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Cisco Networking Academy Program: First-Year Companion Guide / Edition 2

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Overview

The Only Authorized Textbook for the Cisco Networking Academy Program

  • Additional chapters, not found within the Web-based curriculum, include troubleshooting, residential networking, and more
  • Companion CD-ROM contains exclusive enrichment materials such as interactive e-Lab activities, animations, and CCNA preparation questions that prepare you for the practical portion of the CCNA exam
  • Chapter objectives provide references to the concepts covered in each chapter
  • Review questions at the end of each chapter help track your progress and focus your study
  • New Command Summary adds to your understanding of commands used to configure Cisco routers and references the chapters in which each command appears
  • Material covered in this book helps you prepare for CCNA Exam #640-507


Cisco Networking Academy Program: First-Year Companion Guide, Second Edition is the Cisco-approved textbook for the first and second semesters of the Cisco Networking Academy Program.

This book supports and reinforces the Web-based curriculum for the Cisco Networking Academy Program, while reinforcing concepts pertaining to CCNA certification. The first-year guide provides an in-depth discussion of the OSI reference model layers and path determination, in addition to the configuration details for IP routing and addressing, subnetting topics, and basic router configuration and operation.

The instructional materials for the First-Year Companion Guide follow the instructional style and format that Cisco Systems has created for the Cisco Networking Academy Program and is the only print companion that Cisco Systems reviewed and endorses for the Cisco Networking Academy Program

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587130250
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 5/10/2001
  • Series: Cisco Networking Academy Program Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 992
  • Product dimensions: 8.22 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.92 (d)

Meet the Author

Cisco Systems, Inc., is a leading global supplier of internetworking solutions, including routers, LAN and ATM switches, dial-up access servers, and network management software. This book is a collaboration of multiple authors who have developed the ultimate guide in internetworking technologies and detailing how the technologies interact.
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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4: Layer 1: Electronics and Signals

Objectives

After reading this chapter, you will be able to

  • Understand the basics of electricity
  • Understand the basics of digital multimeters
  • Understand the basics of signals and noise in communications systems
  • Understand the basics of encoding networking signals

Introduction

The function of the physical layer is to transmit data by defining the electrical specifications between the source and destination. After it reaches a building, electricity is carried to workstations, servers, and network devices via wires concealed in walls, floors, and ceilings. Data, which can consist of such things as text, pictures, audio, or video, travels through the wires and is represented by the presence of either electrical pulses on copper conducting wires or light pulses in optical fibers.

In this chapter, you learn about the basic theory of electricity, which provides a foundation for understanding networking at the physical layer of the OSI model. You also learn how data is transmitted through physical media, such as cables and connectors. Last, you learn about the different factors that affect data trans-mission, such as alternating current (AC) power line noise.

Electricity Basics

The basic unit of all matter is an atom. The atom is made of three tiny parts: pro-tons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons are lumped together in a small grouping called a nucleus (the electron flows freely around this nucleus). When these three parts come together, they form an atom. All matter is com-posed of atoms. The Periodic Table of Elements, shown in Figure 4-1, lists all the known types of atoms and their properties.

The names of the parts of the atom are

  • Nucleus—The center part of the atom, formed by protons and neutrons
  • Protons—Particles have a positive charge, and along with neutrons, form the nucleus
  • Neutrons—Particles have no charge (neutral), and along with protons, form the nucleus
  • Electrons—Particles have a negative charge and orbit the nucleus
To help you understand the electrical properties of elements/materials, locate helium on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 2, which means that it has 2 protons and 2 electrons. It has an atomic weight of 4. By subtracting the atomic number (2) from the atomic weight (4), you learn that helium also has 2 neutrons.

Figure 4-1 The Periodic Table of Elements....

...The Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, developed a simplified model to illustrate atoms. Figure 4-2 shows the model for a helium atom. Notice the scale of the parts. If the protons and the neutrons of this atom were the size of a soccer ball, in the middle of a soccer field, the only thing smaller than the ball would be the electrons. They would be the size of cherries, and would be orbiting near the outermost seats of the stadium. The only thing larger than the soccer ball would be the space inside the atom, which would be the size of the soccer field.

Figure 4-2 The helium atom has two protons, two electrons, and two neutrons....

Creating Stable Atoms

One of the laws of nature, called Coulomb’s Electric Force Law, states that opposite charges react to each other with a force that causes them to be attracted to each other. Like charges react to each other with a force that causes them to repel each other. A force is a pushing or pulling motion. In the case of opposite and like charges, the force increases as the charges move closer to each other.

Examine Bohr’s model of the helium atom. If Coulomb’s Law is true, and if Bohr’s model describes helium atoms as stable, other laws of nature must be at work. How can they both be true?

Coulomb’s Law—Opposite charges attract.

Bohr’s model—Protons are positive charges, and electrons are negative charges.

Question 1: Why don’t the electrons fly in toward the protons?

1. Coulomb’s Law—Like charges repel.

2. Bohr’s model—Protons are positive charges. There is more than one proton in the nucleus.

Question 2: Why don’t the protons fly away from each other?

The answer to these questions is that other laws of nature must be consid-ered. Following are the answers to each of the above questions.

Answer 1: The electrons stay in orbit, even though they are attracted by the protons. They have just enough velocity to keep orbiting, just like the moon around the Earth, and to not let themselves be pulled into the nucleus.

Answer 2: The protons do not fly apart from each other because of a nuclear force that is associated with neutrons. The nuclear force is an incredibly strong force that acts as a kind of glue to hold the protons together.

The protons and neutrons are bound together by a powerful force; however, the force that binds electrons to their orbit around the nucleus is weaker. Figure 4-3 illustrates these forces. Electrons in certain atoms can be pulled free from the atom and made to flow. This is electricity—a free flow of electrons.

Static Electricity

Loosened electrons that stay in one place, without moving and with a negative charge, are called static electricity (see Figure 4-4). If these static electrons have an opportunity to jump to a conductor, this can lead to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Electrostatic discharge, although usually harmless to people, can create serious problems for sensitive electronic equipment unless dealt with properly....
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Table of Contents

1. Computer Basics.
2. The OSI Model.
3. LANs.
4. Electronics and Signals.
5. Layer 1: Networking Media.
6. Layer 2: Data Link Layer Concepts.
7. Layer 2:Technologies.
8. Design and Documentation.
9. Structured Cabling.
10. Layer 3: Routing and Addressing.
11. Layer 3: Routing Protocols.
12. Layer 4: Focus on TCP/IP.
13. Layer 5: The Session Layer.
14. Layer 6: The Presentation Layer.
15. Layer 7: The Application Layer.
16. OSI Review.
17. LANs: Layers 1, 2, and 3.
18. Layers 4, 5, 6, and 7.
19. WANs.
20. Routing.
21. Using the Router.
22. Router Components.
23. Router Startup and Setup.
24. Router Configuration.
25. IOS.
26. TCP/IP.
27. IP Addressing.
28. Routing Protocols.
Appendix: Answers to the CCNA Exam Review Questions.
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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 22, 2003

    Must have for beginners

    This book is part of the curriculum for the Cisco Networking Academy Program. However, I would also look into buying several more books from the CCNA to CCNP level to cover any blank spots on Cisco networking...

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