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The Cloud at Your Service

Overview

Cloud Computing is here to stay. As an economically viable way for businesses of all sizes to distribute computing, this technology shows tremendous promise. But the intense hype surrounding the Cloud is making it next to impossible for responsible IT managers and business decision-makers to get a clear understanding of what the Cloud really means, what it might do for them, when it is practical, and what their future with the Cloud looks like.

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Overview

Cloud Computing is here to stay. As an economically viable way for businesses of all sizes to distribute computing, this technology shows tremendous promise. But the intense hype surrounding the Cloud is making it next to impossible for responsible IT managers and business decision-makers to get a clear understanding of what the Cloud really means, what it might do for them, when it is practical, and what their future with the Cloud looks like.

The Cloud at Your Service helps cut through all this fog to help enterprises make these critical decisions based on facts and the authors' informed unbiased recommendations and predictions.

Purchase of the print book comes with an offer of a free PDF, ePub, and Kindle eBook from Manning. Also available is all code from the book.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781935182528
  • Publisher: Manning Publications Company
  • Publication date: 11/15/2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 200
  • Sales rank: 725,989
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Jothy Rosenberg is a professor-turned-entrepreneur who has founded six companies. He has written two previous technical books and holds several patents. Jothy has a PhD in Computer Science from Duke University.

Arthur Mateos left his career as an experimental nuclear physicist to become a technology entrepreneur. He was an early pioneer of the CDN space and has a patent awarded on Content Distribution technology. Arthur holds an A.B. in Physics from Princeton University, and a Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from MIT.

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Table of Contents

foreword

preface

acknowledgments

about this book

1 What is cloud computing? 1

1.1 Five main principles that define cloud computing 3

Pooled computing resources 3

Virtualization of compute resources 4

Elasticity as resource demands grow and shrink 5

Automation of new resource deployment 5

Metered billing that charges only for what you use 6

1.2 Benefits that can be garnered from moving to the cloud 6

Economic benefits of the change from capital to operational expenses 6

Agility benefits from not having to procure and provision servers 7

Efficiency benefits that may lead to competitive advantages 7

Security stronger and better in the cloud 8

1.3 Evolution of IT leading to cloud computing 8

Origin of the "cloud" metaphor 8

Major computing paradigm shifts: mainframes to client-server to web 10

Housing of physical computing resources: data center evolution 11

Software componentization and remote access: SOA, virtualization, and SanS 12

1.4 Classifying cloud layers: different types for different uses 13

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 15

Platform as a Service (PaaS) 16

Software as a Service (SaaS) and Framework as a Service (FaaS) 16

Private clouds as precursors- of public clouds 16

1.5 Summary 17

2 Understanding cloud computing classifications 18

2.1 The technological underpinnings of cloud computing 19

Achieving high economies of scale with cloud data centers 19

Ensuring high server utilization in the cloud with virtualization 24

Controlling remote servers with a cloud API 27

Saving persistent data in cloud storage 29

Storing your application's structured data in a cloud database 30

Elasticity: scaling your application as demand rises and falls 36

2.2 Understanding the different classifications of clouds 37

Amazon EC2: Infrastructure as a Service 37

Microsoft Azure: Infrastructure as a Service 39

Google App Engine: Platform as a. Service 42

Ruby on Rails in a cloud: Platform as a Service 43

Salesforce.com's Force.com: Platform as a Service 44

Private clouds: Datacenter as a Service (DoaS) 44

2.3 Matching cloud providers to your needs 46

Amazon web services IaaS cloud 46

Microsoft Windows Azure IaaS and PaaS cloud 47

Google App Engine PaaS cloud 47

Ruby on Rails PaaS cloud 48

Force.com PaaS cloud 48

2.4 Summary 49

3 The business case for cloud computing 50

3.1 The economics of cloud computing 51

Traditional internal IT vs. colocation vs. managed service vs. cloud model 51

A detailed comparison of the cost of deploying in different models 53

3.2 Where does the cloud make sense? 59

Limited lifetime requirement/short-term need 60

Scale variability/volatility 60

Nonstrategic applications/low organizational value 62

3.3 Where does the cloud not make sense? 63

Legacy systems 63

Applications involving real-time/mission-critical scenarios 63

Applications dealing with confidential data 63

3.4 Zero-capital startups 64

Then and now: setting up shop as startup ca. 2000 vs. startup ca. 2010 64

Is venture capital funding a necessity? 65

Example 1: FlightCaster airline flight-delay prediction 66

Example 2: business intelligence SaaS 66

3.5 Small and medium businesses 67

Low-tech example: corporate website 67

Medium-tech example: backup and file-storage systems 68

High-tech example: new product development 68

3.6 Cloud computing in the enterprise 69

Eli Lilly: large data set, high-compute scenarios 69

Washington Post: deadline-driven, large compute problems 70

Virgin Atlantic: online web presence and community 70

3.7 Summary 71

4 Security and the private cloud 72

4.1 Information security in the public cloud 73

Security concerns slowing cloud adoption 73

Major cloud data center security 75

Public cloud access control measures 76

Major cloud network and data security 80

Application owner's roles and responsibilities 83

4.2 Rationale for a private cloud 84

Defining a private cloud 84

Security considerations 85

Certainty of resource availability 86

Large utility-computing community 87

Economies of scale 87

Some concerns about deploying a private cloud 87

Private cloud deployment options 88

4.3 A virtual private cloud 92

How it works 92

The API 93

Implications 94

4.4 Private clouds in practice 95

Sprint: private cloud for fraud detection application 95

Bechtel Project Services Network (PSN) 96

Government private clouds 96

4.5 The long-term viability of private clouds 98

4.6 Summary 98

5 Designing and architecting for cloud scale 100

5.1 High-scale application patterns that fit the cloud best 101

Transference 101

Internet scale 101

Burst compute 102

Elastic storage 102

Summarizing the application patterns 103

5.2 Designing and architecting for internet scale: sharding 103

Application issues that prevent scaling 104

Sharding defined: a parallel database architecture for massive scaling 104

How sharding changes an application 107

Sharding in contrast with traditional database architectures 107

Sharding in practice: the most common database partitioning schemes 109

Sharding challenges and problems 112

Sharding in real life: how Flickr's sharding works 113

5.3 Designing for on-demand capacity: cloudbursting 115

Cloudbursting defined 116

The best of both worlds: internal data center plus cloud 116

Cloudbursting business case 117

Cloudbursting architecture 119

A recipe for implementing cloudbursting 120

Cloudbursting: calling out for standards 121

The data-access problem with cloudbursting 122

5.4 Designing for exponentially expanding storage 124

Cloud storage defined 124

Amazon S3 125

Example cloud storage API (using S3) 125

Costs 128

Mountable file systems in the cloud 128

Addressing the challenging issue of latency 129

5.5 Summary 130

6 Achieving high reliability at cloud scale 131

6.1 SOA as a precursor to the cloud 132

Distributed systems 132

Loose coupling 133

SOA 135

SOA and loose coupling 136

SOA and web services 137

SOA and cloud computing 138

Cloud-based into process communication 138

6.2 Distributed high-performance cloud reliability 139

Redundancy 140

MapReduce 141

Hadoop: the open source MapReduce 146

6.3 Summary 147

7 Testing, deployment, and operations in the cloud 148

7.1 Typical software deployments 149

Traditional deployment architecture 149

Defining staging and testing environments 150

Budget calculations 152

7.2 The cloud to the rescue 152

Improving production operations with the cloud 152

Accelerating development and testing 155

7.3 The power of parallelization 157

Unit testing 157

Functional testing 159

Load testing 162

Visual testing 165

Manual testing 167

7.4 Summary 168

8 Practical considerations 169

8.1 Choosing a cloud vendor 170

Business considerations 170

Technical operational considerations 171

8.2 Public cloud providers and SLAs 178

Amazon's AWS SLA 178

Microsoft Azure SLA 179

Rackspace Cloud SLA 180

8.3 Measuring cloud operations 181

Visibility, as provided by cloud vendors 181

Visibility through third-party providers 185

8.4 Summary 186

9 Cloud 9: the future of the cloud 188

9.1 The most significant transformation IT has ever undergone 189

The consumer internet and the cloud 189

The cloud in the enterprise 194

9.2 Ten predictions about how the cloud will evolve 198

Cheaper, more reliable, more secure, and easier to use 198

Engine of growth for early adopters 199

Much lower costs than corporate data centers 199

500,000 servers costing $1 billion by 2020 200

Ratio of administrators to servers: 1:10,000 by 2020 201

Open source dominance 201

Pragmatic standards via Amazon's APIs 202

Ultimate ISO cloud standard 203

Government leadership in cloud adoption 204

SaaS use of basic web standards 204

9.3 Ten predictions about how application development will evolve 205

Role of application frameworks 205

Second and third tiers running in the cloud 206

Rapid evolution for different storage mechanisms 207

Stronger options to protect sensitive data 207

Higher-level services with unique APIs 208

Adoption and growth of mashups 208

PaaS and FaaS as predominant tools 210

Evolution of development tools to build mashups 210

Success of non-Western developers 212

Development cost no longer a barrier 212

9.4 Summary 212

Five main principles of cloud computing 212

Significant benefits of adopting the cloud 213

Reaching the cloud through an evolutionary process 213

Cloud classifications from IaaS to SanS 213

Technological underpinnings 214

Paying only for what you use 214

Overblown security concerns 214

Private clouds as a temporary phenomenon 215

Designing for scale and sharding 215

Designing for reliability and MapReduce 215

Better testing, deployment, and operations in the cloud 216

Choosing a cloud vendor 216

Monitoring public clouds and SLAs 216

The future of cloud computing 217

appendix Information security refresher 218

index 224

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