Climatology: An Atmospheric Science / Edition 3

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Overview

Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map, Climatology explores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life—and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change.
Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry.
A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earth’s climate and weather.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321602053
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/9/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 408
  • Sales rank: 511,720
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

John Hidore is retired from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. John’s work has taken him to regions across the globe—including the Middle East, where he conducted research for a year in the Sudan, and later witnessed the breakout of civil war in Beirut, Lebanon in 1975. He has also worked and traveled in Saudi Arabia and Israel.

Richard Snow and Mary Snow are both Associate Professors of Meteorology at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, where their program focuses on the theory and study of climatology, as well as its applications to industrial and business operations. They are new to this edition of Climatology.

John E. Oliver, deceased, received a bachelor’s degree from London University and his master’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia University in New York. He taught at Columbia University and in 1973 joined the faculty at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. During his tenure at Indiana State, John served terms as Chair of the Geography-Geology Department and as the Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science. He was Professor Emeritus at the time of his death in May 2008.
John Oliver distinguished himself as the author of numerous books and articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He wrote extensively in the areas of climatology and physical geography. Among his major works is the Encyclopedia of World Climatology (2005), which he edited. John was co-founder of the journal Physical Geography and served as climatology editor of the journal from 1979-2000. In honor of his teaching, research, and university administration, he received the Distinguished Professor award from the College of Arts and Science at Indiana State University. The Climate Specialty Group in the Association of American Geographers presented him the first Lifetime Achievement Award (1998) for his many contributions to the study of climatology and to that professional organization.

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Table of Contents

Part 1. PHYSICAL AND DYNAMIC CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 1 Climatology in the World Today
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences
Climatology: A Brief History
The Content of Climatology
Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability
Data Representation
Units
The Standard Atmosphere
Atmospheric chemistry
Constant gases
The Gas Laws
Variable Gases
Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Above the Stratosphere
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 2 Energy and the Climate System
The Solar Source
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Sunspots
Energy Transfer
The Nature of Radiation
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation
Reflection
Scattering
Absorption
Transmission
The Planetary Energy Budget
The Greenhouse Effect
Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation
The Steady-State System
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 3 Atmospheric Temperatures
The Seasons
Daily Temperature Changes
Daytime Heating
Nighttime Cooling
Daily Temperature Range
Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures
Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature
Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
Latitude
Surface Properties
Aspect and Topography
Dynamic Factors
Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 4 Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes of State
The Hydrologic Cycle
Relative Humidity
Evaporation and Transpiration
Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog
Foggy Places
Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds
Cloud Forms and Classification
Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere
Adiabatic Heating and Cooling
Lapse Rates
Regional Variation in Precipitation
Variation in Precipitation Through Time
The Water Balance
A method for Calculating the Water Balance
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 5 Wind and Circulation Patterns
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors Influencing Air Motion
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Pressure Gradient
Coriolis Effect
Friction
Rotational Forces
The Resulting Patterns
The General Circulation
Meridional Circulation
Zonal Circulation
Tropical Circulation
Trade Winds
The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Mid-latitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern
Monsoons
Asian Monsoon
Periodic Local Winds
Land and Sea Breezes
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Föhn Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 6 Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
Ocean Currents
The Thermohaline Circulation
The Walker Circulation
El Niño
El Niño Episode of 1982-1983
El Niño Event of 1997-1998
El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather
Counterpoint-La Niña
The Impacts of El Niño
Agricultural Losses
Disease Outbreaks
Wildlife Losses
Forecasting El Niño
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interannual Variation in the Monsoons
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 7 Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology
Air Masses
Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones
Cyclogenesis
Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation
Synoptic Climatic Studies
The Hemispheric Scale
Satellite Climatology
Orbits and Sensors
Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 8 Climatology of Atmospheric Storms
Tropical Cyclones
Formation of Tropical Cyclones
The Time and Place of Occurrence
Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding
North American Hurricanes
Hurricane Hazard in the United States
Thunderstorms
Associated Hazards
Tornadoes
Formation of Tornadoes
Distribution of Tornadoes
Hazards of Tornadoes
Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974
Tornado Forecasting
Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting
Doppler Radar
Floods
Drought
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 2. CLIMATE CHANGE

Chapter 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change
Short-Term Changes
Variation in Solar Irradiance
Sunspot Activity
Variation in Atmospheric Dust
Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface
Long-Term Climatic Changes
Earth–Sun Relationships
Distribution of Continents
Variation in the Oceans
Extraterrestrial Impacts
Other Theories
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 10 Reconstruction of Past Climates
Evidence from Ice
Glaciers and Glaciation
Ice Sheets and Cores
Periglacial Evidence
Ancient Sediments
Sea Level Changes
Past Life
The Faunal Evidence
The Floral Evidence
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
Climate Since the Ice Retreat
Evidence from the Historical Period
The Last 1000 Years
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Carbon in the Environment
Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming
Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide
Other Greenhouse Gases
Methane
Permafrost and methane
Nitrogen oxides
Chlorofluorocarbons
Thermal Pollution
Changes in the Temperature Record
Future Changes in Global Temperatures
Politics of Climate Change
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 12 Climate Change and the Physical Environment
Antarctic Warming
Arctic Warming
Greenland
Sea Ice
Arctic Ice Shelves
Melting Permafrost
Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers
Asia
Africa
Europe and the Americas
Ocean Properties
Rising Temperatures
Rising Sea Level
Future Sea Level
Changing Weather Systems
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 13 Climate Change and the Living World
Terrestrial Systems
Length of Growing Season
North American Forests
Climate Change and Agriculture
Aquatic Systems
Coral Reefs
Fresh Water Systems
Impact of Rising Sea Level
Climate Change and Human Health
Spread of Tropical Diseases
Malaria
West Nile Encephalitis Virus
Dengue Fever
Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea)
Cholera
Plague
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 14 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric Pollutants
Particulates
Carbon Monoxide
Sulfur Compounds
Nitrogen Oxides
Surface Ozone
Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Acid precipitation
Global Distribution of Acid Rain
Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems
Acid Rain and Human Health
Impact of Acid Rain on Structures
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
Stratospheric Ozone
Chlorofluorocarbons
Antarctic Ozone Hole
Global Decline in Ozone
International Response to Ozone Depletion
Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms
Ultraviolet-B and Human Health
Future Depletion of Ozone
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 3. REGIONAL CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 15 Regional Climates: Scales of Study
Definitions
Microclimates
General Characteristics of Microclimates
Role of Surface Cover
Role of Topography
Local and Mesoscale Climates
Forest Climates
Mesoscale Climates
Macroscale Climates
Classification of World Climates
Approach to Classification
The Köppen System
Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation
Forests
Deserts
Grasslands
Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra
Disturbed Formations
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 16 Tropical Climates
Radiation and Temperature
Precipitation
The tropical rainforest Climate (Af)
The Rainforest Biome
Species Diversity
Tropical Deforestation
Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley
The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region
Global Warming in the Tropics
The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw)
The Tropical Deserts (BWh)
Coastal Deserts
Desert Storms
Desertification
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 17 Mid-Latitude Climates
General Characteristics
Middle latitude Circulation
Summer
Winter
Climatic Types
Midlatitude Wet Climates
Marine West-Coast Climates
Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates
Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates
Midlatitude Deserts
Warming in North America
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 18 Polar and Highland Climates
The Arctic Basin
Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes
The Polar Wet and Dry Climate
The Antarctic Continent
The Energy Balance
The Windy Continent
Precipitation
The Polar Wet Climate
Highland Climates
Chinook Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 4. APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 19 The Human Response to Climate
The Physiological Response
Biometeorological Indices
Solar Radiation and People
Climate and Health
Climatotherapy
Morbidity and Mortality
Climate and Architecture
Climate and Primitive Constructions
Climate and Modern Structures
Heating and Cooling Degree Days
The Building Fabric
Regional House Design
Urban Climates
The Modified Processes
The Observed Results
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 20 Climate, Agriculture, and Industry
Agriculture
Climate and Crop Distribution
Extending the Climatic Limits
Climate and Crop Yields
Industry
Industrial Location
Energy Production
Transportation
Air Transport
Shipping
Land Transportation
Tourism and Commerce
Tourism
Commerce
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Appendix
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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