CMMI and Six Sigma: Partners in Process Improvement [NOOK Book]

Overview

"In this book, I have found answers to key questions and misconceptions about the relationship between Six Sigma and the Capability Maturity Model Integration [CMMI]....Among my key takeaways is that the relationship between Six Sigma and CMMI exemplifies one of the principles of S4/IEE: CMMI provides process infrastructure that is needed to support a successful Six Sigma strategy."

—Forrest W. Breyfogle III, CEO, Smarter Solutions, Inc.

"Finally, a book that bridges the software and hardware process tool set. To date, there have been hardware ...

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CMMI and Six Sigma: Partners in Process Improvement

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Overview

"In this book, I have found answers to key questions and misconceptions about the relationship between Six Sigma and the Capability Maturity Model Integration [CMMI]....Among my key takeaways is that the relationship between Six Sigma and CMMI exemplifies one of the principles of S4/IEE: CMMI provides process infrastructure that is needed to support a successful Six Sigma strategy."

—Forrest W. Breyfogle III, CEO, Smarter Solutions, Inc.

"Finally, a book that bridges the software and hardware process tool set. To date, there have been hardware and software engineers who for one reason or another have not communicated their process methods. And so, myths formed that convinced the hardware community that CMMI was only for software and likewise convinced the software community that Six Sigma was only for hardware. It is both refreshing and thought provoking to dispel these myths."

—Jack Ferguson, Manager, SEI Appraisal Program, Software Engineering Institute

CMMI and Six Sigma represent two of the best-known process improvement initiatives. Both are designed to enhance work quality and thereby produce business advantages for an organization. It's a misconception that the two are in competition and cannot be implemented simultaneously. Practitioners originally trained in either CMMI or Six Sigma are now finding that the two initiatives work remarkably well together in the pursuit of their common goal.

CMMI® and Six Sigma: Partners in Process Improvement focuses on the synergistic, rather than competitive, implementation of CMMI and Six Sigma—with synergy translating to "faster, better, cheaper" achievement of mission success. Topics range from formation of the value proposition to specific implementation tactics. The authors illustrate how not taking advantage of what both initiatives have to offer puts an organization at risk of sinking time, energy, and money into "inventing" a solution that already exists. Along the way they debunk a few myths about Six Sigma applications in software.

While the authors concentrate on the interoperability of Six Sigma and CMMI, they also recognize that organizations rarely implement only these two initiatives. Accordingly, the discussion turns to the emerging realm of "multimodel" process improvement and strategies and tactics that transcend models to help organizations effectively knit together a single unified internal process standard.

Whether you work in the defense industry, for a commercial organization, or for a government agency—wherever quality and efficiency matter—you'll find this book to be a valuable resource for bridging process issues across domains and building an improvement strategy that succeeds.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132702362
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 1/1/2008
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • File size: 6 MB

Meet the Author

Jeannine M. Siviy is the Deputy Director for the Dynamic Systems Program of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), a Kodak-certified Six Sigma Black Belt, and a leading researcher in the application of Six Sigma to software process improvement. M. Lynn Penn is Director of Program Process Management at Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services (IS&GS), where she oversees policies and process command media, process compliance via audits, and process improvement activities. She is a Lockheed-certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt. Robert W. Stoddard is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff at the SEI, a Motorola-certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt, and President and CEO of Six Sigma IDS, LLC.

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Read an Excerpt

Why Did We Write This Book?

Over the past several years, we have fielded an increasing number of questions about how to apply Six Sigma in software and, more specifically, how to apply it in the context of the SEI Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Often, the questions revolve around perceived competition between the two initiatives. Other frequently asked questions have related to case studies, examples of statistical tools in use, tailored training, and measurement infrastructure. Questions have come from organizations already implementing CMMI or Six Sigma as well as those implementing both and also those not yet implementing either. They have come from the defense industry, government agencies, commercial industry, consultants, and academia.

Until now, our primary approach for widespread sharing of information has been conference presentations, tutorials, and panels. The original intent of this book is to be a companion guide to such speaking engagements—primarily Jeannine's and Lynn's—to capture the commentary that is never evident from viewing slides downloaded from the Internet and to further explain the underlying research and practice.

Our text focuses on the synergistic, rather than competitive, implementation of CMMI and Six Sigma, with "synergy" translating to "better, faster, cheaper" achievement of mission success. Topics range from value proposition to tactics. We point out how not taking advantage of what both initiatives have to offer runs the risk of an organization sinking time and energy into inventing something that already exists. Along the way, we try to debunk a few myths about Six Sigma applications in software.

While this book concentrates on the interoperability of Six Sigma and CMMI, we recognize that organizations rarely implement only these two initiatives. Accordingly, we have included a discussion of the more general case of multimodel process improvement—an area of emerging research. We offer an overall process for multimodel process improvement, noting strategies and practices that transcend the models, and enable organizations to make informed decisions about how to effectively knit them together into a unified, single internal process standard. With the increasing pervasiveness of software in our society, we believe that the pressure from senior management to optimize the software portion of the business is going to escalate and that the interest in "better, faster, cheaper" and obsessively mission-focused software process improvement will grow considerably in coming years. The strategies and tactics we offer for an integrated approach to process improvement serve this purpose and mitigate the risks of "programs of the month," competing initiatives, resource conflicts, funding conflicts, and other issues that plague process improvement groups.

All this having been said, there is no such thing as a "silver bullet" answer. What we offer in this book is a framework for reasoning about the task at hand and information to help readers formulate their own strategies and tactical plans. Who Is the Audience for This Book?

We wrote this book primarily for people in process improvement roles, as well as the managers and technical staff with whom they frequently interact. For process improvement personnel—including engineering process improvement group leads and members; measurement working group members; Six Sigma Black Belts, Master Black Belts, and Champions—the book supports strategic and tactical decision making about initiative adoption and joint, synergistic implementation. It also provides information, in the form of both facts and ideas, that can be used to gain sponsorship and buy-in for joint initiative implementation.

For technical management—including program, project, engineering, and line managers—the book also serves decision making. For this group, however, the value is more strategic. The book provides an independent view about joint initiative implementation strategies that can be used as a reference when internal proposals are put forward. It can enable technical management to more confidently sponsor and support such proposals because there is data to support how the achievement of mission and performance improves with these proposals. For senior technical personnel, who are charged with completing projects and delivering, this book provides insight into how joint initiative implementation can help them accomplish the mission. Additionally, it provides insight into the rationale behind the several different joint implementation approaches—which may enable these personnel to better partner with improvement groups to select the most effective and efficient joint implementation design for their particular organizational culture. How to Navigate This Book

The book is structured as follows.

Chapters 1 through 3 present the foundational set of problem statements that have motivated most of our work. These chapters also provide a high-level explanation of CMMI and Six Sigma. Our presumption is that the majority of our readers have awareness of these technologies. We present enough explanation to allow you to understand the rest of the book even if you have no prior knowledge of CMMI and Six Sigma; however, this book will not make you an expert, and we strongly advise that you seek other references and training courses prior to any implementation. If you have an intimate knowledge of these technologies, Chapters 2 and 3 will scope and clarify their use in the remainder of this book.

Chapters 4 and 5 describe the motivation for further considering the synergistic and mutually enabling aspects of Six Sigma and software improvement technologies. To do so, these chapters summarize the results of research as well as case studies.

Chapters 6 through 8 discuss the strategic and tactical aspects of jointly implementing CMMI and Six Sigma, with a primary focus on the establishment of process infrastructure. This portion of the book closes with current thinking and emerging research regarding integrated approaches to multimodel process improvement.

Chapter 9 illustrates several projects that may be part of a managed improvement project portfolio (a change from the majority of chapters in the book, which discuss leveraging CMMI and Six Sigma for the implementation of process infrastructure). The examples focus on project and product performance and also connect to issues of process infrastructure. They cover the gamut of Six Sigma framework usage—from Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) to Lean to Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).

Chapter 10 summarizes key points from the whole book (for those who like to read the ending first!).

The appendices contain additional details behind the main chapters of the book. The appendices also offer supplementary information on measurement practices, transition practices, and organizational change management. While not the main focus of this book, measurement, transition, and change management are critical to success, and we include in the appendices the principles and practices that we most often use.

Following the appendices are the lists of references, additional resources, and acronyms.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii List of Tables xvii Foreword by Forrest Breyfogle xix Foreword by Jack Ferguson xxi Preface xxiii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: CMMI Overview 5

2.1 CMMI at a Glance 6

2.2 Adoption and Deployment 15

2.3 Benefits 16

2.4 CMMI Adoption Myths 17

2.5 Summary 18

Chapter 3: Six Sigma Overview 19

3.1 Six Sigma at a Glance 21

3.2 Deployment 35

3.3 Applying Six Sigma to Software 37

3.4 Six Sigma Myths 39

3.5 Example Benefits 43

3.6 Summary 44

Chapter 4: Multimodel Process Improvement: The Value Proposition 45

4.1 Six Sigma as a Strategic Enabler: An Investigation 47

4.2 Summary 52

Chapter 5: Two Case Studies 55

5.1 Case Study: Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems & Solutions 55

5.2 Case Study: Motorola 75

5.3 Summary 88

Chapter 6: Integrating the CMMI and Six Sigma: Strategies 91

6.1 Sequencing Scenarios 91

6.2 Joint Implementation Strategies 93

6.3 Considerations for Staged and Continuous CMMI Representations 97

6.4 Considerations for Joint Deployment 100

6.5 Summary 105

Chapter 7: Integrating the CMMI and Six Sigma: Design Connections 107

7.1 CMMI Process Areas and Six Sigma Frameworks 107

7.2 CMMI Process Areas and the Six Sigma Toolkit of Analytical Methods 112

7.3 CMMI Project Management Process Areas and Six Sigma Project Management 112

7.4 CMMI Process Outputs as Inputs to Six Sigma and Vice Versa 113

7.5 Summary 114

Chapter 8: Multimodel Process Improvement: The General Case 115

8.1 Depiction of the Process of Process Improvement 116

8.2 Mission Translation and Project Portfolio Management 123

8.3 Model Selection and Strategy 134

8.4 Solution Implementation: Process Architecture and Design 139

8.5 Summary 146

Chapter 9: Sustainment: Your Improvement Project Portfolio 147

9.1 Product Quality Improvement 149

9.2 Cost and Schedule Performance Improvement 158

9.3 Definition and Design of the Decision Analysis Process 172

9.4 IT Operations: Value Stream Mapping with IT Tools 176

9.5 Performance Modeling and Simulation 181

9.6 Summary 188

Chapter 10: Summary and Final Remarks 189 Appendix A: DMAIC Roadmap Guidance Questions 193 Appendix B: DMAIC and CMMI Specific Goals and Generic Practices 197 Appendix C: CMMI Process Areas and the Six Sigma Toolkit 199 Appendix D: "Six Sigma as an Enabler" Research Project: Full Report 203 Appendix E: "Six Sigma as an Enabler" Research Project: Findings, Inferences, Hypotheses 215 Appendix F: Overview of Frequently Used Six Sigma Analytical Methods 227 Appendix G: Measurement Practices 251 Appendix H: Transition Practices 261 Appendix I: Organizational Change Management 267 References 271 Additional Resources 283 Acronyms 299 About the Authors 309 Index 315
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Preface

Why Did We Write This Book?

Over the past several years, we have fielded an increasing number of questions about how to apply Six Sigma in software and, more specifically, how to apply it in the context of the SEI Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Often, the questions revolve around perceived competition between the two initiatives. Other frequently asked questions have related to case studies, examples of statistical tools in use, tailored training, and measurement infrastructure. Questions have come from organizations already implementing CMMI or Six Sigma as well as those implementing both and also those not yet implementing either. They have come from the defense industry, government agencies, commercial industry, consultants, and academia.

Until now, our primary approach for widespread sharing of information has been conference presentations, tutorials, and panels. The original intent of this book is to be a companion guide to such speaking engagements—primarily Jeannine's and Lynn's—to capture the commentary that is never evident from viewing slides downloaded from the Internet and to further explain the underlying research and practice.

Our text focuses on the synergistic, rather than competitive, implementation of CMMI and Six Sigma, with "synergy" translating to "better, faster, cheaper" achievement of mission success. Topics range from value proposition to tactics. We point out how not taking advantage of what both initiatives have to offer runs the risk of an organization sinking time and energy into inventing something that already exists. Along the way, we try to debunk a few myths about Six Sigma applications in software.

While this book concentrates on the interoperability of Six Sigma and CMMI, we recognize that organizations rarely implement only these two initiatives. Accordingly, we have included a discussion of the more general case of multimodel process improvement—an area of emerging research. We offer an overall process for multimodel process improvement, noting strategies and practices that transcend the models, and enable organizations to make informed decisions about how to effectively knit them together into a unified, single internal process standard. With the increasing pervasiveness of software in our society, we believe that the pressure from senior management to optimize the software portion of the business is going to escalate and that the interest in "better, faster, cheaper" and obsessively mission-focused software process improvement will grow considerably in coming years. The strategies and tactics we offer for an integrated approach to process improvement serve this purpose and mitigate the risks of "programs of the month," competing initiatives, resource conflicts, funding conflicts, and other issues that plague process improvement groups.

All this having been said, there is no such thing as a "silver bullet" answer. What we offer in this book is a framework for reasoning about the task at hand and information to help readers formulate their own strategies and tactical plans.

Who Is the Audience for This Book?

We wrote this book primarily for people in process improvement roles, as well as the managers and technical staff with whom they frequently interact. For process improvement personnel—including engineering process improvement group leads and members; measurement working group members; Six Sigma Black Belts, Master Black Belts, and Champions—the book supports strategic and tactical decision making about initiative adoption and joint, synergistic implementation. It also provides information, in the form of both facts and ideas, that can be used to gain sponsorship and buy-in for joint initiative implementation.

For technical management—including program, project, engineering, and line managers—the book also serves decision making. For this group, however, the value is more strategic. The book provides an independent view about joint initiative implementation strategies that can be used as a reference when internal proposals are put forward. It can enable technical management to more confidently sponsor and support such proposals because there is data to support how the achievement of mission and performance improves with these proposals. For senior technical personnel, who are charged with completing projects and delivering, this book provides insight into how joint initiative implementation can help them accomplish the mission. Additionally, it provides insight into the rationale behind the several different joint implementation approaches--which may enable these personnel to better partner with improvement groups to select the most effective and efficient joint implementation design for their particular organizational culture.

How to Navigate This Book

The book is structured as follows.

Chapters 1 through 3 present the foundational set of problem statements that have motivated most of our work. These chapters also provide a high-level explanation of CMMI and Six Sigma. Our presumption is that the majority of our readers have awareness of these technologies. We present enough explanation to allow you to understand the rest of the book even if you have no prior knowledge of CMMI and Six Sigma; however, this book will not make you an expert, and we strongly advise that you seek other references and training courses prior to any implementation. If you have an intimate knowledge of these technologies, Chapters 2 and 3 will scope and clarify their use in the remainder of this book.

Chapters 4 and 5 describe the motivation for further considering the synergistic and mutually enabling aspects of Six Sigma and software improvement technologies. To do so, these chapters summarize the results of research as well as case studies.

Chapters 6 through 8 discuss the strategic and tactical aspects of jointly implementing CMMI and Six Sigma, with a primary focus on the establishment of process infrastructure. This portion of the book closes with current thinking and emerging research regarding integrated approaches to multimodel process improvement.

Chapter 9 illustrates several projects that may be part of a managed improvement project portfolio (a change from the majority of chapters in the book, which discuss leveraging CMMI and Six Sigma for the implementation of process infrastructure). The examples focus on project and product performance and also connect to issues of process infrastructure. They cover the gamut of Six Sigma framework usage—from Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) to Lean to Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).

Chapter 10 summarizes key points from the whole book (for those who like to read the ending first!).

The appendices contain additional details behind the main chapters of the book. The appendices also offer supplementary information on measurement practices, transition practices, and organizational change management. While not the main focus of this book, measurement, transition, and change management are critical to success, and we include in the appendices the principles and practices that we most often use.

Following the appendices are the lists of references, additional resources, and acronyms.

Read More Show Less

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