Cities and Urban Life / Edition 3

Cities and Urban Life / Edition 3

by John Macionis, Vincent Parrillo
     
 

ISBN-10: 013111395X

ISBN-13: 9780131113954

Pub. Date: 06/19/2003

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong

Overview

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban sociology, it also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies. Also, the authors use global cities as case studies for more relevance to students.

 

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131113954
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
06/19/2003
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
512
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

PART  I         Understanding the City

Chapter 1      Exploring the City                                                                               

Why Study the City?                                                                                                         

The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives                                                        

The City in History                                                                                                       

The Emergence of Urban Sociology                                                                          

Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                                               

Urban Geography and Ecology                                                                                  

Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                                          

The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                                               

The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities                                                         

The City in World Perspective                                                                                         

Urban Sociology and the Quality of City Life                                                                

Key Terms

 

 PART  II       History of Cities and New Trends

Chapter 2      The Origins and Development of the World’s Cities                           

Urban Origins                                                                                                                     

Archaeology: Digging the Early City                                                                        

The First Permanent Settlements                                                                                

The City Emerges                                                                                                           

The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires                                     

The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt                                                                  

The Indus Region                                                                                                         

A Glance Eastward: China                                                                                            

A Glance Westward: The Americas                                                                           

Summary: Traits of Early Cities                                                                                   

Crete and Greece                                                                                                           

Rome                                                                                                                               

Decline: The Middle Ages                                                                                           

Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities                                                               

The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities                                        

v CASE STUDY: London—The History of a WorldCity                                           

Beginnings: 55 b.c.e–1066 c.e.                                                                                   

The Medieval City: 1066–1550                                                                                    

The World City Emerges: 1550–1800                                                                          

Industrialization and Colonization: 1800–1900                                                         

The Modern Era: 1900 to the Present                                                                        

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 3      The Development of North American Cities                                        

The Colonial Era: 1600–1800                                                                                             

Colonial City Characteristics                                                                                       

The City-Instigated Revolutionary War                                                                    

Growth and Expansion: 1800–1870                                                                                  

The Beginnings of Industrialization                                                                          

Urban–Rural/North–South Tensions                                                                        

The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870–1950                                                                  

Technological Advance                                                                                              

Suburbs and the Gilded Age

 

The Great Migration                                                                                                      

Politics and Problems                                                                                                   

The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis                                                               

The North American City Today: 1950 to the Present                                                  

Decentralization                                                                                                            

The Sunbelt Expansion                                                                                                

The Coming of the Postindustrial City                                                                            

Deterioration and Regeneration                                                                                 

The Future                                                                                                                     

The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring                                                           

v CASE STUDY: New York—The "Big Apple"                                                         

The Colonial Era                                                                                                             

Growth and Expansion                                                                                                 

The Great Metropolis Emerges                                                                                   

New York Today                                                                                                            

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 4      Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century                                 

Urban and Suburban Sprawl                                                                                            

What Is Sprawl?                                                                                                             

Why Do We Have Sprawl?                                                                                         

Where Does Sprawl Occur?                                                                                         

The Problems of Sprawl                                                                                               

Solutions to Sprawl                                                                                                      

Exurbs

The New Cities                                                                                                                    

Characteristics and Commonalities                                                                            

Types of Edge Cities                                                                                                    

Evolving Middle-Class Centers                                                                                  

Three Edge City Variations                                                                                         

Gated Communities                                                                                                             

Types of Gated Communities                                                                                      

A Sense of Community                                                                                                

Common-Interest Developments (CIDs)                                                                         

v CASE STUDY: Portland, Oregon                                                                              

The Physical Setting                                                                                                     

History                                                                                                                            

Urban Decline and the Planners’ Response to Sprawl                                           

Portland Today                                                                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

 PART  III      Disciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 5      Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements                               

The European Tradition: 1846–1921                                                                                

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization                           

Ferdinand Tönnies: From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft                                       

Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity                                              

Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis                                                   

Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities                                

The European Tradition: An Evaluation                                                                   

Urban Sociology in North America: 1915–1970                                                             

Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago                                       

Louis Wirth and Urban Theory                                                                                   

Herbert Gans and the Urban Mosaic

 

Wirth and Gans: A Comparison

 

The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities                           

Tolerance in the City                                                                                                    

Impersonality in the City                                                                                              

Density and Urban Pathology                                                                                    

Urban Malaise                                                                                                                

The New Urban Sociology                                                                                          

Summary                 & nbsp;                                                                                                            

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 6      Social Psychology: The Urban Experience                                            

The Physical Environment                                                                                                 

Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City                                                                          

Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps                                                                  

The Social Environment: Gesellschaft                                                                            

The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step                                                                        

A World of Strangers                                                                                                   

Class, Race, and the Urban Experience                                                                     

The City as Gesellschaft: A Reassessment                                                              

The Social Environment: Gemeinschaft                                                                          

Urban Networks                                                                                                             

Identifying with the City                                                                                              

The City as Gemeinschaft: A Reassessment                                                            

The Texture of the City                                                                                                      

Humanizing the City                                                                                                          

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 7      Geography and Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space              

Urban Geography                                                                                                                

The Location of Cities                                                                                                  

Why Cities Are Where They Are                                                                              

The Shape of the City                                                                                                         

The Radiocentric City                                                                                                  

The Gridiron City                                                                                                           

Urban Ecology: The Chicago School                                                                              

The Ecological Theory of Urban Development                                                       

The Concentric Zone Hypothesis                                                                              

Criticisms of the Chicago School                                                                               

Urban Ecology: Other Theories                                                                                       

The Sector Theory                                                                                                         

The Multiple Nuclei Theory                                                                                        

Social Area Analysis                                                                                                    

Factorial Ecology                                                                                                           

The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 8      Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture                                    

The City and the Countryside                                                                                           

Interdependencies                                                                                                        

Urban Dominance                                                                                                         

The City and Civilization                                                                                                    

Oswald Spengler: The "Soul" of the City                                                                 

Lewis Mumford: The City as the Center of Civilization                                          

 

Daniel J. Monti: The Civic Culture of the City

 

The City and Societal Culture

v CASE STUDY: Ming Peking                                                                                      

Physical Structure                                                                                                         

Symbolism                                                                                                                      

v CASE STUDY: Hellenic Athens                                                                                 

The Preclassical Period                                                                                                

The Golden Age                                                                                                            

Behind the Glory                                                                                                            

Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison                                                                      

The Culture of Capitalism and the City                                                                           

The Capitalist City                                                                                                         

The Industrial Revolution                                                                                           

Urban Life as Economics                                                                                             

Assets and Debits                                                                                                        

v CASE STUDY: Communist Beijing                                                                          

The Emergence of Modern Beijing                                                                             

Urban Life as Politics                                                                                                   

The Difficulties of Urban Life                                                                                     

Economic Reform                                                                                                           

A Rising Consumerism                                                                                                

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 9      The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism                             

Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective                                                            

Central Place Theory                                                                                                    

The General Pattern of Land Use                                                                               

Criticisms of the Basic Theory                                                                                    

Political Economy: The "New" Perspective                                                                   

Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities                                                       

Urban Areas as Themed Environments

 

David Harvey: The Baltimore Study                                                                          

Manuel Castells: Updating Marx                                                                                

Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy                              

Horizontal Integration                                                                                              

John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines                                

The Global Economy                                                                                                         

Deindustrialization

Economic Restructuring            

 

A World System                                                                                                            

Urban Political Economy: Four Principles                                                                      

The Urbanization of Poverty                                                                                             

The Developing World                                                                                                

The Developed World                                                                                                 

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART   IV      The STRUCTURE of the City

Chapter 10    Stratification and Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles           

Social Stratification

Social Class Distinctions

Income Distribution Nationwide

Incomes Within and Outside Cities

Poverty Nationwide

Poverty Within and Outside Cities

A Cautionary Note

Urban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Middle-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Working-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Mixed-Income Urban Neighborhoods

Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

The Homeless

Suburban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Income Suburbs

Middle-Income Suburbs

Working-Class Suburbs

Suburban Cosmopolitan Centers

Minority Suburbs

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

Chapter 11    Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity                                     

Cities and Immigrants                                                                                                         

Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity                                                                          

Ethnic Change                                                                                                               

Racial and Ethnic Minorities                                                                                            

African Americans                                                                                                        

Asian Americans                                                                                                           

Hispanic Americans                                                                                                     

Muslim Americans

 

Native Americans                                                                                                          

Women and Urban Life                                                                                                     

Work                                                                                                                               

Urban Space                                                                                                                  

The Public Sphere                                                                                                         

v CASE STUDY: Chicago, "City of the Big Shoulders"                                          

Early Chicago                                                                                                                

The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago                                                                  

Jane Addams and Hull House                                                                                    

Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century                                                                   

The Postwar Period                                                                                                      

Chicago Today                                                                                                              

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

Chapter 12    Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems                   

Housing: A Place to Live                                                                                                   

Adequate Housing: Who Has It?                                                                              

Housing Problems: A Brief History                                                                           

Public Housing                                                                                                               

Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City                                                  

The Inner City Today: A Revival?                                                                             

The New Urbanism                                                                                                        

Education: The Urban Challenge                                                                                     

Meeting the "No Child Left Behind" Challenge

Magnet Schools                                                                                                            

School Vouchers                                                                                                            

Charter Schools                                                                                                             

Crime: Perception and Reality                                                                                           

Public Perception of Crime                                                                                          

Explaining High-Crime Areas                                                                                      

Effects of Crime on Everyday Life                                                                               

What Is the Solution?                                                                                                  

Summary                                                                                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART  V       Global Urbanization

Chapter 13    Cities in the Developing World                                                            

Historical Context                                                                                                               

Latin American Cities                                                                                                   

African Cities                                                                                                                  

Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                   

Asian Cities                                                                                                                    

Common Legacies                                                                                                         

The Modern Era                                                                                                                  

Latin American Cities                                                                                                   

African Cities                                                                                                                 

Middle Eastern Cities                                                                                                    

Asian Cities                                                                                                                   

Common Problems                                                                                                         

Summary: World Urbanization in Perspective                                                               

Conclusion                                                                                                                          

Key Terms

 

 PART  VI      The Planning and Evaluation of Cities

Chapter 14    Planning the Urban Environment                                                        

Visions                                                                                                                                 

City Planning in World History                                                                                       

Why Plan?                                                                                                                     

Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800–1900                                                                  

The "City Beautiful" Movement                                                                                

"Till We Have Built Jerusalem": The New Towns Movement                                    

A Socialist–Feminist New Town                                                                                

Later New Towns in Great Britain                                                                              

New Towns in Western Europe, Australia, and Brazil                                            

New Towns in the United States                                                                                

Have They Worked? Criticisms of New Towns                                                        

Utopia Unlimited: Architectural Visions                                                                         

Le Corbusier: The Radiant City                                                                                   

Frank Lloyd Wright: Broadacre City                                                                           

Paolo Soleri: The Arcology                                                                                         

Utopia’s Limitations: A Critique                                                                                 

Meanwhile . . . Downtown: More Focused Urban Planning                                       

Sidewalks, Neighborhoods, and Local Initiative                                                     

Open Spaces: Squares, Parks, and Architecture                                                      

Rouse Revisited: The Middle Ground                                                                       

The Realities of Urban Planning                                                                                       

Economics and Politics                                                                                                

The Difference That Values Make                                                                             

v CASE STUDY: Toronto, Ontario                                                                               

The Physical Setting                                                                                                    

History                                                                                                                             

Creation of a Metropolitan Government                                                                   

Two Phases of Urban Planning                                                                                  

Toronto Today                                                                                                               

Summary                                                                                                                              

Conclusion                                                                                                                           

Key Terms

 

References                                                                                                              

Photo Credits                                                                                                           

Index

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