Climates and Societies - A Climatological Perspective: A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union / Edition 1by M. Yoshino, Manfred Domros, Annick Douguedroit, J. Paszynski
Pub. Date: 07/31/1997
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.
Table of Contents1: Introduction.- 1. Human Activities and Environmental Change: A Climatologist’s View.- 2: Climate Change and Variability.- 1. On Relationships Between Climate Variability and Change, and Societies.- 2. Climate Change in Post Glacial Period in Monsoon Asia.- 3. Approaches to Climatic Variations During the Historical Era: A Few Examples.- 4. Some Statistical Aspects of Observed Regional and Global Climate Change Within the Instrumental Period.- 5. Climate of the Future: An Evaluation of the Current Uncertainties.- 6. Impacts of the Climate Variability on Human Activities.- 3: Regional Scale Climates.- 1. Society-Climate Systems in Tropical Africa.- 2. Climate and Life in the Caribbean Basin.- 3. Climate and Societies in Southeast Asia.- 4. Climatic and Pathological Rhythms in a Humid Tropical Area, the Case of the Philippines.- 5. Possible Impact on Agriculture Due to Climatic Change and Variability in South America.- 6. Climate and Agriculture in China.- 7. The Climates of the “Polar Regions”.- 4: Local Scale Climates.- 1. Introduction to the Problems on Local Climate and Man.- 2. Interactions of Man and Climate in the Urban World The Influence of Urbanization on the Local Climate and the Influence of Urban Climate on Man.- 3. Climates of Tropical and Subtropical Cities.- 4. Air Pollution: A Local Problem Becomes a Global Problem.- 5. Agricultural Landuse and Local Climate.
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