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Cliffs TestPrep Military Flight Aptitude Tests
By Fred N. Grayson
John Wiley & SonsISBN: 0-7645-4103-X
Chapter OneVerbal Review
Measuring verbal ability-knowledge of words and reading comprehension- is one of the best ways to predict academic and vocational success, particularly for positions of leadership. The review sections that follow give you the information you need to score well on the verbal sections of the AFOQT and the ASTB tests.
Verbal analogy tests measure your ability to reason and see relationships between words.
Directions: Choose the answer that best completes the analogy developed at the beginning of each question.
1. TOOL is to DRILL as POEM is to:
A. SONG B. MACHINE C. SONNET D. BIRD E. NOVEL
2. TALK is to SHOUT as DISLIKE is to:
A. SCREAM B. DETEST C. FRIGHTEN D. CONTRIBUTE E. ADMIRE
3. CONDUCTOR is to ORCHESTRA as SHEPHERD is to:
A. FILM B. CANINE C. CONTROL D. FLOCK E. GENERAL
4. OBSTINATE is to COMPLIANT as OBLIVIOUS is to:
A. CONSCIOUS B. CAREFREE C. FORGETFUL D. INTUITIVE E. NATURAL
Answers and Explanations
1. C. An example of a kind of tool is a drill, and an example of a kind of poem is a sonnet.
2. B. To talk intensely is to shout, and todislike intensely is to detest.
3. D. The function of a conductor is to lead an orchestra, and the function of a shepherd is to lead a flock.
4. A. The opposite of obstinate is compliant, and the opposite of oblivious is conscious.
Word Knowledge and Reading Comprehension
Word Knowledge appears on both the AFOQT exam and the ASTB exam. The formats of the exams differ slightly, however. On the AFOQT exam, you are given a word and then asked to find the synonym from five choices (A-E). On the ASTB exam, three different types of questions test your vocabulary knowledge. The first type of question is a sentence with a missing word, and you are asked to choose the missing word from among four choices (A-D). The second type of question is a little more complex. You are given a brief quotation that contains a word that is used incorrectly. You are asked to select, from a choice of five words, the word that would replace the incorrect word and would correctly convey the meaning of the quotation.
Let's look at the different question types. The first question is the type you will find on the AFOQT.
A. get over B. go under C. get through D. go around E. go easily
The correct answer is D, go around. This type of question is not tricky. It requires, however, a strong vocabulary. (circum = around, vent = go). The AFOQT has a total of 25 questions of this type.
The second type of question is from the ASTB. The question consists of a sentence in which one word is omitted. Select the choice that best completes the sentence.
2. Paul was able to ____ the complainer with a look of contempt.
A. squelch B. offend C. assail D. expel
The correct answer is A. To squelch is to silence. This satisfies the meaning of the sentence.
The final type of question is also from the ASTB and is a little more complex. The following quotation contains a word that has been misused. It is not in keeping with the meaning of the quotation. You must first determine which word is incorrect, and then select, from the choices given, the word that would be more appropriate for that quotation.
3. "Even while their components vary from culture to culture, rites of adulteration convey status in a new social grouping on the participants."
A. maturity B. ceremony C. initiation D. consumption
The correct answer is C. The word adulteration is incorrect. It means to make something impure by adding a foreign substance. Initiation, which means the process of being admitted to something, fits the meaning of the sentence.
The first two types of questions really just require you to understand the vocabulary. This last section requires a little more thought on your part. You are required to first identify the word that is misused, and then substitute the correct word.
The ability tested in the Word Knowledge portion of the AFOQT and ASTB exams is your command of language-in other words-your vocabulary. Of course, by this point in your life, you might think that you have learned all the words you will ever learn or that it is impossible to improve your vocabulary. On the contrary! If you are diligent and put your mind to it, you can improve your vocabulary in several ways. The following are three ways that definitely help:
1. Read, read, read Pick up a newspaper, a magazine or a novel and make note of words you do not understand. Make a list or put them on note cards. First, try to figure out the meaning of the words by looking at the context in which they are used. Make an educated guess. If you are still not sure, look up the meaning of the words in a dictionary and write them out in a notebook or on note cards. Then try to make up your own sentences using the words.
2. Learn a new word every day or every other day. You can get into the habit of looking up a new word in the dictionary every day. Write out the word and its definition on a piece of paper. Then write out a sentence using the word. This helps you visualize it. Don't pick words that are too technical or specialized (such as medical/scientific terms or proper names). Try using this new word in conversation.
3. Words are made up, generally, of prefixes, roots and suffixes. Many prefixes and roots have a Latin or Greek origin. If you can familiarize yourself with some of these, you can arrive at the meaning of some words by breaking them down. The following section offers you some common prefixes, roots and suffixes to help you tackle words you are unfamiliar with in the Word Knowledge section.
To break down words you do not understand or to help you recognize why a word means what it means, you should become familiar with prefixes. Prefixes come at the beginning of words and can affect their meaning.
As an example, let's look at the word synonym. This word is made up of the prefix syn plus the root nym. If you know that the prefix syn means with/together or same, and that the root nym means name or word, you can conclude that the word synonym means same word. And that's what it means!
Let's look at another example. The word circumvent is made up of the prefix circum plus the root vent. If you know that the prefix circum means around, and that the root vent means go or come, you can conclude that the word circumvent means go around.
What follows is a list of common prefixes that are often found at the beginning of certain words. Following the prefix is the meaning of the prefix and a word using the prefix (with a rough definition in parentheses following the word). Try including a word of your own in the space provided for each prefix. If you cannot come up with your own word, refer to a dictionary for help.
Prefix Meaning Word (Definition) Your Example
ab- away from abnormal (away from normal) ad- to, toward adjoin (join to) a-, an- not, without apathy (without feeling) anti- against antiviolence (against violence) ambi- both ambidextrous (both hands) bene- good benign (good or harmless) circum- around circumvent (go around) con- with, together connect (come together) contra- against contradict (speak against) com- with, together communion (coming together) de- down, away descend (move down) dis- apart, not discontent (not content) e- out of, from eject (throw out) ex- out of, from exclude (leave out) hyper- over hyperactive (overactive) hypo- under hypodermic (below the skin) inter- between interconnected ( connected between) il- not illegal (not legal) in- not indiscreet (not discreet) in- into ingest (take into the body by mouth) im- not impossible (not possible) im- into imbibe (drink in) ir- not irrational (not rational) mal- bad, evil malign (speak badly of) ob- against obstruct (build against) omni- all omniscient (knows all) peri- around periscope (view around) post- after postgraduate (after graduation) pre- before precede (go before) pro- for, forward proceed (move forward) re- again, back reconvene (get together again) retro- back retrogression (step back) se- away from seduce (lead away) sub- under subhuman (below human) sur-, super- over, above supersonic (above sound) sym-, syn- together, with sympathy (feeling with or for) trans- across transatlantic (across the Atlantic)
Along with prefixes, roots are central to the meanings of words. If you familiarize yourself with some common roots, you might be able to better recognize certain words or at least get a general feel for several words. By studying the following list of roots, you will be better equipped to break down many words and make sense of them!
Following is a list of roots, their meanings, a word using the root, and a space in which you can write a brief definition in your own words.
Root Meaning Word Your Definition
ami, amic love amicable anthrop human, man anthropology arch chief or leader patriarch auto self autobiography aud sound audible brev short brief bio life biography cap take, seize capture ced yield, go intercede corp body corporal cred believe credible culp guilt culpable chron time synchronize crac, crat rule, ruler democracy dic speak, say dictate duc, duct lead deduce demo people democracy equ equal equity grad, gress step progression graph writing, printing biography ject throw inject luc light elucidate log study of geology mono one monotone man hand manual min small minority mit, miss send emit mort death mortal mut change mutate nym word or name pseudonym nov new renovate pac peace pacify pel, puls push compel pot power potent port carry portable path feeling apathy phil like, lover of philosophy quer, quis ask query scrib write manuscript sed sit sedentary sent feel sensory sequ follow sequel son sound unison spir breathe inspire tang, tact touch tangible vac empty vacant ven come, go intervene ver truth verify vert turn introvert vit life revitalize voc call evocative
Suffixes come at the end of words and usually change the part of speech (noun, adjective, adverb and so on) of words, which also subtly changes the meaning. Becoming familiar with suffixes might help you get a sense of the meaning the word is conveying, even if you are not sure of what the definition of the word is exactly.
Let's look at a word with different suffixes to see how the part of speech or the meaning can change. For example, the word sedate means to calm or relax. The following sentences contain words that are made up of the root word sedate but have different suffixes attached to the end:
The doctor prescribed a sedative [something that sedates] to calm her nerves.
The speech was delivered sedately [in a sedate manner].
The dog was under sedation [in a state of sedation] for the long trip.
Many office workers live a sedentary [relating to nonactivity] lifestylE.
As you can see, in each of the sentences, the word sedate means generally the same thing, but the part of speech changes. However, you can get a sense of how the word changes if you know what the suffix means.
What follows is a list of common suffixes that you might encounter at the ends of certain words.
Excerpted from Cliffs TestPrep Military Flight Aptitude Tests by Fred N. Grayson Excerpted by permission.
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