Civil War and Reconstruction


Long considered the standard text in the field, The Civil War and Reconstruction—originally written by James G. Randall and revised by David Donald—is now available in a thoroughly revised new edition prepared by David Donald, Jean H. Baker, and Michael F. Holt.

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Long considered the standard text in the field, The Civil War and Reconstruction—originally written by James G. Randall and revised by David Donald—is now available in a thoroughly revised new edition prepared by David Donald, Jean H. Baker, and Michael F. Holt.

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Editorial Reviews

This basic text of Civil War and Reconstruction history examines both the standard military details, as well as the social, cultural, economic and political history of the period. Some space is reserved for discussion of women and the family, slavery and the African-American experience, and the experiences of the foot soldiers and the day to day challenges of fighting the war. Reconstruction is examined as a national, rather than sectional, problem, with parallel changes in the North and South. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393974270
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 12/28/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 781
  • Sales rank: 832,167
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Jean Harvey Baker is the author of many books on nineteenth-century American history. She is a professor of history at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland.

David Herbert Donald is Charles Warren Professor of American History Emeritus at Harvard University and the author of two Pulitzer Prize-winning works, including the acclaimed biography Lincoln.

Michael F. Holt is Langbourne M. Williams Professor of American History at the University of Virginia and the author, most recently, of The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party.

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Table of Contents

List of Maps XI
Preface XIII
Chapter 1 A Modernizing Nation, 1840-1860 1
Expansion in Size and Numbers 1
Reactions to Immigration 5
Changes in Agriculture 6
The Modernization of Transportation and Communication 9
Changes in Industry 10
A Changing Social Structure 12
The Working Class 13
The Growth of Cities 14
Changes in Education 16
The Spirit of the Age 18
Antebellum Culture 23
Chapter 2 The Antebellum South 27
Sectional Similarities 27
Sectional Differences 30
Southern Life and Society 35
Life in the "Big House" 42
The Development of "Southernism" 45
Chapter 3 Slavery, 1830-1860 50
Past Studies of Slavery 50
Early Attitudes Toward Slavery 51
The Slave Trade 52
The Development of Slavery in the South 55
Free Blacks 58
The Distribution and Concentration of Slaves 60
Slave Management 62
Slave Life and Culture 63
Slave Resistance 67
Slavery as a Regional Economic System 71
Chapter 4 Sectionalism Politicized, 1848-1857 74
Wedges of Separation 74
The Impact of Western Expansion 77
The Compromise of 1850 79
Pierce, Douglas, and The Kansas-Nebraska Act 85
New Parties 90
Sectionalism in Kansas 91
The Election of 1856 96
Chapter 5 A House Dividing, 1857-1860 99
Radical Expressions of Sectionalism 100
Slavery and the Supreme Court 101
Kansas 107
The Lincoln-Douglas Debate 109
John Brown's Raid 113
The Presidential Contest of 1860 116
Chapter 6 The Secession Winter 125
The Secession of the Lower South 126
The Reaction of the Buchanan Administration 132
Congress and the Secession Crisis 134
The Washington Peace Conference 137
Buchanan Stiffens 139
The Formation of the Confederacy 140
Chapter 7 Lincoln, the Upper South, and the Sumter Crisis 149
Lincoln Takes Office 150
Reactions to Lincoln's Inaugural 152
Reluctant Confederates 154
Controversy over the Forts 156
Reaction in The Upper South to War Measures 163
Effects of the Mobilization Orders in the North 166
Chapter 8 The Border States 168
Kentucky's Attempted Neutrality 169
Maryland's Contested Unionism 172
Delaware's Unquestioned Allegiance 175
Violence in Missouri 176
West Virginia's Secession from the Confederacy 179
Chapter 9 First Campaigns 183
Resources, Goals, and Military Structures 183
Early Battles: West Virginia and Bull Run 191
Early Campaigns in the West 196
Chapter 10 The Virginia Front 1861-1863 203
McClellan in Charge 203
The Peninsular Campaign 207
Robert E. Lee 210
The Seven Days' Campaign 212
Second Bull Run 215
Antietam 216
Burnside and Fredericksburg 222
Chapter 11 Union Measures and Men 225
Military Structures 225
Conscription 227
Improvised War: Initial Efforts at Supplying the Army 234
A Soldier's Life 237
The Union Command System 240
Handling Prisoners of War 242
Chapter 12 Problems of the Confederacy 247
Mobilizing the Confederate Army 247
Supplies and Resources 252
Financing the War 255
Alienation in the Confederacy 261
Opposition by the States to the Confederacy 265
Problems of Leadership 267
Chapter 13 The Union Government at War 271
Early Presidential Decisions 271
The Thirty-seventh Congress 274
Investigations by the Thirty-seventh Congress 278
An Activist Congress 281
Opposition to The Government 287
The Merryman, Vallandigham, and Milligan Cases 289
Measuring Lincoln's Actions 293
Chapter 14 Financing the War in the North 296
General Issues and Problems 296
Treasury Department Proposals for Taxes and Loans 297
Gold 303
Banks and the Currency 305
Evaluation of the Treasury Department 307
Chapter 15 The American Question Abroad 309
European Attitudes Toward the North and South 310
The Trent Affair 314
The Failure of Cotton Diplomacy 317
Crisis over Recognition 319
Confederate Warships and Rams 321
Relations with Other Nations 323
Chapter 16 Emancipation: The War Redefined 325
Initial Attitudes 325
Congress and Emancipation 329
Lincoln and Emancipation 330
Blacks and Emancipation 336
Black Soldiers 339
Emancipation by States and the Thirteenth Amendment 344
Chapter 17 The War's Middle Phase 347
Chancellorsville 348
Gettysburg 350
Early Operations in the West 357
Vicksburg 361
The Battles of Chattanooga and Chickamauga 365
Chapter 18 Military Campaigns in 1864 370
The Soldiers' Life 371
The Wilderness Campaign 376
Continuing Battles in Northern Virginia 379
Other Virginia Campaigns, May-September 1864 381
Sherman's Campaign 385
Chapter 19 The Naval War 394
Organizing The Confederate and Union Navies 395
Battles of the Ironclads 399
The Union's Coordinated Army-Navy Operations 401
Privateers and Confederate Raiders 404
Union Coastal Operations After 1862 406
Chapter 20 Northern Politics, 1861-1864 409
The Republicans 410
Opposition to Lincoln 411
The 1862 Elections 413
The Cabinet Crisis 415
The Democratic Challenge in 1863 416
Lincoln's Renomination 418
The Peace Movement 420
Further Political Challenges to Lincoln 423
The Democratic Nomination of McClellan and the 1864 Presidential Vote 424
Chapter 21 The Home Front in the North 428
Effects of Mobilization on Northern Women 428
The Northern Economy 432
The Labor Movement 437
Urban Society 438
Private and Public Assistance 440
Shaping Northern Opinion 443
Northern Newspapers During the War 445
Religion in the North 447
Chapter 22 The Collapse of the Confederacy 449
Northern Occupation of the South 450
Desertion 453
Women of the Confederacy 455
Shortages and Nationalization 459
Subversion in the Confederacy 461
Religion and the Confederate Collapse 463
Chapter 23 The End of the War 465
Military Actions in 1865 465
Epilogue 474
Chapter 24 The Challenge of Reconstruction: Legacies of the War in the North 477
Initial Postwar Attitudes in the North 479
Economic Legacies of the War in the North 482
The Northern Economy, Politics, and Reconstruction 489
The Challenge of Reconstruction 492
Chapter 25 The Challenge of Reconstruction: Legacies of the War in the South 494
Immediate Postwar Chaos 494
A Shattered Economy 496
An Incomplete Economic Recovery 498
The Reorganization of Southern Agriculture 500
Contested Meanings of Freedom: Black Aspirations Versus White Expectations 503
Toward Political Reconstruction 507
Chapter 26 Presidential Reconstruction 508
Presidential Reconstruction Under Lincoln 508
The 10 Percent Plan in Operation 512
Louisiana and the Congressional Backlash Against Lincoln 513
Presidential Reconstruction Under Andrew Johnson 518
Chapter 27 Responses to Presidential Reconstruction 524
The Southern Response to Johnson's Policies 525
Congressional Republicans Respond to Johnson's Program 528
Chapter 28 Congressional Reconstruction: The First Phase 536
The Protagonists: Radicals and Moderates 537
The Fourteenth Amendment 543
The Congressional Elections of 1866 550
Chapter 29 Congressional Reconstruction: The Second Phase, 1867-1869 556
The Military Reconstruction Acts 558
What the Military Reconstruction Act Signified 561
Grant, the Army, and Reconstruction 564
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 566
The Triumph of the Moderates 572
Chapter 30 Reconstruction in the South 577
The Republican Coalition and the Myth of Black Reconstruction 580
Republican Governance: The Constitutional Conventions 585
Republican Governance: Expansion of the Public Sphere 588
Chapter 31 The Failure of Reconstruction in the South 593
The Pattern of Southern Politics 593
The Politics of the Center, 1869-1873 597
The Politics of Polarization, 1873-1877 599
Constant White Terrorism and Fluctuating Federal Intervention 602
Chapter 32 The North, the Grant Administration, and Reconstruction 605
Grant as President 606
The Political Context of Grant's Presidency 609
The Fifteenth Amendment 610
The Enforcement Acts 612
The Liberal Republican Movement and the Border States 615
Chapter 33 The Retreat from Reconstruction 617
Liberal Republicanism and Its Consequences 617
The Supreme Court and Reconstruction 621
The Panic of 1873 and the Specter of Realignment 623
The Republicans Turn Northward 626
Realignment Averted 629
Chapter 34 The End of Reconstruction 633
The Disputed Results 634
The Electoral Commission 636
The "Compromise of 1877" 638
Consequences 642
Notes 645
Suggested Readings 716
Credits 724
Index 727
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