Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture / Edition 1

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture / Edition 1

by Thomas Erl, Ricardo Puttini, Zaigham Mahmood
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0133387526

ISBN-13: 9780133387520

Pub. Date: 05/30/2013

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Clouds are distributed technology platforms that leverage sophisticated technology innovations to provide highly scalable and resilient environments that can be remotely utilized by organizations in a multitude of powerful ways. To successfully build upon, integrate with, or even create a cloud environment requires an understanding of its common inner mechanics,

Overview

Clouds are distributed technology platforms that leverage sophisticated technology innovations to provide highly scalable and resilient environments that can be remotely utilized by organizations in a multitude of powerful ways. To successfully build upon, integrate with, or even create a cloud environment requires an understanding of its common inner mechanics, architectural layers, and models, as well as an understanding of the business and economic factors that result from the adoption and real-world use of cloud-based services.

In Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture, Thomas Erl, one of the world’s top-selling IT authors, teams up with cloud computing experts and researchers to break down proven and mature cloud computing technologies and practices into a series of well-defined concepts, models, technology mechanisms, and technology architectures, all from an industry-centric and vendor-neutral point of view. In doing so, the book establishes concrete, academic coverage with a focus on structure, clarity, and well-defined building blocks for mainstream cloud computing platforms and solutions.

Subsequent to technology-centric coverage, the book proceeds to establish business-centric models and metrics that allow for the financial assessment of cloud-based IT resources and their comparison to those hosted on traditional IT enterprise premises. Also provided are templates and formulas for calculating SLA-related quality-of-service values and numerous explorations of the SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS delivery models.

With more than 260 figures, 29 architectural models, and 20 mechanisms, this indispensable guide provides a comprehensive education of cloud computing essentials that will never leave your side.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780133387520
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
05/30/2013
Series:
Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl Series
Pages:
487
Sales rank:
253,699
Product dimensions:
7.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.60(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Foreword xxix

Acknowledgments xxxiii

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Objectives of This Book 3

1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover 4

1.3 Who This Book Is For 4

1.4 How This Book Is Organized 4

1.5 Conventions 9

Symbols and Figures 9

Summary of Key Points 9

1.6 Additional Information 9

Updates, Errata, and Resources (www.servicetechbooks.com) 9

Referenced Specifications (www.servicetechspecs.com) 10

The Service Technology Magazine (www.servicetechmag.com) 10

International Service Technology Symposium (www.servicetechsymposium.com) 10

What Is Cloud? (www.whatiscloud.com) 10

What Is REST? (www.whatisrest.com) 10

Cloud Computing Design Patterns (www.cloudpatterns.org) 10

Service-Orientation (www.serviceorientation.com) 11

CloudSchool.com Certified Cloud (CCP) Professional (www.cloudschool.com) 11

SOASchool.com SOA Certified (SOACP) Professional (www.soaschool.com) 11

Notification Service 11

CHAPTER 2: Case Study Background 13

2.1 Case Study #1: ATN 14

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 14

Business Goals and New Strategy 15

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 15

2.2 Case Study #2: DTGOV 16

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 17

Business Goals and New Strategy 18

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 19

2.3 Case Study #3: Innovartus Technologies Inc 20

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 20

Business Goals and Strategy 20

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 21

PART I: FUNDAMENTAL CLOUD COMPUTING

CHAPTER 3: Understanding Cloud Computing 25

3.1 Origins and Influences 26

A Brief History 26

Definitions 27

Business Drivers 28

Capacity Planning 28

Cost Reduction 29

Organizational Agility 30

Technology Innovations 30

Clustering 31

Grid Computing 31

Virtualization 32

Technology Innovations vs. Enabling Technologies 32

3.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology 33

Cloud 33

IT Resource 34

On-Premise 36

Cloud Consumers and Cloud Providers 36

Scaling 37

Horizontal Scaling 37

Vertical Scaling 37

Cloud Service 38

Cloud Service Consumer 40

3.3 Goals and Benefits 40

Reduced Investments and Proportional Costs 41

Increased Scalability 42

Increased Availability and Reliability 43

3.4 Risks and Challenges 45

Increased Security Vulnerabilities 45

Reduced Operational Governance Control 45

Limited Portability Between Cloud Providers 47

Multi-Regional Compliance and Legal Issues 48

CHAPTER 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models 51

4.1 Roles and Boundaries 52

Cloud Provider 52

Cloud Consumer 52

Cloud Service Owner 53

Cloud Resource Administrator 54

Additional Roles 56

Organizational Boundary 56

Trust Boundary 57

4.2 Cloud Characteristics 58

On-Demand Usage 59

Ubiquitous Access 59

Multitenancy (and Resource Pooling) 59

Elasticity 61

Measured Usage 61

Resiliency 61

4.3 Cloud Delivery Models 63

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) 64

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) 65

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) 66

Comparing Cloud Delivery Models 67

Combining Cloud Delivery Models 69

IaaS + PaaS 69

IaaS + PaaS + SaaS 72

4.4 Cloud Deployment Models 73

Public Clouds 73

Community Clouds 74

Private Clouds 75

Hybrid Clouds 77

Other Cloud Deployment Models 78

CHAPTER 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology 79

5.1 Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture 80

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 80

Connectionless Packet Switching (Datagram Networks) 83

Router-Based Interconnectivity 83

Physical Network 84

Transport Layer Protocol 84

Application Layer Protocol 85

Technical and Business Considerations 85

Connectivity Issues 85

Network Bandwidth and Latency Issues 88

Cloud Carrier and Cloud Provider Selection 89

5.2 Data Center Technology 90

Virtualization 90

Standardization and Modularity 90

Automation 91

Remote Operation and Management 92

High Availability 92

Security-Aware Design, Operation, and Management 92

Facilities 92

Computing Hardware 93

Storage Hardware 93

Network Hardware 95

Carrier and External Networks Interconnection 95

Web-Tier Load Balancing and Acceleration 95

LAN Fabric 95

SAN Fabric 95

NAS Gateways 95

Other Considerations 96

5.3 Virtualization Technology 97

Hardware Independence 98

Server Consolidation 98

Resource Replication 98

Operating System-Based Virtualization 99

Hardware-Based Virtualization 101

Virtualization Management 102

Other Considerations 102

5.4 Web Technology 103

Basic Web Technology 104

Web Applications 104

5.5 Multitenant Technology 106

5.6 Service Technology 108

Web Services 109

REST Services 110

Service Agents 111

Service Middleware 112

5.7 Case Study Example 113

CHAPTER 6: Fundamental Cloud Security 117

6.1 Basic Terms and Concepts 118

Confidentiality 118

Integrity 119

Authenticity 119

Availability 119

Threat 120

Vulnerability 120

Risk 120

Security Controls 120

Security Mechanisms 121

Security Policies 121

6.2 Threat Agents 121

Anonymous Attacker 122

Malicious Service Agent 123

Trusted Attacker 123

Malicious Insider 123

6.3 Cloud Security Threats 124

Traffic Eavesdropping 124

Malicious Intermediary 124

Denial of Service 126

Insufficient Authorization 127

Virtualization Attack 127

Overlapping Trust Boundaries 129

6.4 Additional Considerations 131

Flawed Implementations 131

Security Policy Disparity 132

Contracts 132

Risk Management 133

6.5 Case Study Example 135

PART II: CLOUD COMPUTING MECHANISMS

CHAPTER 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms 139

7.1 Logical Network Perimeter 140

Case Study Example 142

7.2 Virtual Server 144

Case Study Example 145

7.3 Cloud Storage Device 149

Cloud Storage Levels 149

Network Storage Interfaces 150

Object Storage Interfaces 151

Database Storage Interfaces 151

Relational Data Storage 151

Non-Relational Data Storage 152

Case Study Example 152

7.4 Cloud Usage Monitor 155

Monitoring Agent 155

Resource Agent 155

Polling Agent 157

Case Study Example 157

7.5 Resource Replication 161

Case Study Example 162

7.6 Ready-Made Environment 166

Case Study Example 167

CHAPTER 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms 169

8.1 Automated Scaling Listener 170

Case Study Example 172

8.2 Load Balancer 176

Case Study Example 177

8.3 SLA Monitor 178

Case Study Example 180

SLA Monitor Polling Agent 180

SLA Monitoring Agent 180

8.4 Pay-Per-Use Monitor 184

Case Study Example 187

8.5 Audit Monitor 189

Case Study Example 189

8.6 Failover System 191

Active-Active 191

Active-Passive 194

Case Study Example 196

8.7 Hypervisor 200

Case Study Example 201

8.8 Resource Cluster 203

Case Study Example 206

8.9 Multi-Device Broker 208

Case Study Example 209

8.10 State Management Database 210

Case Study Example 211

CHAPTER 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms 213

9.1 Remote Administration System 214

Case Study Example 219

9.2 Resource Management System 219

Case Study Example 221

9.3 SLA Management System 222

Case Study Example 224

9.4 Billing Management System 225

Case Study Example 227

CHAPTER 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms 229

10.1 Encryption 230

Symmetric Encryption 231

Asymmetric Encryption 231

Case Study Example 233

10.2 Hashing 234

Case Study Example 235

10.3 Digital Signature 236

Case Study Example 238

10.4 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 240

Case Study Example 242

10.5 Identity and Access Management (IAM) 243

Case Study Example 244

10.6 Single Sign-On (SSO) 244

Case Study Example 246

10.7 Cloud-Based Security Groups 247

Case Study Example 249

10.8 Hardened Virtual Server Images 251

Case Study Example 252

PART III: CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE

CHAPTER 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures 255

11.1 Workload Distribution Architecture 256

11.2 Resource Pooling Architecture 257

11.3 Dynamic Scalability Architecture 262

11.4 Elastic Resource Capacity Architecture 265

11.5 Service Load Balancing Architecture 268

11.6 Cloud Bursting Architecture 271

11.7 Elastic Disk Provisioning Architecture 272

11.8 Redundant Storage Architecture 275

11.9 Case Study Example 277

CHAPTER 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures 281

12.1 Hypervisor Clustering Architecture 282

12.2 Load Balanced Virtual Server Instances Architecture 288

12.3 Non-Disruptive Service Relocation Architecture 293

12.4 Zero Downtime Architecture 298

12.5 Cloud Balancing Architecture 299

12.6 Resource Reservation Architecture 301

12.7 Dynamic Failure Detection and Recovery Architecture 306

12.8 Bare-Metal Provisioning Architecture 309

12.9 Rapid Provisioning Architecture 312

12.10 Storage Workload Management Architecture 315

12.11 Case Study Example 321

CHAPTER 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures 323

13.1 Direct I/O Access Architecture 324

13.2 Direct LUN Access Architecture 326

13.3 Dynamic Data Normalization Architecture 329

13.4 Elastic Network Capacity Architecture 330

13.5 Cross-Storage Device Vertical Tiering Architecture 332

13.6 Intra-Storage Device Vertical Data Tiering Architecture 337

13.7 Load Balanced Virtual Switches Architecture 340

13.8 Multipath Resource Access Architecture 342

13.9 Persistent Virtual Network Configuration Architecture 344

13.10 Redundant Physical Connection for Virtual Servers Architecture 347

13.11 Storage Maintenance Window Architecture 350

PART IV: WORKING WITH CLOUDS

CHAPTER 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations 359

14.1 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Provider Perspective 360

Building IaaS Environments 360

Data Centers 361

Scalability and Reliability 363

Monitoring 363

Security 364

Equipping PaaS Environments 364

Scalability and Reliability 365

Monitoring 367

Security 367

Optimizing SaaS Environments 367

Security 370

14.2 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Consumer Perspective 370

Working with IaaS Environments 370

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations 372

Working with PaaS Environments 373

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations 373

Working with SaaS Services 374

14.3 Case Study Example 375

CHAPTER 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models 379

15.1 Business Cost Metrics 380

Up-Front and On-Going Costs 380

Additional Costs 381

Case Study Example 382

Product Catalog Browser 382

On-Premise Up-Front Costs 382

On-Premise On-Going Costs 383

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs 383

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs 383

Client Database 385

On-Premise Up-Front Costs 385

On-Premise On-Going Costs 385

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs 385

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs 385

15.2 Cloud Usage Cost Metrics 387

Network Usage 387

Inbound Network Usage Metric 387

Outbound Network Usage Metric 388

Intra-Cloud WAN Usage Metric 388

Server Usage 389

On-Demand Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric 389

Reserved Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric 389

Cloud Storage Device Usage 390

On-Demand Storage Space Allocation Metric 390

I/O Data Transferred Metric 390

Cloud Service Usage 390

Application Subscription Duration Metric 390

Number of Nominated Users Metric 391

Number of Transactions Users Metric 391

15.3 Cost Management Considerations 391

Pricing Models 393

Additional Considerations 395

Case Study Example 396

Virtual Server On-Demand Instance Allocation 397

Virtual Server Reserved Instance Allocation 399

Cloud Storage Device 401

WAN Traffic 401

CHAPTER 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs 403

16.1 Service Quality Metrics 404

Service Availability Metrics 405

Availability Rate Metric 405

Outage Duration Metric 406

Service Reliability Metrics 407

Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) Metric 407

Reliability Rate Metric 407

Service Performance Metrics 407

Network Capacity Metric 408

Storage Device Capacity Metric 408

Server Capacity Metric 408

Web Application Capacity Metric 408

Instance Starting Time Metric 409

Response Time Metric 409

Completion Time Metric 409

Service Scalability Metrics 409

Storage Scalability (Horizontal) Metric 410

Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric 410

Server Scalability (Vertical) Metric 410

Service Resiliency Metrics 411

Mean-Time to Switchover (MTSO) Metric 411

Mean-Time System Recovery (MTSR) Metric 412

16.2 Case Study Example 412

16.3 SLA Guidelines 413

16.4 Case Study Example 416

Scope and Applicability 416

Service Quality Guarantees 416

Definitions 417

Usage of Financial Credits 417

SLA Exclusions 418

PART V: APPENDICES

Appendix A: Case Study Conclusions 421

A.1 ATN 422

A.2 DTGOV 422

A.3 Innovartus 424

Appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations 427

B.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 428

B.2 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) 429

B.3 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) 429

B.4 Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) 430

B.5 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) 430

B.6 The Open Group 430

B.7 Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) 431

B.8 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 431

B.9 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 431

B.10 Liberty Alliance 432

B.11 Open Grid Forum (OGF) 432

Appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics 433

Appendix D: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942) 437

D.1 Primary Rooms 438

Electrical Room 438

Mechanical Room 438

Storage and Staging 438

Offices, Operations Center, and Support 438

Telecommunications Entrance 438

Computer Room 439

D.2 Environmental Controls 440

External Electrical Power Provider Interconnection 440

Power Distribution 441

Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) 441

Power Engine-Generator 441

D.3 Infrastructure Redundancy Summary 442

Appendix E: Emerging Technologies 443

E.1 Autonomic Computing 444

E.2 Grid Computing 445

Service Grids 446

Appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts 449

F.1 Cloud Provisioning Contract Structure 450

Terms of Service 452

Service Usage Policy 452

Security and Privacy Policy 453

Warranties and Liabilities 455

Rights and Responsibilities 455

Termination and Renewal 456

Specifications and SLAs 456

Pricing and Billing 457

Other Issues 457

Legal and Compliance Issues 457

Auditability and Accountability 457

Changes in the Contract Terms and Conditions 457

F.2 Cloud Provider Selection Guidelines 458

Cloud Provider Viability 458

Appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template 461

G.1 Business Case Identification 462

G.2 Business Needs 462

G.3 Target Cloud Environment 463

G.4 Technical Issues 464

G.5 Economic Factors 464

About the Authors 465

About the Foreword Contributor 467

About the Contributors 469

Index 471

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