Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap / Edition 1

Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap / Edition 1

by Richard Rothstein
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0807745561

ISBN-13: 9780807745564

Pub. Date: 10/07/2004

Publisher: Teachers College Press

It seems to be a common-sense argument that, if teachers know how to teach reading, or math, or any other subject, and if schools emphasize the importance of these tasks and permit no distractions, children should be able to learn regardless of their family income or skin color. But this perspective is misleading and dangerous. It ignores how social class

Overview

It seems to be a common-sense argument that, if teachers know how to teach reading, or math, or any other subject, and if schools emphasize the importance of these tasks and permit no distractions, children should be able to learn regardless of their family income or skin color. But this perspective is misleading and dangerous. It ignores how social class characteristics in a stratified society like ours influence learning in school. For nearly half a century, the association between social and economic disadvantage and the student achievement gap has been well known to economists, sociologists, and educators. Most, however, have avoided the obvious implication of this understanding, that raising the achievement of lower-class children requires that public policy address the social and economic conditions of these children's lives, not just school reform.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780807745564
Publisher:
Teachers College Press
Publication date:
10/07/2004
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
224
Sales rank:
287,527
Product dimensions:
6.12(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.56(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacesix
Introduction1
Chapter 1Social class, student achievement, and the black-white achievement gap13
The legacy of the Coleman report13
Some common misunderstandings about the gap14
Genetic influences17
Social class differences in childrearing19
Cultural influences on achievement, and black underachievement33
Health differences and school performance37
Housing and student mobility46
Social class differences between blacks and whites with similar incomes47
Does culture or social class explain the black-white achievement gap?51
Summer and after-school learning56
Chapter 2Schools that 'beat the demographic odds'61
The success of some poor children doesn't mean that poverty doesn't matter61
Dr. William Sanders and the Tennessee value-added assessment system63
The Heritage Foundation's 'no excuses' schools71
The Education Trust's 'high-flying' schools75
'90/90/90' schools, and Boston's Mather School76
Pentagon schools78
Rafe Esquith, KIPP, and affirmative action programs like AVID79
Chapter 3Standardized testing and cognitive skills85
Standardized tests' imperfect description of the gap85
Defining proficiency86
Alignment of tests, standards, and instruction90
The inaccuracy of tests that hold schools accountable for closing the gap93
Chapter 4The social class gap in non-cognitive skills95
The goals of education, including non-cognitive goals95
The anti-social score gap99
Affirmative action's evidence of leadership: Bowen-Bok and the 'four percenters'103
Persistence in school, self-confidence, and adult earnings107
Complementing school curricula with civil rights enforcement113
Testing integrity, personality, and employability115
Civic and democratic participation117
Perry Preschool, Head Start, and Project Star123
Comparing school and social reform to improve cognitive and non-cognitive skills127
Chapter 5Reforms that could help narrow the gap129
School integration, and Sen. Moynihan's call for making choices129
Income inequality133
Stable housing135
School-community clinics138
Early childhood education139
After-school programs142
Summer programs143
The dangers of false expectations, and adequacy suits144
Teacher morale146
Conclusion149
AppendixWhat employers say about graduates151
Endnotes153
Bibliography177
Acknowledgments201
About EPI204
About Teachers College205
EPI publications207

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