermediate distribution facilities (IDFs) closest to the users accessing the applications on these servers. You merely need to directly connect servers to the MDF or IDF. By placing, workgroup servers close to the users, traffic only has to travel the network infrastructure to that IDF, and does not affect other users on that network segment. Within the MDF and IDFs, the Layer 2 LAN switches should have 100 Mbps or more allocated for these servers.

Washington Project: Server Placement and Function
You should categorize all file servers for the Washington School District as enterprise or workgroup types and then place servers in the network topology according to the anticipated traffic patterns of users and according to the following functions:
  • DNS and E-Mail Services—Each district hub location should contain a DNS server to support the individual schools serviced out of that location. Each school should also contain a host for DNS and e-mail services (that is, a local post office) that will maintain a complete directory of the staff members and students for that location.
  • The Administrative Server—Each school location should have an administration server for the student tracking, attendance, grading, and other administrative functions. This server should run TCP/IP as its protocol suite and should be made available only to teachers and staff members.
  • The Library Server—The school district is implementing an automated library information and retrieval system for an online curricular research library. This server should run TCP/IP as its OSI Layer 3 and Layer 4 protocol and should be made available to anyone at the school site.
  • Application Server—All computer applications, such as word processing and spread-sheet software, should be housed in a central server at each school location.
  • Other Servers—Any other servers implemented at the school sites should be considered departmental (workgroup) servers and should be placed according to user group access needs. An example would be a server running an instructional application for a specific school site.


One common configuration of a LAN is an intranet. Intranet Web servers differ from public Web servers in that, without the needed permissions and passwords, the public does not have access to an organization's intranet. Intranets are designed to be accessed by users who have access privileges to an organization's internal LAN. Within an intranet, Web servers are installed in the network, and browser technology is used as the common front end to access information, such as financial data or graphical, text-based data stored on those servers.

The addition of an intranet on a network is just one of many application and configuration features that can cause an increase in needed network band-width over current levels. Because bandwidth has to be added to the network backbone, network administrators should also consider acquiring robust desktops to get faster access into intranets. New desktops and servers should be outfitted with 10/100-Mbps Ethernet network interface cards (NICs) to provide the most configuration flexibility, thus enabling network administrators to dedicate bandwidth to individual end stations as needed....

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Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Introduction xxvii
Chapter 1 Review: The OSI Reference Model and Routing 3
Introduction 3
The Layered Network Model: The OSI Reference Model 4
The Physical Layer 8
The Data Link Layer 10
The Network Layer 12
The Transport Layer 27
Summary 31
Check Your Understanding 33
Key Terms 36
Chapter 2 LAN Switching 43
Introduction 43
Network Demands 43
Improving LAN Performance 48
Switching and Bridging Overview 53
Spanning-Tree Protocol 61
Summary 62
Check Your Understanding 64
Key Terms 68
Chapter 3 VLANs 73
Introduction 73
VLAN Overview 73
Segmenting with Switching Architectures 74
VLAN Implementations 79
Benefits of VLANs 81
Summary 86
Check Your Understanding 87
Key Terms 90
Chapter 4 LAN Design 95
Introduction 95
LAN Design Goals 96
Network Design Components 97
Network Design Methodology 102
Summary 124
Washington School District Project Task: LAN Design 124
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 125
Check Your Understanding 127
Key Terms 130
Chapter 5 Routing Protocols: IGRP 135
Introduction 135
Network-Layer Basics 136
Routed Versus Routing Protocols 140
IP Routing Protocols 141
IP Routing Configuration 144
Understanding IGRP Operation 145
Summary 153
Washington School District Project Task: Routing Protocols and Configuring IGRP 153
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 154
Check Your Understanding 156
Key Terms 159
Chapter 6 ACLs 163
Introduction 163
ACL Overview 163
ACL Configuration Tasks 169
Standard ACLs 175
Extended ACLs 181
Using Named ACLs 187
Using ACLs with Protocols 189
Placing ACLs 190
Verifying ACLs 193
Summary 195
Washington School District Project Task: Using ACLs 195
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 196
Check Your Understanding 197
Key Terms 200
Chapter 7 Novell IPX 203
Introduction 203
Cisco Routers in NetWare Networks 203
IPX Overview 205
Novell Encapsulations 208
Novell Routing Using RIP 211
Service Advertising Protocol 215
Get Nearest Server Protocol 216
Novell IPX Configuration Tasks 217
Monitoring and Managing an IPX Network 220
Summary 234
Washington School District Project Task: Configuring Novell IPX 234
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 235
Check Your Understanding 237
Key Terms 240
Chapter 8 Network Management, Part I 245
Introduction 245
Network Documentation 245
Network Security 250
Environmental Factors 255
Network Performance 258
Network Troubleshooting 265
Summary 267
Washington School District Project Task: Finishing the TCS 269
Check Your Understanding 270
Chapter 9 WANs 273
Introduction 273
WAN Technology Overview 273
WAN Devices 278
WANs and the OSI Reference Model 281
WAN Frame Encapsulation Formats 284
WAN Link Options 286
Summary 293
Washington School District Project Task: WANs 293
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 293
Check Your Understanding 294
Key Terms 298
Chapter 10 WAN Design 303
Introduction 303
WAN Communication 303
The First Steps in Designing a WAN 306
Identifying and Selecting Networking Capabilities 312
Washington School District Project Task: WAN Design 324
Summary 324
Check Your Understanding 325
Key Terms 328
Chapter 11 PPP 331
Introduction 331
PPP Overview 331
PPP Session Establishment 334
PPP Authentication 337
Summary 341
Washington School District Project Task: PPP 341
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 342
Check Your Understanding 343
Key Terms 346
Chapter 12 ISDN 349
Introduction 349
ISDN Overview 349
ISDN and the OSI Reference Model 355
ISDN Encapsulation 358
ISDN Uses 360
ISDN Services: BRI and PRI 363
ISDN Configuration Tasks 366
Dial-on-Demand Routing 372
Summary 375
Washington School District Project Task: ISDN 375
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 376
Check Your Understanding 377
Key Terms 379
Chapter 13 Frame Relay 383
Introduction 383
Frame Relay Technology Overview 383
Cisco's Implementation of Frame Relay: LMI 390
Global Addressing 393
Frame Relay Subinterfaces 397
Basic Frame Relay Configuration 400
Summary 412
Washington School District Project Task: Frame Relay 412
CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives 413
Check Your Understanding 414
Key Terms 418
Chapter 14 Network Management, Part II 421
Introduction 421
The Administrative Side of Network Management 421
Monitoring the Network 424
Troubleshooting Networks 430
Summary 443
Washington School District Project Task: Finishing the TCS 444
Check Your Understanding 445
Chapter 15 Network+ Certification Exam Review 449
Introduction 449
Basic Networking Topologies 449
Segments and Backbones 452
The Major Network Operating Systems 453
IP, IPX, and NetBEUI: Associating Them with Their Functions 456
RAID Overview 457
Tape Backups 458
The OSI Model 458
Networking Media 462
Baseband Signal 466
Full- and Half-Duplex Operation 467
WANs and LANs 467
Understanding the Physical Layer 469
The Data Link Layer 473
The Network Layer 474
The Transport Layer 476
TCP/IP Fundamentals 477
TCP/IP Suite: Utilities 483
PPP and SLIP 487
The Purpose and Function of PPTP 487
ISDN and PSTN (POTS) 488
Modem Configuration for Dialup Networking to Function 488
Security 489
The Impact of Environmental Factors on Computer Networks 491
Common Peripheral Ports 492
Maintaining and Supporting the Network 495
Troubleshooting the Network 497
Summary 500
Chapter 16 CCNA Certification Exam Review 503
Introduction 503
OSI Model 503
Creating Subnets 507
LAN Switching 508
Ethernet Frame 510
Symmetric and Asymmetric Switching 521
The Benefits of Virtual LANs 523
Spanning-Tree Protocol 530
Summary 532
Chapter 17 Remote Access Technologies 535
Introduction 535
Cable Modems 535
Cable and the OSI Model 542
Cable Conclusion 543
Wireless Network Access 544
Direct Broadcast Satellite 546
Low Earth Orbit Satellites 548
Wireless Local-Area Networking 550
Digital Subscriber Line 556
Relationship of VDSL to ADSL 569
Summary 570
Chapter 18 Virtual Private Networks 573
Introduction 573
Virtual Private Network Operation 573
VPN Implementation 577
The Cisco Systems VPN Design 578
Highlights of Virtual Dial-Up Service 584
Summary 586
Chapter 19 Developing Network Security and Network Management Strategies 589
Introduction 589
Network Security Design 589
Security Mechanisms 593
Selecting Security Solutions 599
Summary 605
Appendix A e-Lab Activity Index 607
Appendix B Check Your Understanding Answer Key 615
Appendix C Command Summary 627
Appendix D Movie Index 633
Glossary 637
Index 693
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Since 1997, the Cisco Networking Academy Program has instituted an e-learning system approach that integrates the multimedia delivery of a networking curriculum with testing, performance-based skills assessment, evaluation, and reporting through a Web interface. The Cisco Networking Academy curriculum goes beyond traditional computer-based instruction by helping students develop practical networking knowledge and skills in a hands-on environment. In a lab setting that closely corresponds to a real networking environment, students work with the architecture and infrastructure pieces of networking technology. As a result, students learn the principles and practices of networking technology.

The Cisco Networking Academy Program provides in-depth and meaningful networking content, which is being used by Regional and Local Academies to teach students around the world by utilizing the curriculum to integrate networking instruction into the classroom. The focus of the Networking Academy program is on the integration of a Web-based network curriculum into the learning environment. This element is addressed through intensive staff development for instructors and innovative classroom materials and approaches to instruction, which are provided by Cisco. The participating educators are provided with resources, the means of remote access to online support, and the knowledge base for the effective classroom integration of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum into the classroom learning environment. As a result, the Networking Academy program provides the means for the dynamic exchange of information by providing a suite of services that redefine the way instructional resources are disseminated, resulting in a many-to-many interactive and collaborative network of teachers and students functioning to meet diverse educational needs.

The Networking Academy curriculum is especially exciting to educators and students because the courseware is interactive. Because of the growing use of interactive technologies, the curriculum is an exciting new way to convey instruction with new interactive technologies that allow instructors and trainers to mix a number of media, including audio, video, text, numerical data, and graphics. Consequently, students can select different media from the computer screen and tweak their instructional content to meet their instructional needs, and educators have the option of either designing their own environment for assessment or selecting from the applicable assessments.

Finally, by developing a curriculum that recognizes the changing classroom and workforce demographics, the globalization of the economy, changing workforce knowledge and skill requirements, and the role of technology in education, the Cisco Networking Academy Program supports national educational goals for K–12 education. As support for the Networking Academy program, Cisco Press has published this book, Cisco Networking Academy Program: Second-Year Companion Guide, Second Edition, as a companion guide for the curriculum used in the Cisco Networking Academy Program.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 26, 2003

    Second-Year Guide

    This book is a required study guide if you're participating in the Cisco's Networking Academy. The material presented according to the curriculum. Instructions are clear and concise.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 7, 2002


    THIS IS A great book to have complete understanding of cisco networking

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