Closed Captioning: Subtitling, Stenography, and the Digital Convergence of Text with Television [NOOK Book]

Overview

This engaging study traces the development of closed captioning—a field that emerged in the 1970s and 1980s from decades-long developments in cinematic subtitling, courtroom stenography, and education for the deaf. Gregory J. Downey discusses how digital computers, coupled with human mental and physical skills, made live television captioning possible. Downey's survey includess the hidden information workers who mediate between live audiovisual action and the production of visual track and written records. His ...

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Closed Captioning: Subtitling, Stenography, and the Digital Convergence of Text with Television

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Overview

This engaging study traces the development of closed captioning—a field that emerged in the 1970s and 1980s from decades-long developments in cinematic subtitling, courtroom stenography, and education for the deaf. Gregory J. Downey discusses how digital computers, coupled with human mental and physical skills, made live television captioning possible. Downey's survey includess the hidden information workers who mediate between live audiovisual action and the production of visual track and written records. His work examines communication technology, human geography, and the place of labor in a technologically complex and spatially fragmented world.

Illustrating the ways in which technological development grows out of government regulation, education innovation, professional profit-seeking, and social activism, this interdisciplinary study combines insights from several fields, among them the history of technology, human geography, mass communication, and information studies.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Gregory J. Downey is an associate professor in the School of Journalism & Mass Communication and the School of Library & Information Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is the author of Telegraph Messenger Boys: Labor, Technology, and Geography, 1850–1950.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     vii
Introduction: Invisible Speech-to-Text Systems     1
Turning Speech into Text in Three Different Contexts
Subtitling Film for the Cinema Audience     17
Captioning Television for the Deaf Population     53
Stenographic Reporting for the Court System     103
Convergence in the Speech-to-Text Industry
Realtime Captioning for News, Education, and the Court     155
Public Interest, Market Failure, and Captioning Regulation     199
Privatized Geographies of Captioning and Court Reporting     244
Conclusion: The Value of Turning Speech into Text     275
List of Abbreviations     301
Notes     303
Index     381
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