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Classic Experiments In Psychology

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Overview

The typical survey course in psychology has time for only limited presentation of the research on which our knowledge is based. This book presents, in more depth than textbook treatment permits, the background, conduct, and implications of a selection of classic experiments in psychology. The selection is designed to be diverse, showing that even for research in vastly different areas of study, the logic of research remains the same—as do its traps and pitfalls.

The typical survey course in psychology has time for only limited presentation of the research on which our knowledge is based. As a result, many students come away with a limited understanding of the role of experiments in psychological science. Where do experiments come from and how are they conducted? What are the pitfalls and how can we avoid them? What advantages do they have over intuition, authority, and common sense as guides to knowing and acting? What distinguishes research-based psychology from psychobabble? What have we learned from experimentation in psychology?

This book presents, in more depth than textbook treatment permits, the background, conduct, and implications of a selection of classic experiments in psychology. The selection is designed to be diverse, showing that even for research in vastly different areas of study, the logic of research remains the same—as do its traps and pitfalls. This book will broaden and deepen the understanding of experimental methods in psychological research, examining where the research questions come from, how questions can be turned into experiments, and how researchers have faced the problems presented by research in psychology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780313318214
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/1/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 380
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Meet the Author

DOUGLAS MOOK is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Virginia.

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Table of Contents

1 About experiments 3
2 A brief history of experimental psychology 17
3 Hermann von Helmholtz and the nerve impulse 39
4 Paul Broca and the speech center 43
5 Karl Lashley : brain mechanisms and learning 47
6 James Olds : reward systems in the brain 53
7 Vincent Dethier : feeding in a fly 57
8 S. P. Grossman : chemical coding in the brain 63
9 Roger Sperry and the bisected brain 67
10 Neal Miller : fear as a learnable drive 75
11 Neal Miller : conflict 81
12 David McClelland on achievement motivation 87
13 Harry Harlow : a tale of two mothers 93
14 Nikolaas Tinbergen : the study of instinct 99
15 Teitelbaum and Epstein : hunger, thirst, and the brain 105
16 Schachter and Singer : cognition and emotion 109
17 Herman and Polivy : human hunger and cognition 115
18 Walter Mischel and self-control 121
19 Edward Thorndike and the law of effect 127
20 Ivan Pavlov and classical conditioning 131
21 Wolfgang Kohler and the mentality of apes 135
22 Edward Tolman and cognitive maps 139
23 B. F. Skinner and operant conditioning 143
24 John Garcia : conditioned taste aversion 147
25 Albert Bandura : imitation and social learning 153
26 Gordon Paul : learning theory in the clinic 157
27 Martin Seligman : learned helplessness 165
28 Lepper et al. on the costs of reward 171
29 Hermann Ebbinghaus on memory 177
30 Frederic Bartlett : meaning and memory 183
31 Brenda Milner and the case of H. M. 187
32 Lloyd and Margaret Peterson : short-term forgetting 193
33 Elizabeth Loftus : leading questions and false memories 199
34 Gordon Bower on state-dependent memory 203
35 Collins and Quillian : the structure of semantic memory 209
36 F. C. Donders and reaction time 217
37 The cautionary tale of Clever Hans 221
38 A. S. Luchins on not being mindless 225
39 George Miller on the magic number seven 229
40 Festinger and Carlsmith : cognitive dissonance 235
41 Roger Shepard and mental rotation 241
42 Richard Herrnstein : concepts in pigeons 247
43 Tversky and Kahneman : the framing of decisions 251
44 Ernst Weber : the muscle sense and Weber's law 257
45 Gustav Fechner and the measurement of mind 263
46 Max Wertheimer on apparent movement 269
47 Selig Hecht and adaptation to the dark 273
48 H. K. Hartline : lateral inhibition in the retina 279
49 Georg von Bekesy : the mechanics of hearing 285
50 Jerome Bruner : motivation and perception 293
51 Gibson and Walk : the visual cliff 297
52 Lettvin et al. : what the frog's eye tells the frog's brain 301
53 Theodore Newcomb : attitude change at college 309
54 Muzafer Sheriff : prejudice and the robbers' cave 315
55 Kurt Lewin : tensions in the life space 321
56 Solomon Asch on conformity 325
57 Festinger et al. : when prophecy fails 331
58 Stanley Milgram on obedience to authority 335
59 Latane and Darley : the unresponsive bystander 341
60 Benjamin Franklin : mesmer and animal magnetism 347
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