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Harden perimeter routers with Cisco firewall functionality and features to ensure network security
The Cisco IOS firewall offers you the feature-rich functionality that you've come to expect from best-of-breed firewalls: address translation, authentication, encryption, stateful filtering, failover, URL content filtering, ACLs, NBAR, and many others. Cisco Router Firewall Security teaches you how to use the Cisco IOS firewall to enhance the security of your perimeter routers and, along the way, take advantage of the flexibility and scalability that is part of the Cisco IOS Software package.
Each chapter in Cisco Router Firewall Security addresses an important component of perimeter router security. Author Richard Deal explains the advantages and disadvantages of all key security features to help you understand when they should be used and includes examples from his personal consulting experience to illustrate critical issues and security pitfalls. A detailed case study is included at the end of the book, which illustrates best practices and specific information on how to implement Cisco router security features.
Whether you are looking to learn about firewall security or seeking how-to techniques to enhance security in your Cisco routers, Cisco Router Firewall Security is your complete reference for securing the perimeter of your network.
This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.
I. SECURITY OVERVIEW AND FIREWALLS.
1. Security Threats.
Planning for Security.
Causes of Security Problems.
Types of Security Threats.
External and Internal Threats.
Unstructured and Structured Threats.
Categories of Threats.
Denial of Service Attacks.
Designing a Security Solution.
The Cisco Security Wheel.
2. Introduction to Firewalls.
Definition of a Firewall.
Controlling Traffic and the OSI Reference Model.
OSI Reference Model Overview.
Firewalls and the OSI Reference Model.
Application Gateway Firewalls.
Firewalls and Other Services.
Firewall Administration and Management.
Cisco IOS Security.
Cisco IOS Uses.
Cisco IOS Security Features.
Cisco IOS Devices and Their Uses.
When to Use a Cisco IOS Firewall.
II. MANAGING ACCESS TO ROUTERS.
3. Accessing a Router.
Types of Authentication.
No Password Authentication.
Static Password Authentication.
Aging Password Authentication.
One-Time Password Authentication.
Token Card Services.
Methods of User EXEC Access.
Local Access: Console and Auxiliary.
Privileged EXEC Access.
Other Access Items.
4. Disabling Unnecessary Services.
Disabling Global Services.
Cisco Discovery Protocol.
TCP and UDP Small Servers.
IP Source Routing.
FTP and TFTP.
Disabling Interface Services.
CDP on Insecure Interfaces.
Maintenance Operation Protocol.
Manual Configuration Example of Disabling Services on a Perimeter Router.
5. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting.
Methods of Authentication.
Methods of Authorization.
Methods of Accounting.
Preparation for SCP.
III. NONSTATEFUL FILTERING TECHNOLOGIES.
6. Access List Introduction.
Access List Overview.
ACLs and Filtering.
Types of ACLs.
Basic ACL Configuration.
Converting a Subnet Mask to a Wildcard Mask.
Wildcard Mask Mistakes.
7. Basic Access Lists.
Types of ACLs.
Fragments and Extended ACLs.
Additional ACL Features.
IP Accounting and ACLs.
Protection Against Attacks.
Bogon Blocking and Spoofing.
DoS and Distributed DoS Attacks.
Simple Reconnaissance Attacks.
Distributed DoS Attacks.
Blocking Unnecessary Services.
An Uphill Battle.
File Sharing: Peer-to-Peer Products.
IV. STATEFUL AND ADVANCED FILTERING TECHNOLOGIES.
8. Reflexive Access Lists.
Overview of Reflexive ACLs.
Extended Versus Reflexive ACLs.
Reflexive ACLs in Action.
Limitations of Reflexive ACLs.
Configuring Reflexive ACLs.
Reflexive ACL Examples.
9. Context-Based Access Control.
Cisco IOS Firewall Features.
Generating Alerts and Audits.
Operation of CBAC.
CBAC Enhancements over RACLs.
Supported Protocols for CBAC.
Throughput Improvement Feature.
Connections Per Second Improvement Feature.
CPU Utilization Improvement Feature.
Step 1: Interface Selection.
Step 2: ACL Configuration.
Step 3: Global Timeouts.
Step 4: Port Application Mapping.
Step 5: Inspection Rules.
Step 6: Inspection Activation.
Step 7: Troubleshooting CBAC.
10. Filtering Web and Application Traffic.
Java Blocking .
Java Blocking Example.
Operation of URL Filtering.
Advantages and Limitations of URL Filtering.
URL Filtering Implementation.
URL Filtering Verification.
URL Filtering Example.
Network-Based Application Recognition.
Components of QoS.
NBAR and Classification.
NBAR Restrictions and Limitations.
Basic NBAR Configuration.
V. ADDRESS TRANSLATION AND FIREWALLS.
11. Address Translation.
Address Translation Overview.
How Address Translation Works.
Terms Used in Address Translation.
Performing Address Translation.
Limitations of Address Translation.
Address Translation Configuration.
Configuration of NAT.
Configuration of PAT.
Configuration of Port Address Redirection.
Dealing with Overlapping Addresses.
Configuration of Traffic Distribution.
Configuration of Translation Limits.
Verifying and Troubleshooting Address Translation.
NAT and CBAC Example.
12. Address Translation Issues.
Embedded Addressing Information.
Problem with Embedding Addressing Information.
Supported Protocols and Applications.
Nonstandard Port Numbers.
Controlling Address Translation.
Using Route Maps: Dynamic Translations.
Using Route Maps: Static Translations.
Address Translation and Redundancy.
Static NAT Redundancy with HSRP.
Stateful Address Translation Failover.
Traffic Distribution with Server Load Balancing.
SLB Advantages and Limitations.
VI. MANAGING ACCESS THROUGH ROUTERS.
13. Lock-and-Key Access Lists.
Lock-and-Key and Normal ACLs.
When to Use Lock-and-Key.
Allowing Remote Administration Access.
Verification and Troubleshooting.
14. Authentication Proxy.
Introduction to AP.
Limitations of AP.
Configuring AAA on Your Router.
Configuring AAA on Your Server.
Preparing for HTTP or HTTPS.
Configuring AP Policies.
Protecting Against Access Attacks.
Verifying and Troubleshooting AP.
Simple AP Example.
Complex AP Example: CBAC and NAT.
15. Routing Protocol Protection.
Static and Black Hole Routing.
Interior Gateway Protocol Security.
Reverse-Path Forwarding (Unicast Traffic).
Unicast RPF Example.
VII. DETECTING AND PREVENTING ATTACKS.
16. Intrusion-Detection System.
Cisco Router IDS Solution.
Router IDS Process.
Memory and Performance Issues.
Step 1: Initialization Configuration.
Step 2: Logging and PostOffice Configuration.
Step 3: Audit Rule Configuration and Activation.
17. DoS Protection.
Detecting DoS Attacks.
Symptoms of Attacks.
Examining CPU Utilization to Detect DoS Attacks.
Using ACLs to Detect DoS Attacks.
Using NetFlow to Detect DoS Attacks.
TCP SYN Flood Attacks.
TCP Intercept Modes.
TCP Intercept Configuration and Verification.
CBAC and DoS Attacks.
Timeouts and Thresholds.
CBAC DoS Prevention Verification.
CBAC Example Configuration.
ICMP Rate Limiting.
18. Logging Events.
Log Message Format.
Basic Logging Configuration.
Other Logging Commands.
Logging and Error Counts.
Time and Date and the Cisco IOS.
Router Time Sources.
Manual Time and Date Configuration.
Network Time Protocol Overview.
Router Client Configuration for NTP.
Router Server Configuration for NTP.
Other NTP Commands.
NTP Configuration Example.
Embedded Syslog Manager.
ESM Filter Modules.
Introduction to ESM Setup and Configuration.
Additional Logging Information.
What to Look For.
VIII. VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS.
19. IPSec Site-to-Site Connections.
IKE Phase 1: Management Connection.
Defining IKE Phase 1 Policies.
IKE Phase 1 Peer Authentication.
Authentication with Preshared Keys.
Authentication with RSA Encrypted Nonces.
Authentication with Certificates.
IKE Phase 2: Data Connection.
Step 1: Building a Crypto ACL.
Step 2: Creating a Transform Set.
Step 3: Creating a Crypto Map.
Step 4: Activating a Crypto Map.
Step 5: Verifying a Crypto Map Configuration.
IPSec Connection Troubleshooting.
Using debug Commands.
20. IPSec Remote-Access Connections.
Remote Access Overview.
EasyVPN IPSec Support.
IPSec Remote-Access Connection Process.
Step 1: The EVC Initiates an IPSec Connection.
Step 2: The EVC Sends the IKE Phase 1 Policies.
Step 3: The EVS Accepts an IKE Phase 1 Policy.
Step 4: The EVS Authenticates the User.
Step 5: The EVS Performs IKE Mode Config.
Step 6: The EVS Handles Routing with RRI.
Step 7: The IPSec Devices Build the Data Connections.
IPSec Remote-Access EVS Setup.
Task 1: Authentication Policies.
Task 2: Group Policies.
Task 3: IKE Phase 1 Policies.
Task 4: Dynamic Crypto Maps.
Task 5: Static Crypto Map.
Task 6: Remote-Access Verification.
IPSec Remote Access Example.
IX. CASE STUDY.
21. Case Study.
Case Study Configuration.
Unnecessary Services and SSH.
Access Control Lists.
CBAC and Web Filtering.
Connection Attacks and CBAC.
NTP and Syslog.
Posted April 3, 2005
Posted March 18, 2005
The Cisco Press Book ¿Cisco Router Firewall Security¿ by Richard Deal while claiming to be for individuals or organizations ¿using a Cisco router as a perimeter firewall solution¿ is much more and I believe from that quote it was designed to be a reference guide for using routers to do just that: be a perimeter firewall for an organization. But what Richard Deal delivered is not only an excellent book on implementing a router as the firewall, but a detailed guide and approach to making any organizations routers secure and safe as they should be to develop a safe environment. To emphasis my comments on this thought you simply need to look at the break down of the chapters, like Chapter 4 ¿Disabling Unnecessary Services¿, and while this is important for any perimeter device, doing it in general on a router regardless of location helps to strength the environment and deliver a more secure network. Within the book Richard emphasizes that an individual can either read it cover to cover, or skip around and I agree that at sometimes reading cover to cover especially if you do not know a subject is an excellent approach, but with this one even not knowing and using it for the references offers is just as much benefit. Cause within the individual sections of the book there¿s enough information that you will not get lost as long as you have understanding of other Cisco devices like TACACS+ or general network concepts like RADIUS. Richard presents clear examples and details the steps to implement many of the book suggestions without much issue. I was able to take one of my lab routers and execute numerous of his examples without difficulty and still have the unit function as expected. While Cisco continues to publish new IOS code for their devices Richard spends a few minutes at different points like in Chapter 6 ¿Basic ACL Configuration¿ to highlight which version of IOS is needed to accomplish the issue being explained. Considering this feature does help to enhance the value of the book even further, but amongst my favorite chapters and section was Part VI ¿Managing Access through Routers¿ for he the book combined numerous prior items from Access Control List (ACL) configuration to routing protocols and authentication proxy using features like AAA with both TACACS+ and RADIUS. These configuration examples combined with Part VIII on ¿Virtual Private Networks (VPN)¿ only go to enhance each other. Yet as mentioned before the book was designed to allow individuals to either research a sub-set of the features in a router or the entire book itself. Thus in the middle of what appears to be two clear parts that would naturally fit together Part VI and VIII, Richard places Part VII on ¿Detecting and Preventing Attacks¿ demonstrates this feature covering areas of Intrusion Detection Systems, DoS Protection and Logging Events. The concept that attacks could come in any form, but commonly from external interaction is widely known. Seeing this section of the book only goes further to enforce and emphasis the importance of securing routers to protect the network. As anyone in the Information Technology industry is aware it is important to protect the environment and to say that this book could not help in that protection is a clear understatement. I believe that anyone from the ¿small business jack of all trade IT person¿ to the ¿corporate IT Network Specialist¿ could benefit in some manor from this book and the explanations and examples presented. If I was to say there was one thing I would do different on this book is of had it published in a hard bound cover cause Cisco Press has not often published a book that does not have a clear basis for use and this book is no except to that, thus I believe it would be a benefit and often used book of any network individuals library.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted January 9, 2005
Cisco Router Firewall Security by Richard A. Deal delivers exactly what the title says: using a Cisco router for every possible perimeter security scenario. The book is written for someone who has at least an intermediate level knowledge of Cisco router and switching technologies. Advanced security consultants may want to go to Chapter 21, Case Study Configuration, and refer back to the previous chapters for more explanation when needed. However, those responsible for network security should read the entire book to be familiar with all of the latest security features that Cisco routers are capable of as well as a number of vulnerabilities that should be hardened, when possible. Deal fills in much of the lacunae of Cisco IOS configuration that are left out of certification handbooks. His sprinkling of many anecdotes from his personal experience makes the book immensely practical. For example, the author points out that Reflexive Access Control Lists can be used as a less expensive substitute for Content Based Access Control when filtering traffic for a few dozen users. Deal's book will prepare you to deal with special situations where company policy demands something different than what a firewall in a box solution offers. As he shows you how to accomplish Intrusion Detection, Content Filtering, Security Logging, Virtual Private Networking, Denial of Service Prevention, and Access Management solutions with Cisco routers, he points out when these features should be used with a router or dedicated equipment, like the PIX firewall. I give Deal 5 stars for the layout and structure, which includes notes, cautions, tables, and configurations. But what I found most valuable was his many real life illustrations from his consulting business.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.