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One of the most critical steps to ensure a fast and stable network is the design of the network. If a network is not designed properly, many unforeseen problems can arise, and network growth can be jeopardized. This design process is truly an indepth process. This chapter provides an overview of the LAN design process. In addition, LAN design goals, network design issues, network design methodology, and the development of LAN topologies are covered in this chapter.
Washington Project: Designing the Network
In this chapter, you will begin the process of designing the LAN at your specific site within the Washington School District WAN. As concepts and requirements are introduced, you will be able to apply them in your network design. You will need to make sure to address the following requirements:
- The LAN is meant to serve different "workgroups" of staff members and students. This logical division will require the use of VLANs and will be a major design decision. For example, VLANs should be used to secure the administrators' machines from the students' machines.
- Access to the Internet from any site in the school district, via the District WAN, is also an integral part of this implementation.
- A series of servers is needed to facilitate online automations of all the district's administrative functions and many of the curricular functions.
- Because this network implementation must be functional for a minimum of 7–10 years, all design considerations should include at least 100x (times) growth in the LAN throughput, 2x (times) growth in WAN throughput, and 10x (times) growth in the Internet connection throughput.
- A minimum of 1.0 Mbps to any host computer in the network and 100 Mbps to any server host in the network is required.
- Only two routed protocols may be implemented in the network: TCP/IP and Novell IPX.
The first step in designing a LAN is to establish and document the goals of the design. These goals are particular to each organization or situation. However, the following requirements tend to show up in most network designs:
Functionality—The network must work. That is, it must allow users to meet their job requirements. The network must provide user-to-user and user-to-application connectivity with reasonable speed and reliability.
Scalability—The network must be able to grow. That is, the initial design should grow without any major changes to the overall design.
Adaptability—The network must be designed with an eye toward future technologies, and it should include no element that would limit implementation of new technologies as they become available.
Manageability—The network should be designed to facilitate network monitoring and management to ensure ongoing stability of operation.
These requirements are specific to certain types of networks and more general in other types of networks. This chapter discusses how to address these requirements.
To design LANs for high-speed technologies and multimedia-based applications, network designers should address the following critical components of the overall LAN design:
Servers can be categorized into two distinct classes: enterprise servers and workgroup servers. An enterprise server supports all the users on the network by offering services, such as e-mail or Domain Name System (DNS), as shown in Figure 4-1. E-mail or DNS is a service that everyone in an organization (such as the Washington School District) would need because it is a centralized function. On the other hand, a workgroup server supports a specific set of users, offering services such as word processing and file sharing, which are services only a few groups of people would need.
Enterprise servers should be placed in the main distribution facility (MDF). This way, traffic to the enterprise servers has to travel only to the MDF and does not need to be transmitted across other networks. Ideally, workgroup servers should be placed in the intermediate distribution facilities (IDFs) closest to the users accessing the applications on these servers. You merely need to directly connect servers to the MDF or IDF. By placing, workgroup servers close to the users, traffic only has to travel the network infrastructure to that IDF, and does not affect other users on that network segment. Within the MDF and IDFs, the Layer 2 LAN switches should have 100 Mbps or more allocated for these servers.
Washington Project: Server Placement and Function
You should categorize all file servers for the Washington School District as enterprise or workgroup types and then place servers in the network topology according to the anticipated traffic patterns of users and according to the following functions:
- DNS and E-Mail Services—Each district hub location should contain a DNS server to support the individual schools serviced out of that location. Each school should also contain a host for DNS and e-mail services (that is, a local post office) that will maintain a complete directory of the staff members and students for that location.
- The Administrative Server—Each school location should have an administration server for the student tracking, attendance, grading, and other administrative functions. This server should run TCP/IP as its protocol suite and should be made available only to teachers and staff members.
- The Library Server—The school district is implementing an automated library information and retrieval system for an online curricular research library. This server should run TCP/IP as its OSI Layer 3 and Layer 4 protocol and should be made available to anyone at the school site.
- Application Server—All computer applications, such as word processing and spread-sheet software, should be housed in a central server at each school location.
- Other Servers—Any other servers implemented at the school sites should be considered departmental (workgroup) servers and should be placed according to user group access needs. An example would be a server running an instructional application for a specific school site.
The addition of an intranet on a network is just one of many application and configuration features that can cause an increase in needed network band-width over current levels. Because bandwidth has to be added to the network backbone, network administrators should also consider acquiring robust desktops to get faster access into intranets. New desktops and servers should be outfitted with 10/100-Mbps Ethernet network interface cards (NICs) to provide the most configuration flexibility, thus enabling network administrators to dedicate bandwidth to individual end stations as needed....
|Chapter 1||Review: The OSI Reference Model and Routing||3|
|The Layered Network Model: The OSI Reference Model||4|
|The Physical Layer||8|
|The Data Link Layer||10|
|The Network Layer||12|
|The Transport Layer||27|
|Check Your Understanding||33|
|Chapter 2||LAN Switching||43|
|Improving LAN Performance||48|
|Switching and Bridging Overview||53|
|Check Your Understanding||64|
|Segmenting with Switching Architectures||74|
|Benefits of VLANs||81|
|Check Your Understanding||87|
|Chapter 4||LAN Design||95|
|LAN Design Goals||96|
|Network Design Components||97|
|Network Design Methodology||102|
|Washington School District Project Task: LAN Design||124|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||125|
|Check Your Understanding||127|
|Chapter 5||Routing Protocols: IGRP||135|
|Routed Versus Routing Protocols||140|
|IP Routing Protocols||141|
|IP Routing Configuration||144|
|Understanding IGRP Operation||145|
|Washington School District Project Task: Routing Protocols and Configuring IGRP||153|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||154|
|Check Your Understanding||156|
|ACL Configuration Tasks||169|
|Using Named ACLs||187|
|Using ACLs with Protocols||189|
|Washington School District Project Task: Using ACLs||195|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||196|
|Check Your Understanding||197|
|Chapter 7||Novell IPX||203|
|Cisco Routers in NetWare Networks||203|
|Novell Routing Using RIP||211|
|Service Advertising Protocol||215|
|Get Nearest Server Protocol||216|
|Novell IPX Configuration Tasks||217|
|Monitoring and Managing an IPX Network||220|
|Washington School District Project Task: Configuring Novell IPX||234|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||235|
|Check Your Understanding||237|
|Chapter 8||Network Management, Part I||245|
|Washington School District Project Task: Finishing the TCS||269|
|Check Your Understanding||270|
|WAN Technology Overview||273|
|WANs and the OSI Reference Model||281|
|WAN Frame Encapsulation Formats||284|
|WAN Link Options||286|
|Washington School District Project Task: WANs||293|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||293|
|Check Your Understanding||294|
|Chapter 10||WAN Design||303|
|The First Steps in Designing a WAN||306|
|Identifying and Selecting Networking Capabilities||312|
|Washington School District Project Task: WAN Design||324|
|Check Your Understanding||325|
|PPP Session Establishment||334|
|Washington School District Project Task: PPP||341|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||342|
|Check Your Understanding||343|
|ISDN and the OSI Reference Model||355|
|ISDN Services: BRI and PRI||363|
|ISDN Configuration Tasks||366|
|Washington School District Project Task: ISDN||375|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||376|
|Check Your Understanding||377|
|Chapter 13||Frame Relay||383|
|Frame Relay Technology Overview||383|
|Cisco's Implementation of Frame Relay: LMI||390|
|Frame Relay Subinterfaces||397|
|Basic Frame Relay Configuration||400|
|Washington School District Project Task: Frame Relay||412|
|CCNA Certification Exam Learning Objectives||413|
|Check Your Understanding||414|
|Chapter 14||Network Management, Part II||421|
|The Administrative Side of Network Management||421|
|Monitoring the Network||424|
|Washington School District Project Task: Finishing the TCS||444|
|Check Your Understanding||445|
|Chapter 15||Network+ Certification Exam Review||449|
|Basic Networking Topologies||449|
|Segments and Backbones||452|
|The Major Network Operating Systems||453|
|IP, IPX, and NetBEUI: Associating Them with Their Functions||456|
|The OSI Model||458|
|Full- and Half-Duplex Operation||467|
|WANs and LANs||467|
|Understanding the Physical Layer||469|
|The Data Link Layer||473|
|The Network Layer||474|
|The Transport Layer||476|
|TCP/IP Suite: Utilities||483|
|PPP and SLIP||487|
|The Purpose and Function of PPTP||487|
|ISDN and PSTN (POTS)||488|
|Modem Configuration for Dialup Networking to Function||488|
|The Impact of Environmental Factors on Computer Networks||491|
|Common Peripheral Ports||492|
|Maintaining and Supporting the Network||495|
|Troubleshooting the Network||497|
|Chapter 16||CCNA Certification Exam Review||503|
|Symmetric and Asymmetric Switching||521|
|The Benefits of Virtual LANs||523|
|Chapter 17||Remote Access Technologies||535|
|Cable and the OSI Model||542|
|Wireless Network Access||544|
|Direct Broadcast Satellite||546|
|Low Earth Orbit Satellites||548|
|Wireless Local-Area Networking||550|
|Digital Subscriber Line||556|
|Relationship of VDSL to ADSL||569|
|Chapter 18||Virtual Private Networks||573|
|Virtual Private Network Operation||573|
|The Cisco Systems VPN Design||578|
|Highlights of Virtual Dial-Up Service||584|
|Chapter 19||Developing Network Security and Network Management Strategies||589|
|Network Security Design||589|
|Selecting Security Solutions||599|
|Appendix A||e-Lab Activity Index||607|
|Appendix B||Check Your Understanding Answer Key||615|
|Appendix C||Command Summary||627|
|Appendix D||Movie Index||633|
The Cisco Networking Academy Program provides in-depth and meaningful networking content, which is being used by Regional and Local Academies to teach students around the world by utilizing the curriculum to integrate networking instruction into the classroom. The focus of the Networking Academy program is on the integration of a Web-based network curriculum into the learning environment. This element is addressed through intensive staff development for instructors and innovative classroom materials and approaches to instruction, which are provided by Cisco. The participating educators are provided with resources, the means of remote access to online support, and the knowledge base for the effective classroom integration of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum into the classroom learning environment. As a result, the Networking Academy program provides the means for the dynamic exchange of information by providing a suite of services that redefine the way instructional resources are disseminated, resulting in a many-to-many interactive and collaborative network of teachers and students functioning to meet diverse educational needs.
The Networking Academy curriculum is especially exciting to educators and students because the courseware is interactive. Because of the growing use of interactive technologies, the curriculum is an exciting new way to convey instruction with new interactive technologies that allow instructors and trainers to mix a number of media, including audio, video, text, numerical data, and graphics. Consequently, students can select different media from the computer screen and tweak their instructional content to meet their instructional needs, and educators have the option of either designing their own environment for assessment or selecting from the applicable assessments.
Finally, by developing a curriculum that recognizes the changing classroom and workforce demographics, the globalization of the economy, changing workforce knowledge and skill requirements, and the role of technology in education, the Cisco Networking Academy Program supports national educational goals for K–12 education. As support for the Networking Academy program, Cisco Press has published this book, Cisco Networking Academy Program: Second-Year Companion Guide, Second Edition, as a companion guide for the curriculum used in the Cisco Networking Academy Program.
Posted May 26, 2003
This book is a required study guide if you're participating in the Cisco's Networking Academy. The material presented according to the curriculum. Instructions are clear and concise.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted January 7, 2002