Coal and Oil

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Energy and the Environment is a six-volume set that examines the history, technology, science, and environmental and social implications (including issues of environmental justice) associated with the acquisition and production of energy. Designed to complement science curricula, each volume describes comprehensively one or more sources of energy and the technology needed to make it useful. The books emphasize the science on which such technology is based, the limitations of each technology, the environmental implications of its use, questions of availability and cost, and the way that government policies and energy markets interact.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780816070831
  • Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 3/1/2009
  • Series: Energy and the Environment Series
  • Pages: 224
  • Age range: 14 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xiv

Part 1 Coal 1

1 A Brief History of Coal 3

The Early History of Coal 3

The Coal Industry in the United States 10

Life and Death in Early Coal Mines 12

2 Geochemistry and Geology 18

The Chemistry of Coal 18

A Coal Economy 22

The Geology of Coal 25

3 Meeting the Demand for Coal 28

The Scale of Demand 29

Environmental and Social Costs of Mining 35

An Interview with Charlene Marshall on the Human Costs of Coal 40

4 The Combustion Reaction 48

Products and Reactants 48

Global Warming and Carbon Sequestration 53

The Role of the Oceans 56

5 Electricity Production and Its Consequences 60

New Power-Production Technologies 61

More on CO2 Sequestration 67

Emissions Controls 68

6 Alternative Uses for Coal 73

Methane from Coal 73

Coal as a Transportation Fuel 76

A Source for Hydrogen Gas 78

Engineering the Climate 79

7 Price versus Cost and National Coal Policies 83

Pricing Coal 84

National Energy Policies 88

Carbon Trading Markets 90

Part 2 Oil 97

8 A Brief History of Oil 99

The Oil Business Prior to 1950 100

Standard Oil 104

The Oil Business after 1950 107

9 The Geology and Chemistry of Oil 115

Oil and Geology 116

The Chemistry of Oil 119

When Will the World Run Out of Oil? 120

10 Meeting the Demand for Oil 126

Obtaining Oil 127

The Oil Sands of Alberta 130

Transporting Oil 132

11 Creating and Consuming Petroleum Products 136

Refineries 137

The Chemistry of Combustion 140

The Refinery Business 142

12 Patterns of Consumption 147

The Transportation Sector 148

Alternatives to Gasoline 154

Other Uses of Oil 156

13 Environmental Costs of the OilEconomy 158

Local Effects 159

Global Effects 165

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 166

14 Oil Markets and Government Policies 170

Pricing Petroleum 171

Collusion or Free Market? 181

National Policies 183

Chronology 188

List of Acronyms 191

Glossary 192

Further Resources 195

Index 200

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