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Authorized Self-Study Guide

Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE)

Third Edition

Foundation learning for CVOICE exam 642-436

Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945

Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE), Third Edition, is a Cisco-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCVP foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge and skills required to plan, design, and deploy a Cisco voice-over-IP (VoIP) network and to integrate gateways and gatekeepers into an enterprise VoIP network. By reading this book, you will gain a thorough understanding of converged voice and data networks and also the challenges you will face implementing various network technologies.

Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE) presents you with information on the foundational elements of VoIP calls, the description of dial plans, and the implementation of gateways, gatekeepers, and Cisco Unified Border Elements (Cisco UBEs). The book gives you the information needed to implement and support data and voice integration solutions at the network-access level.

Whether you are preparing for CCVP certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of VoIP fundamentals, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.

Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE), Third Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from

Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit

Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945, is a certified Ciscoinstructor, and he teaches courses in the Cisco CCSP, CCVP, and CCNP® tracks. With 19 years of Cisco networking experience, Kevin has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University.


  • Integrate VoIP into an existing data network
  • Design a VoIP network for optimal voice quality
  • Examine the various call types in a VoIP network
  • Configure analog voice interfaces and dial peers
  • Perform call signaling over digital voice ports
  • Implement H.323, MGCP, and SIP protocols on Cisco IOS® gateways
  • Identify dial plan characteristics
  • Configure advanced dial plans
  • Deploy H.323 gatekeepers
  • Implement a Cisco UBE router to provide protocol interworking

Companion CD-ROM

The CD-ROM contains a bonus 90 minutes of video demonstrations. Watch the author perform fundamental CVoice configuration tasks in a series of six video-on-demand labs.

This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.

Category: Voice over IP

Covers: CVoice exam 642-436

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587055546
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 8/1/2008
  • Series: Self-Study Guide Series
  • Edition description: Study Guide
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 576
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.47 (d)

Meet the Author

Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945, is a certified Cisco instructor, and he teaches courses in the Cisco CCSP, CCVP, and CCNP tracks. With 19 years of Cisco networking experience, Kevin has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University. Kevin holds a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky. Kevin also is a CCVP, CCSP, CCNP, and CCDP with multiple Cisco security and IP communications specializations.

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Read an Excerpt


With the rapid adoption of Voice over IP (VoIP), many telephony and data network technicians, engineers, and designers are now working to become proficient in VoIP. Professional certifications, such as the Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP) certification, offer validation of an employee's or a consultant's competency in specific technical areas.

This book mirrors the level of detail found in the Cisco CVOICE Version 6.0 course, which many CCVP candidates select as their first course in the CCVP track. Version 6.0 represents a significant update over Version 5.0 of the CVOICE course, because Version 6.0 integrates much of the content previously found in the more advanced Implementing Cisco Voice Gateways and Gatekeepers (GWGK) course.

A fundamental understanding of traditional telephony, however, would certainly benefit a CVOICE student or a reader of this book. If you think you lack a fundamental understanding of traditional telephony, a recommended companion for this book is the Cisco Press Voice over IP First-Step book (ISBN: 978-1-58720-156-1), which is also written by this book's author. Voice over IP First-Step is written in a conversational tone and teaches concepts surrounding traditional telephony and how those concepts translate into a VoIP environment.Additional Study Resources

This book contains a CD with approximately 90 minutes of video, where you will see the author demonstrate a variety of basic VoIP configurations. The videos were originally developed for NetMaster Class (, a company specializing in CCIE Lab training. These video-on-demand titlesare as follows:

  • Analog Voice Port Configuration

  • Digital Voice Port Configuration

  • Dial Peer Configuration

  • H.323 Configuration

  • MGCP Configuration

  • SIP Configuration

As an additional reference for readers pursuing the CCVP certification, the author has created a website with recommended study resources (some free and some recommended for purchase) for all courses in the CCVP track. These recommendations can be found at the following URL: and Methods

The primary objective of this book is to help the reader pass the 642-436 CVOICE exam, which is a required exam for the CCVP certification and for the Cisco Rich Media Communications Specialist specialization.

One key methodology used in this book is to help you discover the exam topics that you need to review in more depth, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics. This book does not try to help you pass by memorization, but helps you truly learn and understand the topics by using the following methods:

  • Helping you discover which test topics you have not mastered

  • Providing explanations and information to fill in your knowledge gaps, including detailed illustrations and topologies as well as sample configurations

  • Providing exam practice questions to confirm your understanding of core concepts

Who Should Read This Book?

This book is primarily targeted toward candidates of the CVOICE exam. However, because CVOICE is one of the Cisco foundational VoIP courses, this book also serves as a VoIP primer to noncertification readers.

Many Cisco resellers actively encourage their employees to attain Cisco certifications and seek new employees already possessing Cisco certifications, for deeper discounts when purchasing Cisco products. Additionally, having attained a certification communicates to your employer or customer that you are serious about your craft and have not simply "hung out a shingle" declaring yourself knowledgeable about VoIP. Rather, you have proven your competency through a rigorous series of exams.How This Book Is Organized

Although the chapters in this book could be read sequentially, the organization allows you to focus your reading on specific topics of interest. For example, if you already possess a strong VoIP background, you could skim the first two chapters (which cover foundational VoIP topics, including an introduction to VoIP and elements of a VoIP network) and focus on the remaining seven chapters, which address more advanced VoIP concepts. Specifically, the chapters in this book cover the following topics:

Chapter 1, "Introducing Voice over IP Networks": This chapter describes VoIP, components of a VoIP network, the protocols used, and service considerations of integrating VoIP into an existing data network. Also, this chapter considers various types of voice gateways and how to use gateways in different IP telephony environments.

Chapter 2, "Considering VoIP Design Elements": This chapter describes the challenges of integrating a voice and data network and explains solutions for avoiding problems when designing a VoIP network for optimal voice quality. Also, you learn the characteristics of voice codecs and digital signal processors and how to perform bandwidth calculations for VoIP calls.

Chapter 3, "Routing Calls over Analog Voice Ports": This chapter describes the various call types in a VoIP network. You then learn how to configure analog voice interfaces as new devices are introduced into the voice path. Finally, you discover how to configure dial peers, in order to add call routing intelligence to a router.

Chapter 4, "Performing Call Signaling over Digital Voice Ports": This chapter describes various digital interfaces and how to configure them. Also, you are introduced to Q Signaling (QSIG) and learn how to enable QSIG support.

Chapter 5, "Examining VoIP Gateways and Gateway Control Protocols": This chapter details the H.323, MGCP, and SIP protocol stacks, and you learn how to implement each of these protocols on Cisco IOS gateways.

Chapter 6, "Identifying Dial Plan Characteristics": This chapter describes the components and requirements of a dial plan and discusses how to implement a numbering plan using Cisco IOS gateways.

Chapter 7, "Configuring Advanced Dial Plans": This chapter shows you how to configure various digit manipulation strategies using Cisco IOS gateways. Additionally, you learn how to influence path selection. This chapter then concludes with a discussion of the Class of Restriction (COR) feature, and you learn how to implement COR on Cisco IOS gateways to specify calling privileges.

Chapter 8, "Configuring H.323 Gatekeepers": This chapter describes the function of a Cisco IOS gatekeeper. Also, you learn how to configure a gatekeeper for functions such as registration, address resolution, call routing, and call admission control (CAC).

Chapter 9, "Establishing a Connection with an Internet Telephony Service Provider": This chapter describes Cisco Unified Border Element (Cisco UBE) functions and features. You learn how a Cisco UBE is used in current enterprise environments and how to implement a Cisco UBE router to provide protocol interworking.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introducing Voice over IP Networks 3

VoIP Fundamentals 3

 Cisco Unified Communications Architecture 3

 VoIP Overview 4

 Components of a VoIP Network 6

 VoIP Functions 7

 VoIP Signaling Protocols 9

 The H.323 Umbrella 9


 Session Initiation Protocol 12

 Skinny Client Control Protocol 12

 Comparing VoIP Signaling Protocols 12

 VoIP Service Considerations 15

 Media Transmission Protocols 16

 Real-Time Transport Protocol 16

 RTP Control Protocol 17

 Compressed RTP 18

 Secure RTP 20

Introducing VoIP Gateways 21

 Understanding Gateways 21

 Modern Gateway Hardware Platforms 24

 Well-Known and Widely Used Enterprise Models 27

 Standalone Voice Gateways 30

 Summary of Voice Gateways 34

 IP Telephony Deployment Models 36

Summary 50

Chapter Review Questions 51

Chapter 2 Considering VoIP Design Elements 55

VoIP Fundamentals 55

 IP Networking and Audio Clarity 55

 Audio Quality Measurement 61

 VoIP and QoS 63

 Transporting Modulated Data over IP Networks 66

 Understanding Fax/Modem Pass-Through, Relay, and Store and Forward 67

 Modem Relay 71

 Gateway Signaling Protocols and Fax Pass-Through and Relay 74

 DTMF Support 82

Processing Voice Packets with Codecs and DSPs 84

 Codecs 85

 Impact of Voice Samples and Packet Size on Bandwidth 87

 Data Link Overhead 88

 Security and Tunneling Overhead 88

 Calculating the Total Bandwidth for a VoIP Call 88

 Effects of Voice Activity Detection on Bandwidth 90

 DSP 91

 Codec Complexity 95

 DSP Requirements for Media Resources 98

 Configuring Conferencing and Transcoding on Voice Gateways 107

 Cisco IOS Configuration Commands for Enhanced Media

 Resources 114

 Verifying Media Resources 119

Summary 120

Chapter Review Questions 121


Chapter 3 Routing Calls over Analog Voice Ports 125

Introducing Analog Voice Applications on Cisco IOS Routers 125

 Local Calls 125

 On-Net Calls 126

 PLAR Calls 127

 PBX-to-PBX Calls 128

 Intercluster Trunk Calls 129

 Summarizing Examples of Voice Port Applications 131

Introducing Analog Voice Ports on Cisco IOS Routers 132

 Voice Ports 132

 Analog Voice Ports 133

 Configuring Analog Voice Ports 144

 Trunks 150

 Centralized Automated Message Accounting 154

 Direct Inward Dial 157

 Timers and Timing 159

 Verifying Voice Ports 160

Introducing Dial Peers 164

 Understanding Call Legs 164

 Understanding Dial Peers 165

 Configuring POTS Dial Peers 167

 Configuring VoIP Dial Peers 169

 Configuring Destination Pattern Options 172

 Matching Inbound Dial Peers 175

 Characteristics of the Default Dial Peer 177

 Matching Outbound Dial Peers 179

Summary 180

Chapter Review Questions 181


Chapter 4 Performing Call Signaling over Digital Voice Ports 185

Introducing Digital Voice Ports 185

 Digital Trunks 186

 T1 CAS 188

 E1 R2 CAS 189

 ISDN 191

 ISDN Signaling 195

 Configuring a T1 CAS Trunk 208

 Configuring an E1 R2 Trunk 218

 Configuring an ISDN Trunk 220

 Verifying Digital Voice Ports 225

Using QSIG for Digital Signaling 232

 QSIG Overview 232

 Configuring QSIG Support 236

 Verifying QSIG Trunks 239

Summary 242

Chapter Review Questions 243


Chapter 5 Examining VoIP Gateways and Gateway Control Protocols 247

Configuring H.323 247

 H.323 Gateway Overview 247

 Why H.323 250

 H.323 Network Components 253

 H.323 Call Establishment and Maintenance 258

 H.323 Call Flows 259

 H.323 Multipoint Conferences 261

 Configuring H.323 Gateways 263

 Verifying an H.323 Gateway 274

Implementing MGCP Gateways 275

 MGCP Overview 275

 Why MGCP 276

 MGCP Architecture 277

 Basic MGCP Concepts 280

 MGCP Call Flows 283

 Configuring MGCP Gateways 285

 Verifying MGCP 290

Implementing SIP Gateways 293

 SIP Overview 294

 Why SIP 296

 SIP Architecture 297

 SIP Call Flow 299

 SIP Addressing 302

 SIP DTMF Considerations 304

 Configuring SIP 305

 Verifying SIP Gateways 309

Summary 315

Chapter Review Questions 316


Chapter 6 Identifying Dial Plan Characteristics 321

Introducing Dial Plans 321

 Dial Plan Overview 321

 Endpoint Addressing 324

 Call Routing and Path Selection 325

 Digit Manipulation 325

 Calling Privileges 326

 Call Coverage 326

 Scalable Dial Plans 326

 PSTN Dial Plan Requirements 328

 ISDN Dial Plan Requirements 330

 Configuring PSTN Dial Plans 331

 Verifying PSTN Dial Plans 341

Numbering Plan Fundamentals 348

 Numbering Plan Overview 348

 Numbering Plan Categories 349

 Scalable Numbering Plans 351

 Overlapping Numbering Plans 352

 Private and Public Numbering Plan Integration 353

 Enhancing and Extending an Existing Plan to Accommodate VoIP 355

 911 Services 357

 Implementing a Numbering Plan Example 359

Summary 361

Chapter Review Questions 362


Chapter 7 Configuring Advanced Dial Plans 367

Configuring Digit Manipulation 367

 Digit Manipulation 367

 Digit Collection and Consumption 370

 Digit Stripping 371

 Digit Forwarding 372

 Digit Prefixing 373

 Number Expansion 374

 Caller ID Number Manipulation 377

 Voice Translation Rules and Profiles 380

 Voice Translation Profiles Versus the dialplan-pattern Command 390

 Configuring Digit Manipulation 393

Configuring Path Selection 397

 Call Routing and Path Selection 397

 Dial Peer Matching 398

 Matching Dial Peers in a Hunt Group 404

 H.323 Dial-Peer Configuration Best Practices 405

 Path Selection Strategies 406

 Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 407

 Tail-End Hop—Off (TEHO) 409

 Configuring Site-Code Dialing and Toll-Bypass 410

 Outbound Site-Code Dialing Example 415

 Inbound Site-Code Dialing Example 416

 Configuring TEHO 417

Implementing Calling Privileges on Cisco IOS Gateways 420

 Calling Privileges 420

 Understanding COR on Cisco IOS Gateways 421

 Understanding COR for SRST and CME 426

 Configuring COR for Cisco Unified Communications Manager

 Express 427

 Configuring COR for SRST 433

 Verifying COR 434

Summary 434

Chapter Review Questions 436


Chapter 8 Configuring H.323 Gatekeepers 441

H.323 Gatekeeper Fundamentals 441

 Gatekeeper Overview 441

 Gatekeeper Hardware and Software Requirements 445

 Gatekeeper Signaling 445

 Call Flows with a Gatekeeper 464

 Zone Prefixes 468

 Technology Prefixes 469

 Gatekeeper Call Routing 471

 Directory Gatekeepers 479

 Gatekeeper Transaction Message Protocol 486

 Verifying Gatekeepers 487

Configuring H.323 Gatekeepers 489

 Gatekeeper Configuration Steps 489

 Configuring Gatekeeper Zones 493

 Configuring Zone Prefixes 494

 Configuring Technology Prefixes 495

 Configuring Gateways to Use H.323 Gatekeepers 497

 Dial-Peer Configuration 500

 Verifying Gatekeeper Functionality 502

Providing Call Admission Control with H.323 504

 Gatekeeper Zone Bandwidth Operation 504

 RAI in Gatekeeper Networks 510

Summary 515

Chapter Review Questions 516


Chapter 9 Establishing a Connection with an Internet Telephony Service

Provider 521

Introducing the Cisco Unified Border Element Gateway 521

 Cisco Unified Border Element Overview 521

 Cisco IOS Image Support for Cisco UBE Gateways 523

 Cisco UBE Gateways in Enterprise Environments 523

 Protocol Interworking on Cisco UBE Gateways 526

 Media Flows on Cisco UBE Gateways 528

 Codec Filtering on Cisco UBEs 530

RSVP-Based CAC on Cisco UBEs 530

 Cisco UBE Gateways and Gatekeeper Interworking 532

 Cisco UBE Gateway Call Flows 533

Configuring Cisco Unified Border Elements 538

 Protocol Interworking Command 538

 Configuring H.323-to-H.323 Interworking 539

 Configuring H.323-to-SIP Interworking 541

 Media Flow and Transparent Codec Commands 542

 Configuring Transparent Codec Pass-Through and Media Flow-Around 543

 Configuring Cisco UBEs and Via-Zone Gatekeepers 544

 Verifying Cisco UBEs and Via-Zone Gatekeepers 546

Summary 549

Chapter Review Questions 550


Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions 553

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