Civilization in the West, Primary Source Edition (with Study Card) / Edition 6

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More About This Textbook

Overview

The Primary Source Edition of Civilization in the West blends social and political history into a fascinating narrative that brings history to life. With 40 primary source documents, this edition offers an examination of all aspects of world history plus a wealth of original documents that help make the material come alive.  “Document Analysis” questions encourage readers to delve deeper into the documents and to explore how they relate to the events of the time.

 

The extensive primary source document section, complete with accompanying with questions, urges readers to think analytically about the past. Overview of the history of Western Civilization.  Readers interested in learning about the history and development of Western Civilization.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205558315
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 11/29/2006
  • Series: MyHistoryLab Series
  • Edition description: Single Volume Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 1104
  • Product dimensions: 8.80 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Added document section at the back includes:

Document 1.1 “Near Eastern Law Codes” (1300s BCE, 2000 BCE)

Document 1.2 An Egyptian Folk Tale (1986-1937 BCE)

Document 2.1 Homer, from The Iliad (c. 700 BCE)

Document 3.1 Aristotle, Excerpt on Slavery from The Politics (c. 350 BCE)

Document 3.2 Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian Wars from “Speech of Pericles” (c. 420 BCE)

Document 4.1 Plutarch, “Life of Cato the Elder” from Lives (c. 100 CE)

Document 5.1 Augustus, “The Deeds of the Divine Augustus” (14 CE)

Document 5.2 The Gospel According to Luke (40-120 CE)

Document 6.1 Benedict of Nursia, “Rule of St. Benedict” (c. 530 CE)

Document 7.1 From the Qur’an (c. 650 CE)

Document 8.1 From the Annals of the Abbey of Xanten (845-853 CE)

Document 8.2 Einhard, from The Life of Charlemagne (829-836 CE)

Document 9.1 Geoffrey de Villhardouin, from Chronicle of the Fourth Crusade (c. 1200)

Document 10.1 Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam, (1302)

Document 10.2 Dante, from “Paradiso”of Divine Comedy (1321)

Document 11.1 Niccolo Machiavelli, from The Prince (1513 CE)

Document 12.1 Christopher Columbus, “A Letter from the New World” (1492)

Document 12.2 Hernan Cortes, “Second Letter to Charles V of Spain” (1519)

Document 13.1 John Calvin, Selections from Institutes of the Christian Religion (1537)

Document 13.2 Ignatius Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, “Rules for Thinking Withthe Church” (1535)

Document 14.1 Jacques-Auguste de Thou, from Onthe Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day” (1604-08)

Document 14.2 John Hawkyns, “Report on the Spanish Armada” (1588)

Document 16.1 James VI of Scotland (later James I of England), from The True Law of Free Monarchies (1598)

Document 17.1 Galileo Galilei, “Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina” (1515)

Document 18.1 Mikhail Mikhailovich Shcherbatov, “On the Corruption of Morals in Russia” (1797)

Document 19.1 Immanuel Kant, “What Is Enlightenment?” (1784)

Document 20.1 Emmanuel, Comte de Las Cases, Selections from Memorial de Sainte-Helene (1823)

Document 21.1 Parliament of Great Britain, “Evidence of a Female Millhand to the Parliamentary Commisioners on Factory Conditions” (c. 1815)

Document 22.1 Adam Mickiewicz, from The Books of the Polish Nation (1832)

Document 22.2 Prince Metternich, “Resignation Letter to Tsar Nicholas I” (1848)

Document 23.1 Otto von Bismarck, Letter to his Wife During the Austrian War (1866)

Document 23.2 Multiple authors, Selected Reactions to Darwin’s Origin of Species (c. 1865)

Document 24.1 M.I. Pokzovskaya, “Working Conditions of Women in Factories” (1914)

Document 25.1 Prakash Tandon, from Punjabi Century 1857-1947 (1967)

Document 26.1 Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est” (1918)

Document 27.1 Josef Stalin, Speech on Soviet Industrialization (1931)

Document 28.1 Rudolf Hoess, Selections from Commandant of Auschwitz (1958)

Document 29.1 Nikita Krushchev, Speech Challenging the West to Disarm, 1960

Document 29.2 European Community Information Service, “Tomorrow Has Already Begun” 1960.

Document 30.1 A.S. Martynov et al, Selected Papers on Russia’s Economy and Environment 1991-1993, (1995)

 

Documents.

 

Maps.

  

Chronologies, Genealogies, and Figures.

 

Preface.

 

About the Authors.

 

Introduction: The Idea of Western Civilization.

 

1. The First Civilizations.

The Visual Record: ötzi's Last Meal: Life and Death in Prehistoric Europe.

Before Civilization.

The Dominance of Culture.

Social Organization, Agriculture, and Religion.

Mesopotamia : Between the Two Rivers.

The Ramparts of Uruk.

Tools: Technology and Writing.

Gods and Mortals in Mesopotamia.

Sargon and Mesopotamian Expansion.

Hammurabi and the Old Babylonian Empire.

The Gift of the Nile.

Tending the Cattle of God.

Democratization of the Afterlife.

The Egyptian Empire.

Religious and Royal Consolidation under Akhenaten.

Between Two Worlds.

The Hebrew Alternative.

A King Like All the Nations.

Exile.

Nineveh and Babylon.

The Assyrian Empire.

The New Babylonian Empire.

Persian Expansion.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: DISCOVERING THE PHARAOHS.

Documents.

The Code of Hammurabi.

A Homesick Egyptian.

The Kingdom of Israel .

2. Early Greece, 2500–500 b.c.e.

The Visual Record: Hecuba and Achilles: The Birth of Greek Civilization.

Greece in the Bronze Age to 800 b.c.e.  

Islands of Peace.

Mainland of War.

The Dark Age.

Archaic Greece , 800–500 b.c.e.

Ethnos and Polis.

Technology of Writing and Warfare.

Colonists and Tyrants.

Gender and Power.

Gods and Mortals.

Myth and Reason.

Investigation and Speculation.

Art and the Individual.

A Tale of Three Cities.

Wealthy Corinth.

Martial Sparta.

Democratic Athens.

The Coming of Persia and the End of the Archaic Age.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading .

A CLOSER LOOK: THE AGONY OF ATHLETICS.

Documents.

Hector and Andromache.

The Race of Iron.

Two Faces of Tyranny.

3. Classical and Hellenistic Greece, 500–100 b.c.e.

Alexander at Issus : The Spread of Greek Civilization.

War and Politics in the Fifth Century b.c.e.

The Persian Wars.

Thermopylae and Salamis.

The Athenian Empire.

Private and Public Life in Athens.

Pericles and Athens.

The Peloponnesian War.

Athenian Culture in the Hellenic Age.

The Examined Life.

Understanding the Past.

Athenian Drama.

Art and the Human Image.

From City-States to Macedonian Empire, 404–323 b.c.e.

Politics after the Peloponnesian War.

Philosophy and the Polis.

The Rise of Macedon.

The Empire of Alexander the Great.

The Hellenistic World.

Urban Life and Culture.

Women in Public Life.

Alexandria .

Hellenistic Literature.

Art and Architecture.

Hellenistic Philosophy.

Mathematics and Science.

Cultural Resistance.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading .

A CLOSER LOOK: TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: REPRESENTING THE BUDDHA: FROM APOLLO TO CHRISTIAN SAINT.

Documents.

The Two Faces of Athenian Democracy.

Socrates the Gadfly.

Greeks and Barbarians.

Alexander Calls a Halt.

4. Early Rome and the Roman Republic, 800–146 b.c.e.

The Visual Record: Eternal Rome : From Village to Empire.

The Western Mediterranean to 509 b.c.e.

Merchants of Baal.

The Western Greeks.

Italy ’s First Civilization.

From City to Empire, 509–146 b.c.e.

Latin Rome.

Etruscan Rome.

Rome and Italy.

Rome and the Mediterranean.

Republican Civilization.

Farmers and Soldiers.

The Roman Family.

Social Effects of Expansion.

Roman Religion.

Republican Letters.

The Crisis of Roman Virtue.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: HANNIBAL’S ELEPHANTS.

Documents.

The Twelve Tables.

Polybius Compares Rome and Carthage.

Cato’s Slaves.

5. Imperial Rome, 146 b.c.e.–192 c.e.

The Altar of Augustan Peace: The Making of the Roman Empire.

The Price of Empire, 146–121 b.c.e.

Winners and Losers.

Optimates and Populares.

The End of the Republic.

The Crisis of Government.

A Life Worth Leading.

The Augustan Age and the Pax Romana 155.

The Empire Renewed.

Augustus’s Successors.

Religions from the East.

Jewish Resistance.

The Origins of Christianity.

Geographical Tour.

A Tour of the Empire.

The Western Provinces.

The Eastern Provinces.

The Culture of Antonine Rome.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: A DAY IN THE PAX ROMANA.

Documents.

The Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus.

Cicero on Justice and Reason.

Peter Announces the Good News.

6. The Transformation of the Classical World.

The Visual Record: A Bride’s Trousseau: The Synthesis of Christianity and the Classical Tradition.

The Crisis of the Third Century.

Enrich the Army and Scorn the Rest.

An Empire on the Defensive.

The Barbarian Menace.

Roman Influence in the Barbarian World.

Diocletian, the God-Emperor.

Constantine, the Emperor of God.

The Triumph of Christianity.

Imperial Christianity.

Divinity, Humanity, and Salvation.

The Call of the Desert.

Monastic Communities.

Solitaries and Hermits.

A Parting of the Ways.

The Barbarization of the West.

The New Barbarian Kingdoms.

The Hellenization of the East.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE STAINLESS STAR OF WISDOM’S DISCIPLINE.

Documents.

Tacitus on the Germans.

Religious Toleration and Persecution.

Love in the Two Cities.

7. The Classical Legacy in the East: Byzantium and Islam.

The Visual Record: From Temple to Mosque: The Continuity of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean.

The Byzantines.

Justinian and the Creation of the Byzantine State.

Emperors and Individuals.

Families and Villages

A Foretaste of Heaven.

Iconoclasm.

The Rise of Islam.

Arabia before the Prophet.

Muhammad, Prophet of God.

The Triumph of Islam.

The Spread of Islam.

Authority and Government in Islam.

Umayyad and ‘Abbasid Caliphates.

Islamic Civilization.

The Byzantine Apogee and Decline, 1000–1453.

The Disintegration of the Empire.

The Conquests of Constantinople and Baghdad.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE IN THE SIXTH CENTURY.

Documents.

The Qur’an.

An Arab’s View of Western Medicine.

A Turkish Guest in Constantinople.

8. The West in the Early Middle Ages, 500–900.

The Visual Record: The Chapel at the Waters: The Western Empire Reborn.

The Making of the Barbarian Kingdoms, 500–750.

Italy : From Ostrogoths to Lombards.

Visigothic Spain : Intolerance and Destruction.

The Anglo-Saxons: From Pagan Conquerors to Christian Missionaries.

The Franks: An Enduring Legacy.

Living in the New Europe.

Creating the European Peasantry.

Rural Households.

Creating the European Aristocracy.

Aristocratic Lifestyle.

Governing Europe.

The Carolingian Achievement.

Charlemagne and the Renewal of the West.

The Carolingian Renaissance.

Carolingian Government.

Carolingian Art.

Geographical Tour: Europe in the Ninth Century.

England.

Scandinavia.

The Slavic World.

Muslim Spain.

After the Carolingians: From Empire to Lordships.

Disintegration of the Empire.

Emergence of France and Germany.

Cluny.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE JEWS IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES.

Documents.

Two Missionaries.

From Slave to Queen.

Charlemagne and the Arts.

9. The High Middle Ages.

The Visual Record: From the Syrian Desert to the Welsh Marshes: A Kings and His Castles.

The Countryside.

The Peasantry: Serfs and Freemen.

The Aristocracy: Warriors and Heiresses.

The Church: Saints and Monks.

Crusaders: Soldiers of God.

Medieval Towns.

Italian Cities.

Northern Towns.

The Fairs of Champagne.

Urban Intellectuals.

The Invention of the State.

The Universal States: Empire and Papacy.

The Nation-States: France and England.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: CATHEDRALS OF LIGHT.

Documents.

Visions Like a Flame.

Pope Urban II Summons a Crusade.

Saint Francis of Assisi on Humility and Poverty.

The Great Charter.

10. The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1500.

The Visual Record: Webs of Stone and Blood: European Civilization at the End of the Middle Ages.

Politics as a Family Affair.

The Struggle for Central Europe.

A Hundred Years of War.

Life and Death in the Later Middle Ages.

Dancing with Death.

The Plague of Insurrection.

Living and Dying in Medieval Towns.

The Spirit of the Later Middle Ages.

The Crisis of the Papacy.

Discerning the Spirit of God.

Heresy and Revolt.

Religious Persecution in Spain.

William of Ockham and the Spirit of Truth.

Vernacular Literature and the Individual.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

Documents.

The Black Death in Florence .

Convivencia.

A Woman Before the Inquisition.

11. The Italian Renaissance.

The Visual Record: A Civic Procession: Community Building in Renaissance Venice.

Renaissance Society.

The Urban Environment.

Production and Consumption.

The Experience of Life.

The Quality of Life.

Renaissance Art.

An Architect, a Sculptor, and a Painter.

Renaissance Style.

Michelangelo.

Renaissance Ideals.

Humanists and the Liberal Arts.

Renaissance Science.

Machiavelli and Politics.

The Politics of the Italian City-States.

The Five Powers.

Venice : A Seaborne Empire.

Florence : Spinning Cloth into Gold.

The End of Italian Hegemony, 1450–1527.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

Documents.

On the Family.

The Renaissance Man.

The Lion and the Fox.

The Siege of Constantinople.

12. The European Empires.

The Visual Record: Astride the World: The Age of Monarchies.

European Encounters.

A Passage to India.

Mundus Novus.

The Spanish Conquests.

The Legacy of the Encounters

Geographical Tour: Europe in 1500: The Age of the New Monarchies.

Boundaries of Eastern Europe.

Central Europe.

Western Europe.

The Formation of States.

Eastern Configurations.

The Western Powers.

The Dynastic Struggles.

Power and Glory.

The Italian Wars.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: ISABELLA OF CASTILE.

Documents.

A Momentous Discovery.

The Halls of Montezuma.

Last Words.

The Kingdom of France.

13. The Reform of Religion.

The Visual Record: Sola Scriptura: The Bible and the Reformation.

The Intellectual Reformation.

The Print Revolution.

Christian Humanism.

The Humanist Movement.

The Wit of Erasmus.

The Lutheran Reformation.

The Spark of Reform.

Martin Luther’s Faith.

Lutheranism.

The Spread of Lutheranism.

The Protestant Reformation.

Geneva and Calvin.

The English Reformation.

The Reformation of the Radicals.

The Catholic Reformation.

The Spiritual Revival.

Loyola’s Pilgrimage.

The Counter-Reformation.

The Empire Strikes Back.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: UTOPIA.

Documents.

A Dutch Wit.

Luther on Marriage.

The Eternal Decree.

Heavenly Vision.

14. Europe At War, 1555–1648.

The Visual Record: The Massacre of the Innocents: War and European Society.

The Crises of the Western States.

The French Wars of Religion.

One King, Two Faiths.

The World of Philip II.

The Burgundian Inheritance.

The Revolt of the Netherlands.

The Struggles in Eastern Europe.

Kings and Diets in Poland.

Muscovy ’s Time of Troubles.

The Rise of Sweden.

The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648.

Bohemia Revolts.

The War Widens.

The Long Quest for Peace.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE MONSTROUS REGIMENT OF WOMEN.

Documents.

Catholics and Huguenots.

Cannibals.

War Is Hell.

Fire and Sword.

15. The Experiences Of Life In Early Modern Europe , 1500–1650.

The Visual Record: Haymaking: Agriculture in a European Community.

Economic Life.

Rural Life.

Town Life.

Economic Change.

Social Life.

Social Constructs.

Social Structure.

Social Change.

Peasant Revolts.

Private Life.

The Family.

Communities.

Popular Beliefs.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: SEX AND THE MARRIED MAN.

Documents.

Living by One’s Wits.

The Peasants’ Revolt.

A Feminine Perspective.

The Devil’s Due.

16. The RoyalState in the Seventeenth Century.

The Visual Record: Fit for a King: The Grandeur of the European Monarchy.

The Rise of the Royal State.

Divine Kings.

The Court and the Courtiers.

The Drive to Centralize Government.

The Taxing Demands of War.

The Crises of the Royal State.

The Need to Resist.

The Right to Resist.

The English Civil War.

The English Revolutions.

The Zenith of the Royal State .

The Nature of Absolute Monarchy.

Absolutism in the East.

The Origins of French Absolutism.

Louis le Grand.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

Documents.

A Glimpse of a King.

A Short, Sharp Shock.

The Nature of Man.

A Close Shave.

17. Science and Commerce in Early Modern Europe .

The Visual Record: Rembrandt’s Lessons: Anatomy and the New Science.

The New Science

Heavenly Revolutions.

The Natural World.

Science Enthroned.

Empires of Goods.

The Marketplace of the World.

Consumption Choices.

Dutch Masters.

Mercantile Organization.

The Wars of Commerce.

The Mercantile Wars.

The Wars of Louis XIV.

The Colonial Wars.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE DUTCH TULIP MANIA OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: THE NUTMEG WARS.

Documents.

Stargazing.

The Telescope.

Descartes Experiments.

Defining Commerce.

18. The Balance of Power in Eighteenth-Century Europe .

The Visual Record: A Dashing Officer: The Rise of Militarism.

Geographical Tour: A Grand Tour of Europe in 1714.

Expansion of Western Europe.

Realignment in Eastern Europe.

The Rise of Russia.

The Reforms of Peter the Great.

Life in Rural Russia.

The Enlightened Empress Catherine.

The Two Germanies.

The Rise of Prussia.

Austria Survives.

The Politics of Power.

The Greatness of Great Britain.

The British Constitution.

Parties and Ministers.

America Revolts.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: THE BRITISH RAJ IN INDIA.

Documents.

Captain Cook Encounters the Tahitians.

A King’s-Eye View.

Military Discipline.

Unalienable Rights.

19. Culture and Society in Eighteenth-Century Europe .

The Visual Record: Happy Families: An Enlightenment Institution.

Eighteenth-Century Culture.

The Enlightenment.

The Spirit of the Enlightenment.

The Impact of the Enlightenment.

Eighteenth-Century Society.

The Nobility.

The Bourgeoisie.

The Masses.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: GIVING BIRTH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

Documents.

The All-Knowing.

The Human Condition.

The Good of All.

Love and Marriage.

20. The French Revolution And The Napoleonic Era, 1789–1815.

The Visual Record: Eighteenth-Century Revolution.

The Political and Fiscal Crisis of Eighteenth-Century France.

Crisis and Failure on the Eve of the Revolution.

Convening the Estates-General.

The Outbreak of Revolutionary Action in 1789.

Declaring Political Rights.

The Trials of Constitutional Monarchy.

Experimenting with Democracy, 1792–1799.

The Revolution of the People.

“Terror Is the Order of the Day.”

The End of the Revolution.

The Reign of Napoleon, 1799–1815.

Bonaparte Seizes Power.

Napoleon at War with the European Powers.

The First Empire and Domestic Reforms.

Decline and Fall.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE GUILLOTINE AND REVOLUTIONARY JUSTICE.

Documents.

“What Is the Third Estate?”

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen.

The Civil Code of the Code Napoléon.

21. Industrial Europe .

The Visual Record: An Iron Forge: Machinery and Industrialization.

The Traditional Economy.

Farming Families.

Rural Manufacture.

The Agricultural Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution in Britain.

Britain First.

Minerals and Metals.

Cotton Is King.

The Iron Horse.

Entrepreneurs and Managers.

The Wages of Progress.

The Industrialization of the Continent.

France : Industrialization Without Revolution.

Germany : Industrialization and Union.

The Lands That Time Forgot.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT.

Documents.

The Wealth of Britain .

The Sin of Wages.

Exploiting the Young.

The Slavery of Labor.

22. Political Upheavals and Social Transformations, 1815–1850.

The Visual Record: Potato Politics: The Plight of the Poor in European Societies.

Geographical Tour: Europe in 1815.

The Congress of Vienna.

The Alliance System.

The New Ideologies.

The New Politics of Preserving Order.

Romanticism and Change.

Reshaping State and Society.

Protest and Revolution.

Causes of Social Instability.

The Revolutions of 1830.

Reform in Great Britain.

Workers Unite.

Revolutions Across Europe , 1848–1850.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE BIRTH OF THE PRISON.

Documents.

Young Italy (1832).

The Communist Manifesto.

Flora Tristan and the Rights of Working Women.

23. StateBuilding And Social Change In Europe , 1850–1871.

The Visual Record: The Birth of the German Empire: Otto von Bismarck’s Role.

Building Nations: The Politics of Unification.

The Crimean War.

Unifying Italy.

Unifying Germany .

The United States : Civil War and Reunification.

Nationalism and Force.

Reforming European Society.

The Second Empire in France , 1852–1870.

Victorian Political Reforms.

Reforming Russia.

The Politics of Leadership.

Changing Values and the Force of New Ideas.

The Politics of Homemaking.

Realism in the Arts.

Charles Darwin and the New Science.

Karl Marx and the Science of Society.

A New Revolution?

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: A WORKING WOMAN.

Documents.

The Russian Emancipation Proclamation, 1861.

On the Origin of Species, 1859.

Mistress of the House.

24. The Crisis of European Culture, 1871–1914.

The Visual Record: Speeding to the Future: Mass Society and the Rejection of Tradition.

European Economy and the Politics of Mass Society.

Regulating Boom and Bust.

Challenging Liberal England.

Political Struggles in Germany.

Political Scandals and Mass Politics in France.

Defeating Liberalism in Austria.

Outsiders in Mass Politics.

Feminists and Politics.

The Jewish Question and Zionism.

Workers and Minorities on the Margins.

Shaping the New Consciousness.

The Authority of Science.

Establishing the Social Sciences.

The “New Woman” and the New Consciousness.

Art and the New Age.

The New Consumption.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: SIGMUND FREUD, EXPLORER OF DREAMS.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: AFRICAN ART AND EUROPEAN ARTISTS.

Documents.

“J’Accuse.”

Constance Lytton.

“Angel” or Woman?

25. Europe and the World, 1870–1914.

The Visual Record: The Politics of Mapmaking: The First Standardized Map of the World.

The European Balance of Power, 1870–1914.

Upsetting the European Balance of Power.

The Instability of the Alliance System.

The New Imperialism.

The Technology of Empire.

Motives for Empire.

The Search for Territory and Markets.

The Scramble for Africa : Diplomacy and Conflict.

Gold, Empire Building , and the Boer War.

Imperialism in Asia.

The Imperialism of the United States.

Results of a European-Dominated World.

A World Economy.

Race and Culture.

Women and Imperialism.

Ecology and Imperialism.

Critiquing Capitalism.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

Documents.

Leopold II of Belgium , Speech to an International Conference of Geographers, 12 September 1876.

Joseph Chamberlain’s Speech to the Birmingham Relief Association.

Karl Pearson and the Defense of Eugenics.

26. War and Revolution, 1914–1920.

The Visual Record: Selling the Great War.

The War Europe Expected.

Separating Friends from Foes.

Military Timetables.

Assassination at Sarajevo.

A New Kind of Warfare.

Technology and the Trenches.

The German Offensive.

War on the Eastern Front.

War on the Western Front.

War on the Periphery.

Adjusting to the Unexpected: Total War.

Mobilizing the Home Front.

Silencing Dissent.

The Russian Revolution and Allied Victory.

Revolution in Russia .

The United States Enters the Great War.

Settling the Peace.

Wilson ’s Fourteen Points.

Treaties and Territories.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE WOMEN WHO STARTED THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.

Documents.

All Quiet on the Western Front.

Dulce et Decorum Est.

War at Home.

War Communism.

27. The European Search For Stability, 1920–1939.

The Visual Record: The Hard Lessons of Inflation.

Geographical Tour: Europe after 1918.

New Nation-States, New Problems.

German Recovery.

France ’s Search for Security.

The United States in Europe.

Crisis and Collapse in a World Economy.

International Loans and Trade Barriers.

The Great Depression.

The Soviet Union ’s Separate Path.

The Soviet Regime at the End of the Civil War.

The New Economic Policy, 1921–1928.

Stalin’s Rise to Power.

The First Five-Year Plan.

The Comintern, Economic Development, and the Purges.

Women and the Family in the New Soviet State.

The Rise of Fascist Dictatorship in Italy.

Mussolini’s Italy.

Mussolini’s Plans for Empire.

Hitler and the Third Reich.

Hitler’s Rise to Power.

Nazi Goals.

Propaganda, Racism, and Culture.

Democracies in Crisis.

The Failure of the Left in France.

Muddling Through in Great Britain.

The Spanish Republic as Battleground.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE SCREAMS FROM GUERNICA.

Documents.

The Depression for Women.

The Results of the First Five-Year Plan.

The Law on the Abolition of Legal Abortion, 1936.

Adolf Hitler on “Racial Purity."

28. Global Conflagration: WORLD WAR II, 1939–1945.

The Visual Record: Precursor of War: The Annexation of Austria.

Aggression and Conquest.

Hitler’s Foreign Policy and Appeasement.

Hitler’s War, 1939–1941.

Collaboration and Resistance.

Racism and Destruction.

Enforcing Nazi Racial Policies.

The Destruction of Europe’s Jews.

Allied Victory.

The Soviet Union ’s Great Patriotic War.

The United States Enters the War.

Winning the War in Europe.

Japanese War Aims and Assumptions.

Winning the War in the Pacific.

The Fate of Allied Cooperation: 1945.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: THE ATOMIC WASTELAND.

Documents.

Manifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna, September 1943.

President Franklin Roosevelt’s Request for a Declaration of War on Japan , 8 December 1941.

Japan ’s Declaration of War on the United States and Great Britain , 8 December 1941.

“Glittering Fragments.”

29. The Cold War and Postwar Economic Recovery: 1945–1970.

The Visual Record: Europe in Ruins: Warsaw , 1946.

The Origins of the Cold War.

The World in Two Blocs.

The Nuclear Club.

Decolonization and the Cold War.

Postwar Economic Recovery in Europe , Japan , and the Soviet Union.

The Economic Challenge.

The Economic Solution: The Marshall Plan.

Western European Economic Integration.

Japan ’s Recovery.

The Soviet Path to Economic Recovery.

The Welfare State and Social Transformation.

Prosperity and Consumption in the West.

Family Strategies.

Youth Culture and Dissent.

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

THE WEST AND THE WIDER WORLD: MADE IN JAPAN .

Documents.

The Iron Curtain.

The Marshall Plan.

Report to the Twentieth Party Congress.

The Second Sex.

“Subterranean Homesick Blues.”

30. The End of the Cold War and New Global Challenges: 1970 to the Present.

The Visual Record: The Berlin Wall Comes Down.

The End of the Cold War and the Emergence of a New Europe.

The Brezhnev Doctrine and Détente.

New Directions in Soviet Politics.

Reform in Eastern Europe.

The Unification of Germany.

Russia and the New Republics.

Ethnic Conflict and Nationalism.

The Chechen Challenge.

War in the Balkans.

The West in the Global Community.

European Union and the American Superpower.

A New Working Class: Foreign Workers.

Women’s Changing Lives.

Terrorism: The “New Kind of War.”

Questions for Review.

Key Terms.

Discovering Western Civilization Online.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

A CLOSER LOOK: TELEVISIONS, COMPUTERS, AND THE MEDIA REVOLUTION.

Documents.

Career Advancement, Communist-Style.

A Woman Reporter Behind the Lines of the War in Chechnya .

The Return of Fascism?

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