CliffsNotes Spanish I Quick Review, 2nd Edition

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CliffsNotes Spanish I Quick Review, 2nd Edition

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Overview

  • Spelling and Pronunciation
  • Nouns and Articles
  • Replacing Nouns with Pronouns
  • Infinitive and Regular Verb Use
  • Basic Sentence Structure
  • Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense
  • Asking and Answering Questions
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs and Comparisons
  • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns
  • The Present Tense
  • The Imperfect Tense
  • Narration in the Past
  • Prepositions
  • Reflexive, Prepositional, and Demonstrative Pronouns
  • Commands
  • Negatives
  • Review Questions
  • Resource Center
  • Glossary
  • Thematic Vocabulary
  • Verb Charts
  • Idiomatic Expressions

Why CliffsNotes?

  • Go with the name you know and trust
  • Get the information you need-fast!

CliffsNotes Quick Review guides give you a clear, concise, easy-to-use review of the basics. Introducing each topic, defining key terms, and carefully walking you through sample problems, this guide helps you grasp and understand the important concepts needed to succeed.

The essentials FAST from the experts at CliffsNotes

Master the Basics – Fast

  • Complete coverage of core concepts
  • Easy topic-by-topic organization
  • Access hundreds of practice problems at CliffsNotes.com
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470878750
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Publication date: 4/19/2011
  • Edition description: Bilingual
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 350,197
  • Product dimensions: 5.20 (w) x 8.20 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Ken Stewart is a National-Board-Certified Spanish teacher at Chapel Hill High School, NC, and has taught middle school through university. He was ACTFL’s first National Language Teacher of the Year in 2005 and currently serves on the Curriculum Development and Assessment Committee to redesign the AP World Language courses and exams. He has published books with Wiley, Kaplan/Simon & Schuster, and Duke University Press as well as articles in Hispania and The Language Educator .

Jill Rodriguez has fourteen years of experience teaching Spanish and English, including preparing students to pass the AP Spanish exam. She has been honored with Teacher of the Year, Teacher with the Greatest Impact, and Outstanding Educator Awards.

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Table of Contents

Introduction ix

Why You Need This Book ix

How to Use Th is Book ix

Hundreds of Practice Questions Online!  x

Chapter 1: Spelling and Pronunciation  1

Consonants 1

Double consonants 2

Consonant sounds and spellings 2

Cognates 2

The letter c 3

The letter g 3

The letter j 4

The letter h 4

The letter d 5

The letter t 5

The letters b and v 5

Dictionary entries 6

Vowels 6

Vowel sounds and spellings6

Diphthongs 7

Stress and Accentuation 8

Chapter 2: Gender: Nouns and Articles 10

Nouns 11

Articles 11

Definite articles 11

Indefinite articles 12

Gender 12

Basic rules 12

Article and suffix changes 14

Irregularities 16

Number and Plurality 19

Plural forms of definite articles 19

Plural forms of indefinite articles 19

Plural forms of nouns 20

Plural forms and accent marks 21

Compound Nouns 22

Chapter 3: Replacing Nouns with Pronouns  24

Prounoun Use 24

Pronoun Cases25

Subject Case Pronouns 25

English subject case pronouns 25

Spanish subject case pronouns 26

Differences between English and Spanish subject case pronouns 28

Replacing nouns with subject case pronouns 29

Chapter 4: Infinitive and Regular Verb Use 31

Infinitives 31

Verbs 33

Regular Verbs in the Present Tense 34

Choosing the Correct Verb Form 37

Present Progressive 39

Chapter 5: Basic Sentence Structure 42

Sentence Structure 42

Conjunctions 43

Punctuation 44

Question marks 44

Exclamation points 45

Punctuation and numbers 45

Chapter 6: Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense  46

Common Verbs Irregular in the Present Tense 47

Common irregular verbs 47

Irregular verbs in the yo form 48

Stem-Changing Verbs in the Present Tense 54

E to ie 55

O to ue 58

E to i 61

Confusing Verbs: Determining Which Verb to Use 62

Ser or estar 62

Conocer or saber 63

Llevar, tomar, and sacar 64

Chapter 7: Asking and Answering Questions  67

Yes or No Questions 67

Interrogative Pronouns (Question Words) 69

Question Words as Subjects 72

Using the Right Pronoun to Answer a Question 74

Chapter 8: Adjectives  76

Adjective Use 76

Adjectives and gender 77

Adjectives and number 81

Adjective placement 82

Adjectives that change meaning 84

Adjective Types 85

Possessive adjectives 85

Demonstrative adjectives 87

Adjectives from Verbs 90

Chapter 9: Adverbs and Comparisons  91

Adverbs from Adjectives 91

Irregular adverb 94

Adverb Placement in a Sentence 95

Adverbs of time 95

Adverbs of manner 96

Adverbs that modify adjectives or adverbs 97

Shortened Adverbs 97

Comparisons 98

Comparisons with adjectives 98

Comparatives of equality 99

Superlatives100

Comparisons with adverbs 100

Irregular comparisons 101

Chapter 10: Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns 103

Objective Cases 103

Direct Objects and Direct Object Pronouns 104

Direct object of a sentence 104

Th e personal a 105

Direct object pronouns 105

Direct object pronoun placement 106

Common transitive verbs 108

Indirect Objects and Indirect Object Pronouns 108

Indirect object of a sentence 109

Indirect object pronouns109

Indirect object pronoun placement 110

Special verbs with indirect object pronouns 111

Double Object Sentences 114

The use of se 115

Adding two object pronouns to verbs 116

Chapter 11: The Preterite Tense 118

Regular Verbs in the Preterite Tense 118

Different Yo Forms in the Preterite Tense 121

Verbs that end in –gar 121

Verbs that end in –car 122

Verbs that end in –zar 124

I to y 125

Stem Changers in the Preterite Tense 126

Stem-changing verbs ending in –ir 126

Irregulars in the Preterite Tense 128

U-stem verbs 129

I-stem verbs 130

J-stem verbs 131

Very irregular preterite verbs 132

Preterite Tense Situations 133

Preterite Tense Indicators 134

Chapter 12: The Imperfect Tense 136

Regular Verbs in the Imperfect 136

The Three Imperfect Irregulars 140

Imperfect Situations 141

Imperfect Indicators 142

Chapter 13: Narrations in the Past 144

Verbs Th at Change Meaning in the Preterite 145

Preterite-Imperfect Formulas 147

Joining verbs with mientras 148

Joining verbs with cuando 149

Expressions of Time 150

Chapter 14: Prepositions 153

Simple Prepositions 153

Preposition: a 154

Preposition: de 157

Preposition: en 160

Preposition: con 161

Para and Por 163

Preposition: para 163

Preposition: por 165

Idiomatic expressions 168

Compound Prepositions 169

Preposition Use with Verbs 170

Verbs with prepositions 170

Verbs with prepositions in English but not Spanish 172

Verbs after prepositions 173

Chapter 15: More Pronouns: Reflexive, Prepositional, and Demonstrative 175

Reflexivity 175

Reflexive pronouns 176

Reciprocity 177

Reflexive verbs 178

Common reflexive verbs 179

Prepositional Pronouns 180

Demonstrative Pronouns 181

Chapter 16: Commands 184

Tú Commands 184

Regular affirmative tú commands 184

Irregular affirmative tú commands 185

Negative tú commands 186

Vosotros commands 187

Usted and Ustedes Commands 188

Command Forms of Verbs 189

Command Forms with Reflexive Pronouns 192

Chapter 17: Negatives 196

Negative Words and Expressions 196

Negative Sentences 198

Negatives and Other Parts of Speech 200

Pronouns 200

Adjectives 202

Conjunctions: sino and pero 202

Review Questions 204

Resource Center 211

Books 211

Internet 212

Glossary 213

Appendix A: Thematic Vocabulary 218

Animals 218

Body and Health 218

Clothing 220

Days of the Week 221

Family 221

Foods 221

Home 222

Months of the Year 224

Nature 224

Neighborhood and Buildings 224

School 225

Sports, Diversions, and Amusements 227

Travel 228

Weather and Seasons 228

Work 229

Appendix B: Verb Charts 231

The Verb Hablar 231

The Verb Comer 232

The Verb Escribir 233

The Verb Ir 234

The Verb Ser 235

The Verb Dar 236

The Verb Estar 237

The Verb Hacer 238

The Verb Poner 239

The Verb Salir 240

The Verb Ver 241

The Verb Saber 242

The Verb Caer 243

The Verb Traer 244

The Verb Pensar 246

The Verb Mentir 247

The Verb Tener 248

The Verb Venir 249

The Verb Jugar 250

The Verb Dormir 251

The Verb Pedir 252

The Verb Decir 254

The Verb Seguir 255

Appendix C: Idiomatic Expressions 257

Introduce a Topic 257

Transitions 257

State an Opinion 258

Conclusions 259

Contrasts 260

Cause and Effect 260

Location 261

Time 261

Manner and Adverbial Expressions 263

Means of Transportation 265

Other Useful Expressions 265

Index 268

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