Cities and Urban Life / Edition 2 by John J. Macionis, Vincent N. Parrillo | | 9780130884169 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Cities and Urban Life / Edition 2

Cities and Urban Life / Edition 2

by John J. Macionis, Vincent N. Parrillo
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130884162

ISBN-13: 9780130884169

Pub. Date: 06/27/2000

Publisher: Pearson Education

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban

Overview

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban sociology, it also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies. Also, the authors use global cities as case studies for more relevance to students.


 

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130884169
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
06/27/2000
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
474
Product dimensions:
7.32(w) x 9.52(h) x 1.24(d)

Table of Contents


PART  I         Understanding the City


Chapter 1      Exploring the City                                                                               


Why Study the City?                                                                                                         


The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives                                                        


The City in History                                                                                                       


The Emergence of Urban Sociology                                                                          


Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                                               


Urban Geography and Ecology                                                                                   


Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                                          


The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                                              


The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities                                                         


The City in World Perspective                                                                                          


Urban Sociology and the Quality of City Life                                                               


Key Terms


 



 PART  II       History of Cities and New Trends


Chapter 2      The Origins and Development of the World’s Cities                           


Urban Origins                                                                                                                      


Archaeology: Digging the Early City                                                                        


The First Permanent Settlements                                                                                


The City Emerges                                                                                                           


The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires                                     


The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt                                                                  


The Indus Region                                                                                                         


A Glance Eastward: China                                                                                            


A Glance Westward: The Americas                                                                           


Summary: Traits of Early Cities                                                                                   


Crete and Greece                                                                                                            


Rome                                                                                                                               


Decline: The Middle Ages                                                                                          


Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities                                                                


The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities                                        



v CASE STUDY: London—The History of a WorldCity                                          


Beginnings: 55 b.c.e–1066 c.e.                                                                                   


The Medieval City: 1066–1550                                                                                     


The World City Emerges: 1550–1800                                                                         


Industrialization and Colonization: 1800–1900                                                         


The Modern Era: 1900 to the Present                                                                         


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                          


Key Terms


 


Chapter 3      The Development of North American Cities                                         


The Colonial Era: 1600–1800                                                                                             


Colonial City Characteristics                                                                                       


The City-Instigated Revolutionary War                                                                    


Growth and Expansion: 1800–1870                                                                                  


The Beginnings of Industrialization                                                                          


Urban–Rural/North–South Tensions                                                                        


The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870–1950                                                                   


Technological Advance                                                                                              


Suburbs and the Gilded Age


 


The Great Migration                                                                                                     


Politics and Problems                                                                                                    


The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis                                                               


The North American City Today: 1950 to the Present                                                 


Decentralization                                                                                                             


The Sunbelt Expansion                                                                                                


The Coming of the Postindustrial City                                                                           


Deterioration and Regeneration                                                                                  


The Future                                                                                                                     


The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring                                                           



v CASE STUDY: New York—The “Big Apple”                                                         


The Colonial Era                                                                                                             


Growth and Expansion                                                                                                 


The Great Metropolis Emerges                                                                                   


New York Today                                                                                                           


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


Chapter 4      Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century                                 


Urban and Suburban Sprawl                                                                                            


What Is Sprawl?                                                                                                             


Why Do We Have Sprawl?                                                                                         


Where Does Sprawl Occur?                                                                                        


The Problems of Sprawl                                                                                                


Solutions to Sprawl                                                                                                      


Exurbs


The New Cities                                                                                                                   


Characteristics and Commonalities                                                                             


Types of Edge Cities                                                                                                    


Evolving Middle-Class Centers                                                                                  


Three Edge City Variations                                                                                          


Gated Communities                                                                                                            


Types of Gated Communities                                                                                      


A Sense of Community                                                                                                 


Common-Interest Developments (CIDs)                                                                        



v CASE STUDY: Portland, Oregon                                                                              


The Physical Setting                                                                                                     


History                                                                                                                            


Urban Decline and the Planners’ Response to Sprawl                                           


Portland Today                                                                                                              


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 



 PART  III      Disciplinary Perspectives


Chapter 5      Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements                               


The European Tradition: 1846–1921                                                                                


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization                           


Ferdinand Tönnies: From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft                                        


Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity                                              


Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis                                                   


Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities                               


The European Tradition: An Evaluation                                                                   


Urban Sociology in North America: 1915–1970                                                              


Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago                                       


Louis Wirth and Urban Theory                                                                                  


Herbert Gans and the Urban Mosaic


 


Wirth and Gans: A Comparison


 


The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities                           


Tolerance in the City                                                                                                     


Impersonality in the City                                                                                             


Density and Urban Pathology                                                                                    


Urban Malaise                                                                                                                


The New Urban Sociology                                                                                          


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


Chapter 6      Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                            


The Physical Environment                                                                                                


Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City                                                                          


Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps                                                                  


The Social Environment: Gesellschaft                                                                            


The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step                                                                         


A World of Strangers                                                                                                   


Class, Race, and the Urban Experience                                                                     


The City as Gesellschaft: A Reassessment                                                              


The Social Environment: Gemeinschaft                                                                           


Urban Networks                                                                                                            


Identifying with the City                                                                                              


The City as Gemeinschaft: A Reassessment                                                            


The Texture of the City                                                                             ;                         


Humanizing the City                                                                                                          


Summary                                                                                                                               


Conclusion                                                                                                                          


Key Terms


 


Chapter 7      Geography and Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space              


Urban Geography                                                                                                               


The Location of Cities                                                                                                  


Why Cities Are Where They Are                                                                               


The Shape of the City                                                                                                        


The Radiocentric City                                                                                                  


The Gridiron City                                                                                                           


Urban Ecology: The Chicago School                                                                              


The Ecological Theory of Urban Development                                                       


The Concentric Zone Hypothesis                                                                              


Criticisms of the Chicago School                                                                                


Urban Ecology: Other Theories                                                                                       


The Sector Theory                                                                                                        


The Multiple Nuclei Theory                                                                                         


Social Area Analysis                                                                                                    


Factorial Ecology                                                                                                           


The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism                                                              


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


Chapter 8      Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                    


The City and the Countryside                                                                                          


Interdependencies                                                                                                         


Urban Dominance                                                                                                         


The City and Civilization                                                                                                   


Oswald Spengler: The “Soul” of the City                                                                  


Lewis Mumford: The City as the Center of Civilization                                          


 


Daniel J. Monti: The Civic Culture of the City


 


The City and Societal Culture



v CASE STUDY: Ming Peking                                                                                      


Physical Structure                                                                                                          


Symbolism                                                                                                                      



v CASE STUDY: Hellenic Athens                                                                                 


The Preclassical Period                                                                                                 


The Golden Age                                                                                                            


Behind the Glory                                                                                                           


Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison                                                                       


The Culture of Capitalism and the City                                                                           


The Capitalist City                                                                                                        


The Industrial Revolution                                                                                            


Urban Life as Economics                                                                                             


Assets and Debits                                                                                                        



v CASE STUDY: Communist Beijing                                                                           


The Emergence of Modern Beijing                                                                            


Urban Life as Politics                                                                                                   


The Difficulties of Urban Life                                                                                      


Economic Reform                                                                                                          


A Rising Consumerism                                                                                                


Summary                                                                                                                               


Conclusion                                                                                                                          


Key Terms


 


Chapter 9      The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                             


Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective                                                             


Central Place Theory                                                                                                    


The General Pattern of Land Use                                                                               


Criticisms of the Basic Theory                                                                                     


Political Economy: The “New” Perspective                                                                   


Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities                                                       


Urban Areas as Themed Environments


 


David Harvey: The Baltimore Study                                                                          


Manuel Castells: Updating Marx                                                                                 


Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy                              


Horizontal Integration                                                                                             


John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines                                


The Global Economy                                                                                                          


Deindustrialization


Economic Restructuring            


 


A World System                                                                                                           


Urban Political Economy: Four Principles                                                                       


The Urbanization of Poverty                                                                                            


The Developing World                                                                                                


The Developed World                                                                                                  


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                          


Key Terms


 



 PART  IV      The STRUCTURE of the City


Chapter 10    Stratification and Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles           


Social Stratification


Social Class Distinctions


Income Distribution Nationwide


Incomes Within and Outside Cities


Poverty Nationwide


Poverty Within and Outside Cities


A Cautionary Note


Urban Social Class Diversity


Upper-Class Urban Neighborhoods


Middle-Class Urban Neighborhoods


Working-Class Urban Neighborhoods


Mixed-Income Urban Neighborhoods


Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods


The Homeless


Suburban Social Class Diversity


Upper-Income Suburbs


Middle-Income Suburbs


Working-Class Suburbs


Suburban Cosmopolitan Centers


Minority Suburbs


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


Chapter 11    Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity                                     


Cities and Immigrants                                                                                                        


Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity                                                                          


Ethnic Change                                                                                                               


Racial and Ethnic Minorities                                                                                             


African Americans                                                                                                        


Asian Americans                                                                                                          


Hispanic Americans                                                                                                      


Muslim Americans


 


Native Americans                                                                                                         


Women and Urban Life                                                                                                     


Work                                                                                                                                


Urban Space                                                                                                                  


The Public Sphere                                                                                                          



v CASE STUDY: Chicago, “City of the Big Shoulders”                                          


Early Chicago                                                                                                                


The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago                                                                  


Jane Addams and Hull House                                                                                    


Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century                                                                   


The Postwar Period                                                                                                      


Chicago Today                                                                                                               


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


Chapter 12    Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems                   


Housing: A Place to Live                                                                                                  


Adequate Housing: Who Has It?                                                                               


Housing Problems: A Brief History                                                                           


Public Housing                                                                                                              


Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City                                                  


The Inner City Today: A Revival?                                                                              


The New Urbanism                                                                                                       


Education: The Urban Challenge                                                                                     


Meeting the “No Child Left Behind” Challenge


Magnet Schools                                                                                                             


School Vouchers                                                                                                           


Charter Schools                                                                                       &nb sp;                      


Crime: Perception and Reality                                                                                          


Public Perception of Crime                                                                                          


Explaining High-Crime Areas                                                                                       


Effects of Crime on Everyday Life                                                                              


What Is the Solution?                                                                                                  


Summary                                                                                                                               


Conclusion                                                                                                                          


Key Terms


 



 PART  V       Global Urbanization


Chapter 13    Cities in the Developing World                                                           


Historical Context                                                                                                                


Latin American Cities                                                                                                   


African Cities                                                                                                                  


Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                   


Asian Cities                                                                                                                   


Common Legacies                                                                                                          


The Modern Era                                                                                                                 


Latin American Cities                                                                                                   


African Cities                                                                                                                 


Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                   


Asian Cities                                                                                                                    


Common Problems                                                                                                        


Summary: World Urbanization in Perspective                                                               


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 



 PART  VI      The Planning and Evaluation of Cities


Chapter 14    Planning the Urban Environment                                                        


Visions                                                                                                                                  


City Planning in World History                                                                                       


Why Plan?                                                                                                                     


Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800–1900                                                                  


The “City Beautiful” Movement                                                                                


“Till We Have Built Jerusalem”: The New Towns Movement                                    


A Socialist–Feminist New Town                                                                                


Later New Towns in Great Britain                                                                               


New Towns in Western Europe, Australia, and Brazil                                            


New Towns in the United States                                                                                


Have They Worked? Criticisms of New Towns                                                       


Utopia Unlimited: Architectural Visions                                                                          


Le Corbusier: The Radiant City                                                                                   


Frank Lloyd Wright: Broadacre City                                                                          


Paolo Soleri: The Arcology                                                                                         


Utopia’s Limitations: A Critique                                                                                 


Meanwhile . . . Downtown: More Focused Urban Planning                                       


Sidewalks, Neighborhoods, and Local Initiative                                                     


Open Spaces: Squares, Parks, and Architecture                                                      


Rouse Revisited: The Middle Ground                                                                        


The Realities of Urban Planning                                                                                      


Economics and Politics                                                                                                


The Difference That Values Make                                                                              



v CASE STUDY: Toronto, Ontario                                                                               


The Physical Setting                                                                                                    


History                                                                                                                             


Creation of a Metropolitan Government                                                                   


Two Phases of Urban Planning                                                                                  


Toronto Today                                                                                                               


Summary                                                                                                                              


Conclusion                                                                                                                           


Key Terms


 


References                                                                                                              


Photo Credits                                                                                                          

Index

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